Ancient Astronomy


Southern Mesopotamia unified under the rule of Hammurapi

2000 BC

Babylonia ruled by the kinds of the Kassite Dynasty

1570 BC - 1155 BC

Enuma Elish reaches definitive form

1500 BC

Babylonia ruled by a series of unremarkable dynasties

1150 BC - 800 BC

Hesiod's Works and Days

900 BC

The start of the Assyrian period

900 BC


800 BC

The oldest extant copied are dated from this period

Reign of Nabonassar

747 BC - 733 BC

Nabopolassar establishes the Chaldean dynasty

625 BC

Parmenides of Elea

600 BC


600 BC

Thales of Miletus

585 BC

Babylonia conquered by Cyrus

539 BC

Xenophanes of Colophon

530 BC

Leucippus and Democritus

500 BC

Babylonians regularize their calendar

500 BC

on the basis of the nineteen-year cycle


500 BC

Gnomon becomes the chief instrument for making solar observations

500 BC

Xerxes' defeat/Decline of Persian power

480 BC - 479 BC

Herodotus 'Histories'

450 BC

Anaxagoras dies

427 BC

Earth has been proven Spherical

400 BC


400 BC


382 BC - 322 BC

Aristotle's treatise On the Heavens published

350 BC

Heraclides of Pontos

350 BC

Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire

331 BC

Alexander the Great's death

323 BC


300 BC

Aristyllos and Timocharis

290 BC

Pytheas of Massilia explores Europe

285 BC


276 BC

Phenomena by Aratus

275 BC


250 BC


225 BC

Hipparchus' Commentary on Aratus and Eudoxus

150 BC

Parthians take Babylon

125 BC

Period of Greek rule is over


100 BC


100 BC

Marcus Vetruvius Pollio

80 BC

Bithynia becomes a Roman province

74 BC

Seleucids' last holdings on Syria annexed

64 BC

Caesar is elected Pontifex Maximus

63 BC

Julian Calendar instituted by Julius Caesar

45 BC

Caesar is assassinated

44 BC


90 AD - 168 AD


100 AD

Severus Alexander reigns

222 AD - 235 AD

Heraclides writes commentaries on the works of Aristotle

500 AD

John Philoponus

530 AD

Severus Sebokht, Bishop of Nisibis

660 AD

Arabic is the dominant language of Science and Philosophy

800 AD - 1300 AD

Georg Hartmann

1489 - 1564

Copernicus (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres


Johann Bayer publishes Uranometria


Gregorian calendar instituted


fragments of the Parapegma are excavated