Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one.
Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.Over the next 21 years, Genghis led the Mongols in conquering much of Asia. His first goal was China.
His attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia. Angered by the murder of Mongol traders and an ambas- sador at the hands of the Muslims, Genghis launched a campaign of terror across Central Asia. The Mongols destroyed one city after another—Utrar, Samarkand, Bukhara—and slaughtered many inhabitants.
Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire.
Mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia. This period is sometimes called the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol Peace.
the grandson of Genghis Khan, assumed the title Great Khan in 1260. In theory, the Great Khan ruled the entire Mongol Empire. In reality, the empire had split into four khanates. Other descendants of Genghis ruled Central Asia, Persia, and Russia as semi-independent states.
The Chinese held off Kublai’s attacks for several years. However, his armies finally overwhelmed them in 1279. Throughout China’s long history, the Chinese feared and fought off invasions by northern nomads. China sometimes lost terri- tory to nomadic groups, but no foreigner had ever ruled the whole country. With Kublai’s victory, that changed.
As China’s new emperor, Kublai Khan founded a
Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne.
For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
Asoka died in 232 B.C.
In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne
Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320. His empire included Magadha and the area north of it, with his power base along the
Chandra Gupta II is king until 415
Gupta is dethroned in 415
Over the next 100 years, the Gupta Empire broke into small king- doms. Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535.
In 1526, for example, he led 12,000 troops to
Akbar certainly lived up to his name, ruling India with wisdom and tolerance from 1556 to 1605.
In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child. To enshrine his wife’s memory, he ordered that a tomb be built “as beautiful as she was beautiful.”
Akbar dies the Mughal court changed to deal with the changing times. The next three emperors each left his mark on the Mughal Empire.
All was not well in the royal court either. When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne.
They were about a mysterious woman named Laura, who was his ideal. Little is known of Laura except that she died of the plague in 1348
Cosimo de Medici was the wealthiest European of his time. In 1434, he won control of Florence’s government.
Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks—and life—are mysterious. Some 3,500 pages closely covered with writings and drawings survive.
, Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manu- scripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.
His grandson, Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent, he ruled as a dictator
Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.
some of them had great influence. Vittoria Colonna (1492–1547) was born of a noble family.
The prince a book
Baldassare Castiglione writes a book about how to become a person