500 year History

A global glance at the world and the changes industrially, nationally, and scientifically.

Main

The Birth of Global Exchange

1500 - 1750

The birth of global exchange consisted of the sharing of everything a country is made of: raw and finished goods, language, religions, peoples, agriculture, other items.

Results were colonialism, cultural fusion, and growth of most.
Europe was the Middle man trying to get a ticket on the Asian train, trying to enter trade gain wealth. They had spend a lot of time dealing with themelves and wanted to turn outward. China on the other hand had turned inward, noting it's internal power later we will see how "china becomes a victim of it's own success."

China, Africa, and India were in the lead financially or influentially for a while. Europe got a foot hold in the Slave trade which would later effect each involved greatly. Weakening Africa and strengthening Europe and the Americas.

The Americas benefited by having cheap labor to help them produce more goods (sugar, etc) to sell

This age was the Birth of Global Echange

Building Nations and Empires

1750 - 1914

Nationalism

All over the world there was a constant age of civil unrest that is part of the process of nation building. Expansion and sovereignty is fought for.

Nationalism has a shared identity-race, language, education system
Constitutionalism (core idea is a shred single law, consensual)
Sovereignty, expansionism: border, territorial complete control within the border, grow where you can.

Pre Africa early modern

1400

Northern Africa is a part of the Islamic world. Puts them in contact with Middle East then to Asia.

The Pilgrimage of the Haj, Dar Al Islam (large role in trade)

Zheng He

1420 - 1430

The Chinese equivalent of Christopher Columbus who was sent by Yongle emperor from 1402-1444.

He had over 300 junks (treasure ships) in his fleet

Britain, ends civil war

1485

(war of the Roses)
dynastic struggle between families, thrones, and regions

Spanish Unified, Jews and Muslims expelled

1492

1492 they unified nationally because of the Spanish voyages. They are done fighting among themselves.

Spain unified

1492

Consolidation and competition

Treaty of Todesillas

1494

the pope draws a north-south line
Portugal: East of line
-Brazil, Atlantic Islands

Spain:West of line
-California to Argentina

Ottoman Empire

1500 - 1900

"The super power of the Mediteranean" to "The sick man of Europe"

Osmanli tribe expands (turks)ethnically distinct. Muslim but not Arab.
Politically similar to the Japanese: Sultan = Emperor
Pasha= provential govenor
Grand Vesire=administration

Taxation like China (very good)
Diversity in ethnic, linguistic, and religious aspects
Istanbul was a melting pot
Muslim majority, but Christian and Jews were respected (all have own laws, and courts)
Sultan Sulleyman

Military: The Janissaries-independent military who were taken from Christian families and taken as slaves. direct loyalty to the sultan, like japanese samurai

Arabia: Religious Enthusiasm
-Saud family supports Wahabi reforms to Islam.
-create a semi independent state
-includes Mecca and Medina

Greece and Balkins: Nationalism
-Greek War of Independence 1820-29

Egypt: Napolean
-French Occupation 1798-1801
-French Defeated by British 1805

Mughal India Empire

1526

-Muslim rulers, Hindu majority
descended from Ghangas khan
Mughal from Mongol-nomadic, cultured, literate
Bring Persian, Urdu language
About 150 million people by 1700
Spreads Islam into South Asia
Cultural Fusion

POLITICAL STRUCTURE
Zemindar-Hereditary local rulers. lords, on behalf of the crown. they were large land owners.
collect taxes from the crown.

Atlantic Slave Trade

1600

Internal trade controlled by African elites.
Royal familes and aristocracies benefited from taking lower class people and enslaving them.
this exacerbated class and exalted the upper levels.

Maritime trade was controlled by the Europeans : French British Portuguese Dutch

reached to the Americas

Culture to the Americas

1600

From Europe (Britain)
political structures
language
law
dominant religion-

From Africa
music
dance
religion-Afro Brazilian Religion, goddess= to the virgin Mary
language

combines catholic elements

According to Gilroy

BLACK ATLANTIC: A transnational Culture-being black is more important than your present nation (shared race)

A black culture shared across the atlantic world (Africa, Americas, Europe) through middle passage, slavery, and music.

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

emperor-ritual authority
shogun-rules on the emperors behalf
Daimyo-futal lords, hereditary,
Samurai-military arrangement's, futal knights, almost independent

Civil War: Britain: Parliamentary Monarchy

1640 - 1688

contain a king queen and elected body
had SUGAR colonies in the Carribean (Jamaica)

war resolved this question

France strengthens

1653

1653-1715 under King Louis XIV

Absolutism- monarchy has total power
Colbert, finance Minister

French Occupation of Egypt

1798 - 1801

Muhammed Alia Pasha: Viceroy of Egypt

1805 - 1848

The New Order
And Albanian soldier
Reforms: conscripted Military (draft) , nationalize property, grow cotton for export (to Britain), Egypt Modernizes but does not Industrialize

French Defeated by British

1805

In the fight for egypt part of the Ottoman Empire by Napolean

Greek War of Independence

1820 - 1829

Part of Ottoman Empire and become a separate Nation

Legacy of the Opium Wars

1839 - 1873

In Europe and North America
-a mistrust and facination with "the East", "chinoserie"=Chinese stuff.
-dependence on Asian markets and trade

In China
-hostility to foreigners
-weakening of imperial control
-emigration to Americas, South East Asia, Austrailia, and the Carribean
-exports shift from luxury goods to food and raw materials
-civil rebellions

Taiping Rebellions

1850 - 1873

Commadore Matthew Perry visits Japan

1853

Matthew Perry and the US Navy Invade Uraga Bay, They demand Open Trade. Iron steamships made Pacific travel easy.

Japan's isolationist breaks down

1853

were commercial, urban, literate
self-sufficient economically diet rice produced by them
isolationist much like China
breaks down in 1853

"Tokyo, the floating world"

Italian Unification

1860

US Civil War

1861 - 1865

Meiji Japan

1868 - 1918

(post civil war)
-Modeled it's army after the American military

Meiji Restoration in Japan

1868

shogun resigned and surrendered his power to the emperor who was on the side of the Revolutionaries
Meiji=reforms (not really restoration)
fire the Samarai because it is a part of the old futal structure.

German Unification

1870

The Ottoman Decree

1870

defines the official nation of the "modern" citizen
A primary source
The decree Defines the Modernization: Modern is urbanized civilization
basically " you guys have to settle down ancant move aroud so much! live in the city" agriculture and religion

Bedouins inferior ignorant illiterate subserviant muslims

The Scramble for Africa

1870 - 1890

Britain France and Belgium are major players in the scramble for Africa. Late comers include Germany and Italy. Around the same time the US took the Phillapines from Spain. And Japan has taken Korea, Taiwan, and Indonesia. The entire continent gets cut up into colonies.

all of this is connected to bringing us to WWI

Ottoman Reform to Constitution

1876 - 1878

Ottoman Constitution Revised

1895

Boxer Rebellion

1899

The Great War

1914 - 1918

Trigger Rising Serbian Nationalism in Austo-Hungary
The real Problem= nationalism within big empires

Wiston Churchhill at the Iron Curtain

1946

Marshall Plan

1947

NATO

1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Warsaw Pact

1955

Bandung Conference

1955

A meeting of former colonized nations to solidify non-aliance in the COLD WAR.

they refused to take sides so this was the begginning of a "third world" identity.

shows cracks in the Cold War system

Cold War

1982

A bipolar world. There was a sort of left and right division. Decolonization causes Africa to become the most mixed ( A sort of scramble for Africa)

Resistance to the Cold War was mostly of Post Colonial Nations.
Non-alignment nations such as Indonesia, India, and Pakistan

End of Cold War

1989

Soviet Union disintegrates peacfully

1991

Trade and Exploration

Ottoman Expansion

1300 - 1700

includes modern Turkey, Greece, and the Balkins .
Border Russia
Middle East Including Mecca and Medina

Wealth from East/west trade routes

Ming China, India, and Indonesia Exports

1368 - 1644

These FOUR were the main powers in the Indian Ocean
China= silk and porcleain
India= cotton
Indonesia= spices
Africa and the Middle East= palm oil, gold, silver, and nuts

Songhai Empire, Africa

1400

West Africa to Brazil is the very shortest way across the Atlantic and is also the most navigable by ships.

Had coastal presents. Had major routes of trade by land. Trans Saharan trade.

Portuguese Voyages: Trade and Colonies

1415

Prince Henry the Navigator was keen on improving shipping and exploration techniques.

He established the 1st European settlements on African coasts
colonies, places they will govern in Azores and Cape Verde trading posts not colonies.

Portuguese establish sugar plantations and purchase African Slave Labour

1460

Spanish Voyages

1492

GLOBAL CONTEXT: finding the route to ASIA
Columbus and Vasco Da Gama
Symbolizes turning economic energy outward

China

1500

the largest population and economically the wealthiest.
national markest and large internal Markets
Trade Surplus, which is basically good. (the are self sufficient. dont need anyone else. hyper inflation is the problem.
export: Silk, Porcelain, Tea
imports: Silver

Turned landward because the land was where the money was
"China was a victem of their own success"

Trans Saharan Trade

1500 - 1600

held the Songhai empire together.
was the center of learning and scholarship.
traded Salt, Gold, Grain, and Slaves and also Islam.

Land Empires of Eurasia Expansion

1500 - 1750

China

Russia
Mughal India
Safauid (Iran)
Ottoman Empire

Cortez and Moctezuma

1519 - 1521

The Battles of Tenochtitlan now modern day Mexico City.
Moctezuma who had 13 million lost to Cortez who had only 200 men or so.

Mughal India

1526 - 1858

Change from the worlds 2nd wealthiest country in 1600 hundred to a British colony in 1858.

Mughal India

1526

2nd Wealthiest

cotton exports- cheaper and easier to work with than silk
-calico- comes from calcuttu
-paisley-came from carpets then to fabric
-proto-industrial production

East India Company:
British stock company from 1600
trade tea, cotton, opium, ect. from India
taxing rights in Behgal, 1765
rules parts of India 1757-1857

Peak of Mining

1570 - 1620

in Potosi (Bolivia) Peru

profits pass through Spain to China

mining labor of Ameridians (spanish ) was replaced after 1620 with enslaved africance
Manila Galleon-connects new world silver to China via the Atlantic. East Asian finished goods are traded for silver

Atlantic Slave Trade

1600 - 1850

Internal trade was controlled by African elites,
Sea trade was controlled by French, British, Portuguese, Dutch (Europeans)

Middle Passage- the ship voyage clockwise in the Atlantic Ocean

Brazil and West Indies for first landing destination
Brought and Carried for trade= sugar, tobacco, cotton, rum and pastrys)

9-12 million people taken to the Americas

Piet Hein

1629

SILVER
Dutch Sea Hero (pirate)
Dutch West India Company- merchant runs Dutch fleet in the Carribean
Captured Spanish and Portugues silver fleets which had enough money to fund for years)

Qing Empire Dynasty

1644 - 1911

Qing Empire, 1644-1911
Mongols
Manchuria
Uighur
Locate on map: Great Wall, Guangzhou (Canton), Beijing, Nanjing, Macao, Grand Canal
Qianlong Emperor, ruled 1735-1796

Canton System-foreigners are only allowed here
China continues strong imperial rule, tight export, controlled trade, but in 19th century it is no longer a success. Failed Isolationism.

Slave Kindoms

1650 - 1900

Appear as a result of the falling of the Trans Saharan Trade Route

Dahomney
Whyda
Ashanti

Britain colonies

1700

North American colonies from the early 17th century
-Virginia
-Massachusetts

Europeans make more urgent effort to enter Chinese domestic trade

1793

McCartney was sent to visit China. when he was their he refused to kowtow to Emperor Qianlong. This was the beginning of serious British-Chinese engagement
-China says get lost thus proving that it will be difficult for Europeans to enter China

Opium Trade made illegal

1836

Lin Tse-hsu, the imperial commissioner at Canton=drug zar cracks down

enforces opium ban, dissolved opium shipped to china in the ocean and imprisoned British and American diplomats

Opium Wars

1839 - 1860

British are trying to force Chinese ports open.

The Nemesis- first all Iron warship

The outcome:
"Open Door Policy"
China has to pay for all the dumped Heroin
British is granted special trade status, privileged access
Hong Kong becomes an independent British port
Five Chinese ports opened to British trade without tariffs
Opium legalized in China

Industrialization

originates in Europe esp. Northern and expands to the U.S. and Japan. Largely bypasses China, India, and Ottoman Empire 19th C. "The European Century" Industrialization depends on-fossil fuels (first coal then oil and gas, replacing human labor, animal labor, water, and wind power.)
You can argue that with the end of Atlantic slave trade industrialization became a priority for Europe who no longer had new slaves to do their work for them.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations

1776

propossess that the best istribution is for individuals to compete in free market
-Laissez-faire capitalism let it be let it do
-the idea in the invisible hand of the market (meant to replace the dead hand of the church <-- mercantilism )
-believes that individuals are smart. an enlightened self interest will make as much money as they can
-not completely compatible with colonialism because it requires the colony to sell to whoever they want not just to the Mother Country.

US transcontinental RailRoad

1869

Response to Industrialization

Trans-Siberian Railway

1880

unites Russian empire from Moscow to Vlacivostok

Daylight Savings

1918

response to industrialization

Charlie Chaplin: Modern Times

1936

The individual vs. tyranny of machines which is dehumanizing. A form of modern mechanization
farm time vs. factory time
railroads
uniform time
time zones

Science, Technology, and Environment

Peak of Mining

1570 - 1620

SOUTH AMERICA bolivia, peru, etc.
Deforestation
Mercury Poisoning-it was used to purify the silver, still dealing with impacts today
Erosion

Cultures to the Americas:Agriculture

1600

cattle ranching (from Spain) -Argentina most successful because of the plains
- Southwest of U.s. ranching takes off and takes root
North America- tenent farming, small farms (British, French English)

Rice Cultivation (west African technique)
-tidewater rice technology
-South Carolina-Gulla culture
-Seara Leone method

Plantation farming- becomes the dominant form in the southern area (From Portuguese) followed the Atlantic model of forced labor