US history (1600-1800)
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Parliament passes Petition of Right. It resumed no tax unless from Parliament, no “arbitrary” arrests or imprisonment, and no soldiers would be quartered in private homes.
William Penn formed the religiously tolerant colony of Pennsylvania.
Wanted houses along rivers that were spread apart and peace with Indians.
English goods had to be shipped by Englishmen’s ships, all foreign goods for the colonies had to be shipped by Britain so they could tax them, and some colonial products had to go to England first and then were shipped elsewhere.
Fueled the Navigation Acts. Among other things, it said that the mother country should produce finished products while the colonies supply the raw materials.
Begins because Metacon was trying to keep his land from the English, but in 1675 they all banded together to get it (except Rhode Island).
Metacon was killed and the English won.
Written by Locke; helped usher in freedom and equality and universal rights instead of feudalism.
First recurring newspaper in the colonies
All are equal in the eyes of God. People weren’t getting a person or emotional enough experience in religion, so a few ministers started a spiritual renewal. Attracted cities and the frontier. Some ideals: look into yourself for solutions, treat your slaves well and Christianize them.
Pennsylvania Hospital formed; shows humanitarianism and enlightenment.
B Franklin y’all
20 slaves broke into a store, taking the ammunition and weapons and killing the storekeepers. Moved south, killing whites and acquiring blacks into their army. Eventually they were dispersed and most were executed. New slave codes were made and slave importation dropped slightly for about 10 years.
College of New Jersey, Dartmouth, Brown, Rutgers founded woohoo
Royal officials are allowed to search any home without warrant
Britain military in America increases tremendously after the FI War.
Made sure that 3 cents per gallon of sugar were collected, because with the 6 cents before no one actually abided by the rule. People had to file a lot of papers when loading ships.
Stamp Act Congress meets and finds ways that the act is unconstitutional. Additionally, they decided to shut down colonial courts (no stamps used) and not to import any British products.
Required colonists to provide housing for troops in public buildings, firewood, candles, and drink.
First real revenue tax on colonies and was the most irritating to colonists; tax on documents in court proceedings, diplomas, appointments to public office, clearing ships from harbors, bonds, grants, deeds for land, newspapers.
VA House of Burgesses immediately protested it.
Forbade issuing of any local currency in the colonies; colonists complained that there literally wasn’t enough money to go around
Parliament has the right to make laws and things for the colonies.
Import tax on things like lead, paint, glass, paper, tea, etc. Thought the colonists only minded internal taxes, not external.
Men threw snow balls at and taunted and threatened soldiers to a great extent, so an angry soldier yelled “fire!” and 5 were killed, 11 injured.
o Boston Port Bill closed Boston’s port to all trade until they repaid the cost of the tea
o Massachusetts Government Act: Upper house (Council) is appointed by king from now on, no town meetings without governor’s approval, and governor appoints judges and sheriffs
o Administration of Justice Act: governor could send someone on trial to England or another colony to be tried there
o New Quartering Act: permitted quartering of troops in homes
o Quebec Act: no rep govt. in Quebec, Ohio River region belongs to Quebec, civil cases tried without juries, and Roman Catholics are tolerated
British East India Company almost went bankrupt, so to bail it out Britain let them ship to America directly, i.e. no middlemen and much cheaper for Americans
Wanted to achieve unity and get rid of the Intolerable Acts. Wrote a Declaration of Rights and agreed to meet again in 6 months if it hadn’t been resolved.
Colonies tried to make up for first battle with the Olive Branch Petition, but King George didn’t forgive them.
Washington was finally successful for the first time and pushed the British to New Brunswick.
Horrible conditions… Washington’s troops had to cross the freezing Delaware River.
In NJ… pretty much by accident
Finally convinced France to start helping us out with money after tension (King George and Queen Anne’s War) and us winning a battle.
Three-prong plan, but two prongs failed. Greene still won.
- Congress wasn’t strong enough, so something else had to be made.
- No chief executive
- Very weak national power
- Reps had term limits and could be taken out of office at any time
- 9 states had to ratify anything ever
Post-war deflation, inability to regulate trade, etc. were the problems with it—realized govt. was simply too weak and had to be recreated.
Greene made Cornwallis retreat.
America is independent and gets all land between the Appalachians and the Mississippi and south of the Great Lakes. Also, allies with France forever.
System for distributing western lands.
Took land from speculators who didn’t buy from Congress, largest states had claims in the west, established model for govt. and new states’ admission
All delegates wealthy, old, white men (not very representative). Don’t live like common people.
Roger Sherman’s Great Compromise: bicameral legislature
3/5 compromise: slave is 3/5 a person in voting terms
Slave trade compromise: continues for 20 years, then we’ll decide
Madison (among others) published the Federalist Papers in protest of the new document; ratified 9/12 states as long as they promised to make a bill of rights
Washington allowed $20,000 for Indian negotiations regarding western land—not for humanitarian reasons, simply because it was cheaper.
Created the federal court system with somewhat limited power. Rules: 6-person supreme court, each justice does two circuit courts a year, really large federal districts. First justice was John Jay.
Hamilton proposed a tariff on imported goods and foreign ships to raise revenue and increase shipping of American goods. It worked really well which made Hamilton love tariffs forever.
All citizens love him and are super excited
Hamilton’s idea of federal bonds for state debts—south hated it because they already paid their debts off (got to choose capital as a consolation prize). Washington also passed the BUS.
12 amendments are signed into law
Wollstonecraft argued that they system purposefully educated women poorly to be vain and frivolous. If they got good education, they would function in society very well.
Invented by Whitney
France, Spain, and England were in a conflict and we declared neutrality. Genet came to America to try to get help for the French since we were technically allies; Washington was infuriated and kicked him out.
Required Americans to return runaway slaves.
Indians ceded some land in Ohio and Indiana and got $500-$1,000 a month and protection for it; made them dependent on US govt/ currency and tried to enforce white ideals of work on them.
With the British basically saying that they would give equal treatment to each other in their ports, no confiscation of property, more defined border with Canada, and British would evacuate forts by June 1, 1796.
Talleyrand (Foreign Minister of France) wouldn’t talk to them unless paid millions; that enraged the US. All commercial ties to France were suspended.
o 14-year neutralization
o President can deport any suspicious aliens
o New, broad definition of sedition so the Democratic Republicans’ criticism would die down.
Jefferson wrote the principle of nullification.
John Adams has power to expand federal judiciary by appointing 16 new judges and many other positions, filling everything with Federalists before he left office.
King James gave The Virginia Company permission to sail to VA and colonize.
Sent many skilled laborers like perfumers, goldsmiths, taylors, etc.
John Smith was President of the colony and he forced people to work at least 4 hours a day, made the Powhatans give English more food, and moved colonists away from lethal water supplies. Only a handful of colonists died then.
JR sets sail for Jamestown
Wants peace between Powhatans and English
John Rolfe successfully planting and exporting tobacco → industry expands → need more land → take Indian land, doom the future for many years to come for indentured servants and later for African slaves → create conflict between Indians and English people → ultimately crush Rolfe’s own dreams, to have peace among Indians and English people
Began with Lord De La Warr attacking Powhatans and burning down cornfields because Powhatans wouldn’t give back English captives.
Captured by the English and brought to Jamestown. Rolfe fell in love with her, married her, and brought her to England. Gave hope of Europeanizing native Americans.
Tactic used by her father to spread control to English.
Started planting West Indian tobacco seeds and exporting them to England bc tobacco in Jamestown was shitty
TOBACCO = ECONOMIC SALVATION
First meeting of the first somewhat democratic govt. in the new world
Colonists knew that, to make people travel 3,000 miles, they had to offer something new and positive (like representative govt.) Also changed martial law to English common law.
Powhatans were beginning to be dependent on the British metal tools. British thought they could never be fully assimilated and decided to kill them all.
Openchancanough attacked Jamestown plantations over and over again, killing 1/3 of the colonists, including John Rolfe.
Opechancanough attacked again, killing 400 English people. When he was killed two years later, the war ended in the English’s favor.
Set up the first American Indian Reservation of north York, but intruded into it very quickly.
Even after Berkeley told him not to, Bacon held a huge raid against the Susquehannocks and killed a lot of them. In Virginia
Blacks can’t own livestock
Blacks can’t own a gun
Thorough slave codes in place
French and Virginias fought to build a fort quicker in the Ohio area. Washington and his troops (Indians and Virginians) attacked a small French reconnaissance party, beginning the French and Indian War.
French stopped dominating after all 6 iroquois tribes formed an alliance.
All Canada land (except two sugar islands) given to British, French territory including New Orleans and west of the Mississippi given to Spain as compensation for British taking Florida.
Dutch brought over the first ship of Africans.
Aside from that, indentured servitude was much more profitable because usually slaves had high mortality rates.
Huuuuge need for labor.
Sir George Calvert was awarded ability to colonize Maryland.
Made a representative assembly under his feudal system.
Maryland Assembly passed a law granting citizens of MA (except for slaves) all the rights of Englishmen.
Women had more rights, outnumbered men, etc. etc. so they married later and later. Govt. had to encourage them to get back to tradition.
No one has to exercise a religion they don’t agree with, even women (as long as you worship Jesus Christ).
Puritans thought the Church of England simply couldn’t be reformed to their liking. They also lived in fear of persecution. Decided to come to America.
Instability: Henry wanting divorce and breaking away, Mary wanted Calvinism, etc.
Plymouth was a much healthier environment; more people migrated there and it grew more quickly than the Chesapeake area.
Very focused on cohesive family. Adoption was a thing—didn’t want outcasts in society.
- Church was only for people who were already saved
- Hard work, self-made man
- Rich people are bad
- encouraged literacy
- believed a life of Christianity could save you
Massasoit led the Indians in and around Plymouth. Very friendly—taught them to use fish as fertilizer. Less being nice and more a diplomatic relations thing.
Founded Merrymount in MA and wanted to be a part of the Indians. Plymouth crushed it.
Far north of VA destination.
Mayflower compact = civil body politick
Formed Massachusetts General Court—12 white males elected to meet once a month and work out things about town. Obviously not perfect, but good beginning to democracy.
Came to MA in search for separatist govt. Preached separation of church and state, religious toleration, etc.
RW almost sent back to England, but John Winthrop warned him. Established religiously tolerant Rhode Island.
Preaches that Christians are free from morals because they’re going to go to Heaven anyway because predestination. Exiled and killed in 1643.
90 Connecticut men raided a Pequot village attempting to expand onto their land.
Became more and more popular because people didn’t have religious revelations and couldn’t go to church. They were children of people who had a rebirth experience.
Accused of practicing witchcraft in the woods with two teenage girls. Escaped with her life by telling a bizarre, confusing story.
John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin began Salem witch trials. 156 had been accused, 20 were killed.
Most accusers of witchcraft were women in their teens or twenties; most accused were women above 40. Additionally, respectable members of the community and a four-year-old were accused.
Thomas Hutchinson didn’t want to not pay the duties for the tea ship, so a bunch of rebels including Sam Adams dressed as Indians, escorted customs officers off the boat, and dumped all the tea into the Boston Harbor.
British told Gage to get all of MA’s weapons at Concord, but Paul Revere warned the recipients of the attack. Gage hated Americans and wanted to make them poorer. Unsure who started the battle, but 8 Americans died and wouldn’t surrender.
Fort established at Breed’s Hill in Charlestown (near Boston).
Tried to alleviate taxes on those who have debts by shutting down courts and passing laws for debtors’ relief → not punished, Jefferson even said that infrequent rebellion by civil means was good.
Proprietor Anthony Ashley Cooper and John Locke wrote Constitution of colony (didn’t pass—couldn’t get a British-style govt. into America).
Very good, fertile land.
Carolina got their Indian allies to destroy French and Spanish traders around them so they could dominate Indian trade.
French got to the mouth of the Mississippi River and claimed Louisiana. Split up the Spanish empire and worried the British.
Colony was bad land and pretty unattractive—mostly it was inhabited by criminals sent there.
The Tuscaroras and the Yamasees were consistently enslaved by South Carolinians and rebelled.
French started importing slaves, and the colony became much more popular and flourished.
Had more freedom than later slaves. Made a lot of crafts.
Attacks the French and kills many people bc they were encroaching onto their land.
Tuscaroos and Yamasees lost their alliance and consequently lose the war against the British.
Caused a raise in taxes as alwayyyz.
Spanish offered the British money to settle in Florida.
About 100 former slaves created a colony in the risky area between the Spanish and British. Eventually it was evacuated because it was a war zone.