A group of about 90 young conservatives assembled in Sharon, Connecticut, and founded Young Americans for Freedom (YAF). They constructed the Sharon Statement, which endorsed Cold War anticommunism and limited government.
John F. Kennedy captured the imaginations of many Americans with his inspiring rhetoric. Despite this, he won a very narrow election over Richard M. Nixon. Only 118,000 votes (out of 69 million) separated the two candidates, although Kennedy won the electoral vote, 303-219.
Kennedy’s New Frontier included the space program, aiming to land a man on the moon by the end of the decade, and the Peace Corps, which sent agricultural workers, health workers, and teachers to assist developing nations.
Kennedy continued to engage in the Cold War with increasing tensions with the Soviet Union. These tensions included indirect conflict with the Soviets such as the Bay of Pigs invasion, the Cuban missile crisis, and the crisis in Berlin. He helped create the Alliance for Progress program, which offered monetary aid to Latin American nations. The funds, however, tended to support repressive, anti-communist governments.
The Voter Education Project (VEP) combined the voter registration campaigns of five leading civil rights organizations including the NAACP, SCLC, SNCC, and CORE. Endorsed by Robert Kennedy, VEP aimed at using its tax-exempt status to use contributions towards registering voters. By the end of 1964, nearly 800,000 southern African American voters had been registered.
The Port Huron Statement was written primarily by Tom Hayden at a five day convention in Lakeport, Michigan. The document represents the ideals of the activist organization, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The ideals embedded in the document include: equal social treatment and disengagement with Cold War policies.
This amendment, outlawing the use of poll taxes as a voting requirement in federal elections, passed the House in 1962 with a vote of 295-86. Five states throughout the south had maintained poll taxes, aiming to disenfranchise African American voters. The amendment was ratified in 1964 with the support of the South Dakota state government.
Kennedy was campaigning, riding in an open-top limousine with his wife, Jackie, in Dallas, Texas when he was assassinated. The Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone assassin. Kennedy’s assassination ended the youthful enthusiasm, inspirational rhetoric, and romance that he and his administration brought to American politics.
Four college students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College walked into the local F.W. Woolworth’s on February 1, 1960, and without help from an organization, they purchased school supplies and sat down at a “whites only” lunch counter. They were unharmed the first day. In the following days these students were followed by others who soon occupied all of the seats at the lunch counter. This action inspired other sit-in movements throughout the south.
Young leadings members of the sit-in movement that began on 02/01/1960 in Greensboro, NC formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in April, 1960. While SCLC had hoped SNCC would be a younger version, SNCC remained independent of Martin Luther King, Jr. and SCLC. SNCC emerged in the southern civil rights movement with involvement in the Freedom Rides and the March on Washington. John Lewis was the chairman of SNCC in 1963 when he warned an audience at the March on Washington that "We want our freedom and we want it now."
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Enovid 10, making it the first commercially produced birth-control pill available to women.
13 members of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) bought bus tickets traveling from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans, Louisiana. The Freedom Riders intended to expose the practice in the south of segregated transportation despite the Supreme Court's ruling ordering desegregation.
Over 250,000 demonstrators gathered on the Washington Mall. After a recent protest in Birmingham, AL, and an endorsement from President Kennedy regarding civil rights legislation, A. Phillip Randolph proposed a mass march to push for federal legislation to combat discrimination. Folk singers such as Joan Baez performed, and Martin Luther King, Jr. delievered his "I Have a Dream" speech, which prophesied a day when all children would be free.
Détente was one pillar of the Nixon administration's foreign policy. Like containment, it was aimed to check Soviet expansion and limit the Soviet arms buildup, however, détente would be accomplished through diplomacy and mutual concessions. This policy ended with the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
Nixon made his historic trip to China to maintain stable relationships with the world's great powers, to encourage the Soviet Union to negotiate an arms treaty, and to develop trade relations (among other reasons). Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai welcomed Nixon, and although they disagreed on much, they both agreed that the Soviet Union should not be permitted to make gains in Asia. Official diplomatic recognition and the exchange of ambassadors came in 1979.
Egypt and Syria attacked Israel for complex reasons, although it was primarily for revenge of the 1967 Arab-Israeli Six-Day War. Israel was caught by surprise but was able to launch a counteroffensive. Henry Kissinger helped negotiate a cease-fire agreement. Although this war ended within a month, tension in the region remains to this day with Palestinians and other Arabs vowing to destroy Israel, while Israel insists on building more Jewish settlements in occupied lands.
As a result of support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War, Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) - Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, and Algeria - imposed an embargo on oil shipments to the United States and to other allies of Israel. Gasoline prices surged across the country, and some dealers ran low on supplies. In the 1950s, America produced all the oil it needed, but now Americans realized they were members of a dependent nation. The embargo contributed to the economic decline of the 1970s.
"Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913, on the lemon ranch of his parents, Francis Anthony Nixon (1878–1956) and Hannah Milhous Nixon (1885–1967), in a house his father built in Yorba Linda, California."
"Arthur Burdg Nixon - Born May 26, 1918 and died August 10, 1925 at the age of 7 of tubercular encephalitis."
"Harold Samuel Nixon - Born June 1, 1909 and died March 7, 1933 at age 23 from Tuberculosis"
He earned a scholarship in May 1934. He became president of the Student Bar Association, and also was a member of the law review.