Exam Three



Umayyad Syria & Abbasid Iraq-661-1258
Islamic Spain-756-1492
Islamic Egypt-909-1517
Timurid & Safavid Iran & Central Asia-1370-1732
Ottoman Turkey- 1281-1924

• Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock, interior 687 CE


o Unlike Christians who say that 2nd amendment doesn’t apply to artwork, Islam uses text (calligraphy), non-representative power of line
o Arab population expands, the Arab world expands
o Arabs are nomadic traders
o Arab world emerges when Byzantine and Roman worlds are weak
o Arabs find populations, which are unattached to Orthodoxy, the Arabs don’t force conversion but Islam spreads easily.
o Areas that the Arabs had taken over, remain Muslim, still
o Mohammed makes a night ride/journey
o Angel, Gabriel comes and takes him from Jerusalem, from a rock which is where the Great temple had been destroyed by the Romans, and also where Abraham had offered Isaac. This is the place where the first monument is built for Islam.
• layering

• Damascus, Great Mosque, 706 CE

706 CE

o Church is a convenience, not a necessity
o Judaism, Torrah read inside
o Islam doesn’t require this at all, pray wherever you are→call to prayer
• They must separate themselves from the mundane world→carpet, on which you don’t trod
• Must cleanse themselves ritually, doesn’t have to be water
• Nomads didn’t necesarrily have water, used sand
• Shoes off-do not carry with you to confrontation with the divine, the profane world—nothing intervenes
• Clerics are there, their job is to help you, but they do not intervene between you and the divine world, nothing comparable to the priest
o New political entropy, the Arab world, and many people convert, but it is not required, allowed to maintain their own beliefs (Christians, Jews)
• Except for people not of the book: pagans, Buddhists, etc. →prosecuted taxed to remain in belief, so not a lot of effort for them to make a conversion→making money
o Here’s the God who created you, here is what you do to respond, and that’s it!
o The initial mosques are called the community Mosques, congregational mosques
• By 706, Muslim community is dominant
• Church destroyed, no longer Christian spot
• Church initially built on sacred spot of Jupiter
• The mosque being built over church Parallels layers within a sacred space
• Post and lintel, courtyard
• Ritual outside before you enter the prayer hold
o Protect you while you engage in ritual activity: stand, kneel, bow
• Call of the prayer, by the Muezzin
• Climbs stairs, signals prayer (Minaret)
o Mosque has no priority space
• No ritual, no sermon
• Maybe a lesson, but no ritual to accompany→you are already engaged in prayer
• But you pray toward a direction toward Mecca→where Mohammad proclaimed islam
• Mirhab signals which direction to pray, hung on wall, but there is no general rule for mosque design though
o All are equal before God, so it doesn’t matter where you pray
• Though Calipa is head of the faithful
• There is no status within the space

• Shatta, Um ayyad palace, 740 CE

740 CE

o Concept of secular art
o Spaces designed to live well
o Ruler’s palaces
o Human heads in floral motifs
o Animal images carved in
• No narrative, not iconographic, merely decorative

• Kairoun, Great Mosque, 836 CE

836 CE

o In Mauzine, skilled chanter=call of the prayer
o Surrounding courtyard=arcade
• Behind is post and lintel, arches?
• Bilaterally symmetrical
• =choice of architect not the faith
o not all the art and architecture developed during this period is religious
o Christianity has at its concept, jesus
• Importance of poverty-awareness of the poor man to God, camel→eye of needle than rich man into heaven
• Wealth and Christianity have a problem together, Islam does not

• Ivory Pyxis, 969 CE

969 CE

o Luxury arts
o Pyxis=small container, cosmetic container, something of value which is personal
o Elephant ivory used here=preferred
• Took an entire tusk, hollowed out, then carved
o Role of human figure→which cannot appear in sacred setting!!!!! But can in a personal setting
o Records ownership

• Ivory pyxis, 971, CE

971 CE

o Herbivore
o Primarily visually interesting→no statements of imperial power, but the ownership refers to status and hence refer to a lifestyle=these who lived very well
o Abundance of craftsmen, whose work is to create these
o Luxury arts

• Granada, Alhambra, Patio of the Lions, 1354 CE

1354 CE

o Fountain, lions lining it, byzantine? —Used w/o any concern
o Calligraphy—poetic, not sacred
o The role that a garden plays
• Plantings chosen seasonally, factory effects (smells)
• For the sensual
• Protected when weather gets bad
• Represents a whole category of domestic art, that is w/o religion

Early Medieval Europe

Warrior Lords 5th-10th C
Hiberno-Saxton Art- 6th-10th C
Carolingian- 768-877

• Looped fiula, 6thC. CE

550 CE

o Big piece of jewelry to hold/clasp a cloak, closed means of establishing status nomadic, cannot afford to keep art that you can’t carry
• Bilaterally symmetrical
• Inlays of gold with silver unit=intrinsically valuable materials, expensive
o Light, flashy, catches the eye
o plundered wealth→manufactured wealth

• England, Sutton Hoo purse lid, 625 CE

625 CE

o Ship burlial grace where much of this art was found
o Famous leaders, buried in a ship burial
• Found intact in the 1930s
o Ivory –African elephant-import
o Gold patterns joined by crossed gold wires
• Cells=cloisonné
• Glass is valuable
o Reflective rebound of light, luminosity
• Craft of the artisan, wealth of animal images, not mimetic
• Different world but won’t last long, but effective
• Interest not in the image
• Interest in the interplay of line
• Gold and precious stone=wealth


• Scotland, Iona, Book of Durrow, Man (Matthew), 660 CE

660 CE

o Codex quickly replaces scroll by 7thC, no one uses scroll
o Change into codex format→single page, binded together, left to right or right to left
• Cannot see what is coming, cannot see in the next page, demands complete attention, directs you, invites consideration for image presented
o Illumination=printed manuscript, painted page
o Made of vellum=calf skin
o Making of the book of Durrow (where the book ended up) required killing of many cows. This is a world where meat is a real rarity
• Killing cow when it has short meat, sacrificing animal at earlier stages, monks didn’t eat meat. Sold it?—isolated = extraordinarily valuable. Clean, soak, process, long and involved, decorate with ink. Oak galls, iron, dyed w/vegetables. Spend time in Forest to gather materials.
o Interlace and gemstone, jeweler’s work
o Irish of Saxton=Germanic Irish
o Monks labor making repetition of the text
o Monks are in isolated, bleak, areas (Iona) visually little interest.
• This is where people went though
• Time is spent and interest in manuscript pgs.

Spain, Banos de Cerrato, San Jaun Battista, VISIGOTH 661 CE

661 CE

Germanic forms Early Roman Christian influence
o Basillica rectangle
o Not many buildings to go up
o Roman element and local forms of Christianity
o Mainstream orthodoxy accepted
• Visigothic ritual unique to this gothic area
• This church is spreading
• Relation of Christ to humanity, trilogy
• When the bells are rung is different



England, Northumbria, oindisfarne Gospels, Carpet 698 CE

698 CE

o Interplay of background and foreground, repeated, constructs a cross
o Visually stimulating to look at and to work on
o Peripatetic means—hard to tell which part is more important—Germanic sensibility, though something new emerges: spiral: Celtic decorative techniques, Germanic sensibility, reach high point in the Book of Kells

• Scotland, Iona, Book of Kells, Chi—Rho page, 8th c. CE

790 CE

o Greek letters for Christos
o Text in Latin
o Trumpet shape (Celtic sensibility)
o Playing with the line, line constantly shifting
• Germanic holds the same line, Celtic has energetic shifting, sensibility decorated the Quran=abstract art, through sheer visual interest, text as art
o Books were made to preach the new testament, the gospel monasteries, found themselves in hostile rulership as they moved over to the British isles, Germanic kingdoms needed to purchase
o Book of kells=enormous=not intended to be used regularly, appropriate gifts for the kings, who then deposited them=they have a function.

• Aachen, Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, 792 CE

792 CE

o One of the first buildings belief during Charlemagne’s rulership
o Communication with other places
• Communication w/larger world, he’s been places
o Modeled after San Vitale
• Longitudinal design forced into circular design (different from San Vitale) association w/Justinian [still Roman Empire even though we refer to it as Byzantine] representation of Christian Rome, suitable for a model
• But Charlemagne is president of the Church. Charlemagne warned his son of mistake in his rulership…he made a trip to Rome, he controlled date to celebrate. Normal to stop in Ravenna, wanted to celebrate Christmas mass, Eucharistic feast. As he attends the service, something important happens. Byzantine is head of the state and head of the church (nothing like that in the west). The pope comes up behind Charlemagne and crowns him. The pope has power over Charlemagne. He accepts, church reflects this: power meaning secular and religious… the west keeps church and state separate, dominates medieval history who really has power? Pope or rulers?
o Arches recall Roman Heritage but it is the two colors that is of interest: has a predecessor
• The great mosque in Cronwa
• Raised on arcades
• Black and white follows the pattern, suggests the nature of Islamic world in Spain
o Something that happens when Charlemagne is crowned influences how he expands the empire, conquers saxton world→they are still Pagans, die as Pagans or baptized, promote the church by the building of monasteries or at least reclaiming the ones that had already existed.


• Coronation Gospels, St Mattew, 800 CE

800 CE

o Diagonal line
o Foreground, middle ground, background highlighting is rendered, he sits in that space
o Rational sensibility denies Germanic sensibility
• But Germanic style is not going to leave

• Ebba Gospels, St. Matthew, 816 CE

816 CE

o Linear agitation, no justification
o Classicizing form but working in different way
o Charlemagne was German→he could revive Roman forms but remember who he was

• Saint Gall, plan of ideal monastery 819CE, & ideal plan

819 CE

• To be sent to someone who was in process of building a new one
• Building monasteries is a way to establish orthodoxy
• Promoted in specific architectural forms
o Highly organized, very structured
• Hieratically arranged group of buildings
• Stone=roman heritage
• Large enough to serve to monks and cloister, where they will live and spend their time
• Sealed world
o Only one way into the church, have to enter church to get to cloister
• East-west axis, east=altar, west=entrance
• Interface of the world at large
• Church has a pronounced cross shape
o Remember st. peters
• Not intentionally a cross shape, no one warned Charlemagne’s architect
• Saw st. peters, saw the cross shape they assumed it was intentional, bring it back and influence vs standard apse end from the nave
o Raids by the Norsemen
• Constantly attacked monasteries, towers allowed protection for monks, secondary buildings were Germanic wood, would be burned
o Monastic Church
• Monks ordained in the church=they are priest
• highly disciplined, organized plan
• revival of forms

Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne 9thC CE

850 CE

Elevation not artificial, not hieratic
Maintaining control of a horse is casual way
Not since roman period 2C CE
7000 years of no ruler on horseback
Roman Christian empire emperor, perfect prototype (not necessarily known it was Marcus Aurelias)

Saint Gall, LIndau Gospel Book cover, 870 CE

870 CE

Germanic influnce, gemstones,
Framed center image of the cross & figure of jesus
Attempt to render the event
Jesus who died in the event and the angels
Strong interest in linear movement
Responding to the even
Jesus himself is not dead, doesn’t seem concerned, is he even hanging?
=Jesus triumphant, works in Germanic sensibility
we can talk about the concept of crucifixion but it is really a celebration of Jesus
made for elite people, you would never have seen this
This is the jesus who knew he would be resurrected.

• Corvey, Abbey Church, Westwork, 873 CE

873 CE

o Entranceway gets large enormous façade
o Churches in stone=Roman sensibility
• People live in Germanic wood houses
o Three primary doors
• Trinity
o Westwork become standard for churches


• Ireland, Monasterboice, South high cross, 923 CE

923 CE

o Artist translating into stone, some of the same desings in the scriptures
o Narrative scenes from the gospel
o Figure of Christ after the resurrection
o Gentile community of Christian believers
o First phase of northern
• Something new, a different…

• Gernrode, Saint Cyriakus, 961


o Hieratic
• Nave is less important than the apse
o Windows arranged so it is related to arcade as well as the gallery space above the aisles, creates a three-part unit
o Storage space? Music?
• No symbolic-ness
• No iconography
• Visual interest
• Architectural interest?

Cologne, Archbishop Gero’s Cricifix, 970 CE

970 CE

Archbishop decides that he needs a crucifix
Idea of Christ on a cross is rare
Cross as used by early Christians, just the cross, identity of faith, but no image of Christ on the Cross—Christ only appears very rarely.
Idea of worshiping a god who was crucified was hard to sell
Concept of death and resurrection, worked with abstractly, when you start depicting it, problems arise.
Jesus hangs on the cross is not jesus triumphant
Death through suffocation-painful
Head dropped completely
Dead Christ
Zigzag at the knees=death
New image→shifted…what are we stressing? Why?
We are intended to respond to this=public, life-size
What did Jesus know at this moment? Did he know he would be resurrected? This version of Jesus feel the anguish of what it was to be human? Not to lose faith, but to know human distress. This is the jesus who knows what it is to have to live and face death. This becomes the profound image of Jesus. No longer rich imagery, it is humble human materials and forms.

• Otto image the throne 1000 CE

1000 CE

• Purple=like Justinian
• Clergy=just like Justinian
• Against green cloth of honor
o Eye concentrates on him, draws form Justinian
• But Justinian is Roman heritage
• Otto is Germanic heritage
• Ottos crown has much detail,
• Treatment of figures, some attempt to render them as 3-d

• Hildesheim, Saint Michaels, 1001 CE

1001 CE

o West end is different
o Pronounced crossing=transcept, which crosses the nave
• Iconographic meaning
• Crossing determines square space
• Tower tells us where it is
• Exterior marks the interior
• AAaaAAaaAAaaAA
• Square unit is a by
• Eye picks up the rhythm to the point where the crossing occurs
• Intellectual advantage, regular order of interior structure, modular system



• Hildesheim, Bishop Berwards doors, st michaels 1015CE

1015 CE

o Monumental bronze casting
o Sheer volume of casting is so great
o Narratives stories
• Artist=can’t cast a single sheet, but can cast 3-d figures separately
o The doors match
o Series of small panels, minimum of figures
o Economy of information
o Selection of scene not accidental
• Judging of Adam and eve by god
• True justice vs justice w/o meaning
• Doors pay opposite of one another
• First great medieval
• Heritage of byzantine is still here
• Germanic interest of movement of line

• Stave Church door, Urnes, Norway, 1050 CE

1050 CE

o Balance, the eye is more interested in the constant changing figure of the line
o There was a tradition of art (Germanic) which developed on its own

Romanesque Europe

France & Northern Spain
Holy Roman Empire
Normandy & England

Conques, Relingquary of Saint Foy, 10th C. CE

990 CE

Bones perhaps are here
Gold studded with Jewel
Germanic tradition of jewelry
This is where you are headed on your way to Santiago, to venerate (no one thinks the objects are divine) we all know where the saints are, the left and right hand side of gods. They have already testified their faith, you need all the help you can make. Each time you stop at the relics, you ask the saint to intercede with God, to place before him, what you are doing.
Connecting these pilgrimage roads, they connect with a network of monasteries.
If you now have thousands of people making these trips, and they’re all coming to specific churches, which contain the relics of saints, what is needed is containment spaces. Still attached to monasteries but serve the pilgrimage flow.

Toulouse, Saint-Sernin, 1070 CE

1070 CE

Pronounced crossing
Back to the caroloingean
Narthex=now a holding space, as pilgrims come into the space, there needs to be an area to contain them before they enter the church
Pattern of bays
Modulist structure, but double aisles going up
Movement through the church so the nave can function as the Eucharistic feast.
You can walk around the sides
The apse
Radiating chapels attached to the apse
Here for the relics to be placed into
Focus of the pilgrimage
The space that leads you movement through the church=ambulatory
What the eye picks up
Church built in hierarchical way
Pronounced sense of upward movement

These churches become dominant parts of landscape. France, italy, Germany, announce the presence of CHristrianity, of relics, tells you you are looking at the pilgrimage church. We are all part of the same world. Church is ultimately part of the relic it contains.



Cluny, Third Church, 1088 CE

1088 CE

Pilgrimage still with us. Even if tourists participate, still those who do for religious concerns. United Christendom which was the only unifier. People were distinct from each other, Italian, French, and English, individual languages emerging→things pulling Europe apart but the shared faith brings them together. A new force which is at play. Force called Cluny.
A new thing emerges in place of the Abbots. A group under a single Abbot. Cluny, a group of Monasteries. Dates to Charlemagne. Now the largest church built as a Romanesque pilgrimage church. This monasteries sends out daughter monasteries→monks to develop new monasteries, daughters of Cluny, these in turn, send out other chains of monasteries. Controls 300 monasteries. No rival to Cluny. The Pope now Cluny monks. NO longer appointed by the emperor. TO join all of Western Europe together.
Also a generator of artistic ideas. In short order, reflect whatever is posed by Cluny itself. Same order as seen in the ideal plan.


Holy Roman Empire