A global glance at the world and the changes industrially, nationally, and scientifically.
The birth of global exchange consisted of the sharing of everything a country is made of: raw and finished goods, language, religions, peoples, agriculture, other items.
Results were colonialism, cultural fusion, and growth of most.
Europe was the Middle man trying to get a ticket on the Asian train, trying to enter trade gain wealth. They had spend a lot of time dealing with themelves and wanted to turn outward. China on the other hand had turned inward, noting it's internal power later we will see how "china becomes a victim of it's own success."
China, Africa, and India were in the lead financially or influentially for a while. Europe got a foot hold in the Slave trade which would later effect each involved greatly. Weakening Africa and strengthening Europe and the Americas.
The Americas benefited by having cheap labor to help them produce more goods (sugar, etc) to sell
This age was the Birth of Global Echange
All over the world there was a constant age of civil unrest that is part of the process of nation building. Expansion and sovereignty is fought for.
Nationalism has a shared identity-race, language, education system
Constitutionalism (core idea is a shred single law, consensual)
Sovereignty, expansionism: border, territorial complete control within the border, grow where you can.
Northern Africa is a part of the Islamic world. Puts them in contact with Middle East then to Asia.
The Pilgrimage of the Haj, Dar Al Islam (large role in trade)
The Chinese equivalent of Christopher Columbus who was sent by Yongle emperor from 1402-1444.
He had over 300 junks (treasure ships) in his fleet
(war of the Roses)
dynastic struggle between families, thrones, and regions
Consolidation and competition
1492 they unified nationally because of the Spanish voyages. They are done fighting among themselves.
the pope draws a north-south line
Portugal: East of line
-Brazil, Atlantic Islands
Spain:West of line
-California to Argentina
"The super power of the Mediteranean" to "The sick man of Europe"
Osmanli tribe expands (turks)ethnically distinct. Muslim but not Arab.
Politically similar to the Japanese: Sultan = Emperor
Pasha= provential govenor
Taxation like China (very good)
Diversity in ethnic, linguistic, and religious aspects
Istanbul was a melting pot
Muslim majority, but Christian and Jews were respected (all have own laws, and courts)
Military: The Janissaries-independent military who were taken from Christian families and taken as slaves. direct loyalty to the sultan, like japanese samurai
Arabia: Religious Enthusiasm
-Saud family supports Wahabi reforms to Islam.
-create a semi independent state
-includes Mecca and Medina
Greece and Balkins: Nationalism
-Greek War of Independence 1820-29
-French Occupation 1798-1801
-French Defeated by British 1805
-Muslim rulers, Hindu majority
descended from Ghangas khan
Mughal from Mongol-nomadic, cultured, literate
Bring Persian, Urdu language
About 150 million people by 1700
Spreads Islam into South Asia
Zemindar-Hereditary local rulers. lords, on behalf of the crown. they were large land owners.
collect taxes from the crown.
Internal trade controlled by African elites.
Royal familes and aristocracies benefited from taking lower class people and enslaving them.
this exacerbated class and exalted the upper levels.
Maritime trade was controlled by the Europeans : French British Portuguese Dutch
reached to the Americas
shogun-rules on the emperors behalf
Daimyo-futal lords, hereditary,
Samurai-military arrangement's, futal knights, almost independent
From Europe (Britain)
religion-Afro Brazilian Religion, goddess= to the virgin Mary
combines catholic elements
According to Gilroy
BLACK ATLANTIC: A transnational Culture-being black is more important than your present nation (shared race)
A black culture shared across the atlantic world (Africa, Americas, Europe) through middle passage, slavery, and music.
contain a king queen and elected body
had SUGAR colonies in the Carribean (Jamaica)
war resolved this question
1653-1715 under King Louis XIV
Absolutism- monarchy has total power
Colbert, finance Minister
In the fight for egypt part of the Ottoman Empire by Napolean
The New Order
And Albanian soldier
Reforms: conscripted Military (draft) , nationalize property, grow cotton for export (to Britain), Egypt Modernizes but does not Industrialize
Part of Ottoman Empire and become a separate Nation
In Europe and North America
-a mistrust and facination with "the East", "chinoserie"=Chinese stuff.
-dependence on Asian markets and trade
-hostility to foreigners
-weakening of imperial control
-emigration to Americas, South East Asia, Austrailia, and the Carribean
-exports shift from luxury goods to food and raw materials
were commercial, urban, literate
self-sufficient economically diet rice produced by them
isolationist much like China
breaks down in 1853
"Tokyo, the floating world"
Matthew Perry and the US Navy Invade Uraga Bay, They demand Open Trade. Iron steamships made Pacific travel easy.
shogun resigned and surrendered his power to the emperor who was on the side of the Revolutionaries
Meiji=reforms (not really restoration)
fire the Samarai because it is a part of the old futal structure.
(post civil war)
-Modeled it's army after the American military
Britain France and Belgium are major players in the scramble for Africa. Late comers include Germany and Italy. Around the same time the US took the Phillapines from Spain. And Japan has taken Korea, Taiwan, and Indonesia. The entire continent gets cut up into colonies.
all of this is connected to bringing us to WWI
defines the official nation of the "modern" citizen
A primary source
The decree Defines the Modernization: Modern is urbanized civilization
basically " you guys have to settle down ancant move aroud so much! live in the city" agriculture and religion
Bedouins inferior ignorant illiterate subserviant muslims
Trigger Rising Serbian Nationalism in Austo-Hungary
The real Problem= nationalism within big empires
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
A meeting of former colonized nations to solidify non-aliance in the COLD WAR.
they refused to take sides so this was the begginning of a "third world" identity.
shows cracks in the Cold War system
A bipolar world. There was a sort of left and right division. Decolonization causes Africa to become the most mixed ( A sort of scramble for Africa)
Resistance to the Cold War was mostly of Post Colonial Nations.
Non-alignment nations such as Indonesia, India, and Pakistan
includes modern Turkey, Greece, and the Balkins .
Middle East Including Mecca and Medina
Wealth from East/west trade routes
These FOUR were the main powers in the Indian Ocean
China= silk and porcleain
Africa and the Middle East= palm oil, gold, silver, and nuts
West Africa to Brazil is the very shortest way across the Atlantic and is also the most navigable by ships.
Had coastal presents. Had major routes of trade by land. Trans Saharan trade.
Prince Henry the Navigator was keen on improving shipping and exploration techniques.
He established the 1st European settlements on African coasts
colonies, places they will govern in Azores and Cape Verde trading posts not colonies.
GLOBAL CONTEXT: finding the route to ASIA
Columbus and Vasco Da Gama
Symbolizes turning economic energy outward
the largest population and economically the wealthiest.
national markest and large internal Markets
Trade Surplus, which is basically good. (the are self sufficient. dont need anyone else. hyper inflation is the problem.
export: Silk, Porcelain, Tea
Turned landward because the land was where the money was
"China was a victem of their own success"
held the Songhai empire together.
was the center of learning and scholarship.
traded Salt, Gold, Grain, and Slaves and also Islam.
The Battles of Tenochtitlan now modern day Mexico City.
Moctezuma who had 13 million lost to Cortez who had only 200 men or so.
cotton exports- cheaper and easier to work with than silk
-calico- comes from calcuttu
-paisley-came from carpets then to fabric
East India Company:
British stock company from 1600
trade tea, cotton, opium, ect. from India
taxing rights in Behgal, 1765
rules parts of India 1757-1857
Change from the worlds 2nd wealthiest country in 1600 hundred to a British colony in 1858.
in Potosi (Bolivia) Peru
profits pass through Spain to China
mining labor of Ameridians (spanish ) was replaced after 1620 with enslaved africance
Manila Galleon-connects new world silver to China via the Atlantic. East Asian finished goods are traded for silver
Internal trade was controlled by African elites,
Sea trade was controlled by French, British, Portuguese, Dutch (Europeans)
Middle Passage- the ship voyage clockwise in the Atlantic Ocean
Brazil and West Indies for first landing destination
Brought and Carried for trade= sugar, tobacco, cotton, rum and pastrys)
9-12 million people taken to the Americas
Dutch Sea Hero (pirate)
Dutch West India Company- merchant runs Dutch fleet in the Carribean
Captured Spanish and Portugues silver fleets which had enough money to fund for years)
Qing Empire, 1644-1911
Locate on map: Great Wall, Guangzhou (Canton), Beijing, Nanjing, Macao, Grand Canal
Qianlong Emperor, ruled 1735-1796
Canton System-foreigners are only allowed here
China continues strong imperial rule, tight export, controlled trade, but in 19th century it is no longer a success. Failed Isolationism.
Appear as a result of the falling of the Trans Saharan Trade Route
North American colonies from the early 17th century
McCartney was sent to visit China. when he was their he refused to kowtow to Emperor Qianlong. This was the beginning of serious British-Chinese engagement
-China says get lost thus proving that it will be difficult for Europeans to enter China
Lin Tse-hsu, the imperial commissioner at Canton=drug zar cracks down
enforces opium ban, dissolved opium shipped to china in the ocean and imprisoned British and American diplomats
British are trying to force Chinese ports open.
The Nemesis- first all Iron warship
"Open Door Policy"
China has to pay for all the dumped Heroin
British is granted special trade status, privileged access
Hong Kong becomes an independent British port
Five Chinese ports opened to British trade without tariffs
Opium legalized in China
originates in Europe esp. Northern and expands to the U.S. and Japan. Largely bypasses China, India, and Ottoman Empire 19th C. "The European Century" Industrialization depends on-fossil fuels (first coal then oil and gas, replacing human labor, animal labor, water, and wind power.)
You can argue that with the end of Atlantic slave trade industrialization became a priority for Europe who no longer had new slaves to do their work for them.
propossess that the best istribution is for individuals to compete in free market
-Laissez-faire capitalism let it be let it do
-the idea in the invisible hand of the market (meant to replace the dead hand of the church <-- mercantilism )
-believes that individuals are smart. an enlightened self interest will make as much money as they can
-not completely compatible with colonialism because it requires the colony to sell to whoever they want not just to the Mother Country.
Response to Industrialization
unites Russian empire from Moscow to Vlacivostok
response to industrialization
The individual vs. tyranny of machines which is dehumanizing. A form of modern mechanization
farm time vs. factory time
SOUTH AMERICA bolivia, peru, etc.
Mercury Poisoning-it was used to purify the silver, still dealing with impacts today
cattle ranching (from Spain) -Argentina most successful because of the plains
- Southwest of U.s. ranching takes off and takes root
North America- tenent farming, small farms (British, French English)
Rice Cultivation (west African technique)
-tidewater rice technology
-South Carolina-Gulla culture
-Seara Leone method
Plantation farming- becomes the dominant form in the southern area (From Portuguese) followed the Atlantic model of forced labor