19th Century

The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact on European Society

Watt's steam engine

1782

It is a rotary engine that could turn a shaft and thus dry machinery. Steam power could now be applied to spinning and weaving cotton, and before long, cotton mills using steam engines were multiplying across Britain. Because steam engines were fired by coal, they did not need to be located need rivers, so entrepreneurs had greater flexibility in their choice of locations.

Cartwright's power loom

1787

It allowed the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of warn. But even then early power looms were inefficient, enabling home-based hand-looms weavers to continue to prosper.

Luddites

1812

The Luddites were skilled craftspeople in the Midlands and Northern England who in 1812 attacked the machines that they believed threatened their livelihoods. These attacks failed to stop the industrial mechanization of Britain and have been viewed as utterly naive.

Stephenson's Rocket

1830

Used on first public railway line that extended 32 miles from Liverpool to Manchester. It went 16 miles per hour.

Polish uprising (RUS)

1830

Factory Act

1833

•Children (ages 14-18) must not work more than 12 hours a day with an hour lunch break.
•Children (ages 9-13) must not work more than 8 hours with an hour lunch break.
•Children (ages 9-13) must have two hours of education per day.
•Outlawed the employment of children under 9 in the textile industry.
•Children under 18 must not work at night.

Poor Law Act

1834

Passed in Great Britain, it established workhouses were jobless poor people where forced to live to end the poverty problem This policy was based on the assumption that the poor were responsible for their poverty.

Formation of Owen's Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

1834

Its primary purpose was to coordinate a general strike for the 8 hour working day, but the lack of real-working class support led to the federation's total collapse.

People's Charter

1838

Drawn up by the London Working Men's Association, the charted demanded universal male suffrage, payment for members of Parliament, the elimination of property qualifications for members of Parliament, and annual sessions of Parliament. It had little success.

Chadwick's report on living conditions

1842

He was advocating a system of modern sanitary reforms consisting of efficient sewers and a supply of piped water.

List's National System of Political Economy

1844

List advocated for a rapid and large-scale program of industrialization as the surest path to develop a nation's strength.

The Great Famine in Ireland

1845 - 1851

The Great Hunger as it was known, the potato crop in Ireland was struck by the blight due to fungus that turned the potatoes black. Moe than a million died of starvation and disease and almost 2 million emigrated to the United States and Britain.

Ten Hours Act

1847

It reduced the work day for children between thirteen and eighteen to ten hours. Women were also included in the ten hour limit.

Great Exhibiton in Britain

1851

The world's first industrial fair, it contained 100,000 exhibitions that showed the wide variety of products create by the industrial revolution. It displayed Britain's wealth to the world and was a symbol of British success.

Reforms and Revolution

Frederick William III of Prussia (GR)

1797 - 1840

During the Napoleonic era, King Fredrick William III, following the advise of his two chief ministers, Baron Heinrich von Stein and Prince Karl von Hardenberg, instituted political and institutional reforms in response to Prussia's defeat at the hands of Napoleon.

Tsar Alexander I (RUS)

1801 - 1825

Louis XVIII (FR)

1814 - 1824

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

Reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance

1815

Union of Netherlands and Belgium

1815

In order to keep Europe in a balance of power, The Congress of Vienna attempted to establish major defensive barriers against possible French expansion. To the north of France, they created a new enlarged kingdom of the Netherlands composed of the former Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) under a new ruler, King William I of the house of Orange.

Germanic Confederation established

1815

The British expected Prussia to be the major bulwark against French expansion in Central Europe, but the Congress of Vienna also created a new league of German states, the Germanic Confederation, to replace the Napoleonic Confederation of the Rhine.

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

1818

Revolution success in Latin America

1819 - 1824

Peterloo Massacre (G.B)

1819

Karlsbad Decrees (GR)

1819

When a deranged student assassinated a reactionary playwright, Metternich had the Diet of the Germanic Confederation draw up the Karlsbad Decrees of 1819. These closed the Burschenschaften, provided for censorship of the press, and placed the universities under close supervision and control.

Revolts in southern Italy and Sardinia crushed

1821

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Decembrist Revolt (RUS)

1825

Tsar Nicholas I (RUS)

1825 - 1855

July Revolution

1830

Louis-Philippe (FR)

1830 - 1848

Polish uprising (RUS)

1830

Belgian independence

1830

In an effort to create a stronger, larger state on France's northern border, the Congress of Vienna had added the area once known as the Austrian Netherlands to the Dutch Republic. The merger of the Catholic Belgium into the Protestant Dutch Republic never sat well with the Belgians, however, and in 1830, they rose up against the Dutch and succeeded in convincing the major European powers to accept their independence.

Suppression of Revolt (RUS)

1831

King Charles Albert of Piedmont

1831 - 1849

Emperor Ferdinand I (AUS)

1835 - 1848

Frederick William IV of Prussia (GR)

1840 - 1861

King Frederick William IV agreed to abolish censorship, establish a new constitution, and work for a united Germany.

Repeal of Corn Laws (GB)

1846

Frankfurt Assembly (GR)

1848 - 1849

An elected all-German parliament whose purpose was to meet in Frankfurt and create a constitution for the new united Germany. It was dominated by middle-class delegates. However, the Frankfurt Assembly soon disbanded in 1849.

Francis Joseph I (AUS)

1848 - 1916

King Ferdinand I's nephew.

Revolutions in Italy

1848

Charles Albert attacks Austrians

1848

Austrian forces crush Czech rebels

1848

Under General Alfred Windischgratz, the Austrian forces crushed the suppressed the Czech revolutionaries in Prague. In October, the death of the minister for war at the hands of the Viennese mob gave Windischgratz the opportunity to defeat all of the radical rebels.

Viennese rebels crushed

1848

In October, the death of the minister for war at the hands of the Viennese mob gave Windischgratz the opportunity to defeat all of the radical Viennese rebels.

Election of Louis Napoleon as French president

1848

In the elections for the presidency held in December 1848, 4 republicans who had been associated with the early months of the Second Republic were resoundingly defeated by Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. Within 4 years, president Napoleon would become Emperor Napoleon.

Resignation of Louis-Philippe

1848

June Days: workers' revolt in Paris

1848

The June Days Uprising was an uprising staged by the workers of France from 23 June to 26 June 1848. It was in response to plans to close the National Workshops, created by the Second Republic in order to provide work and a source of income for the unemployed; however, only low pay, dead-end jobs were provided, which barely provided enough money to survive. The National Guard, led by General Louis Eugène Cavaignac, was called out to quell the protests. Things did not go peacefully and over 10,000 people were either killed or injured, while 4,000 insurgents were deported to Algeria. This marked the end of the hopes of a "Democratic and Social Republic" and the victory of the liberals over the Radical Republicans.

Establishment of Second Republic

1848

The new constitution, ratified on November 4, 1848, established a republic with a one-house legislature of 750 elected by universal male suffrage for 3 years and a president, also elected, for 4 years.

Revolution in Germany

1848

Triggered by the revolutions in Paris, revolutionary cries arose in Germany as well. The cries for change caused many Germany rulers to promise constitutions, a free press, jury trials, and other liberal reforms. In Prussia, King Frederick William IV agreed to abolish censorship, establish a new constitution, and work for a united Germany.

Revolt in Austrian Empire; Metternich dismissed

March 1848

Influenced by the revolution in Paris, revolutionary cries also arose in Austria. The Hungarian liberals under Louis Kossuth agitated for "commonwealth" status; they were willing to keep the Habsburg monarch but wanted their own legislature. Demonstrations in Buda, Prague, and Vienna led to Metternich's dismissal. In Vienna, revolutionary forces rook control of the capital and insisted that a constituent assembly be summoned to draw up a liberal constitution. The Czech's began to demand their own government as well.

Austrian control in Lombardy and Venetia

1849

Defeat of Hungarians with help of Russian troops

1849

Unable to defeat Louis Kossuth's revolutionary forces, Tsar Nicholas I, sent a Russian army to aid the Austrians. The Hungarian Revolution was finally crushed in 1849.

Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

The objective of the Congress of Vienna was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The result was redrawing Europe's political map. The leader of the Congress of Vienna was Prince Klemens von Metternich, who introduced the principle of legitimacy. In order to reestablish the peace throughout Europe, Metternich considered it necessary to restore the “legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions.”

Reaffirmation of the Quadruple Alliance

1815

An alliance between Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria that renewed their commitment against Bonapartist power and agreed to meet periodically.

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

1818

At this conference, the Quadruple alliance agreed to withdraw their army of occupation from France and add France to the Concert of Europe. The Quadruple Alliance became a quintuple alliance.

Revolutions win independence for Latin America

1819 - 1824

They were influenced by the ideas of the enlightenment and the successful revolutions in North America. Simon Bolivar led the revolutions in Northern South America against the Spanish. Jose de San Martin led the revolutions on southern South America.

Congress of Troppau

1820

Called to deal with the revolution in Spain and Italy.

Revolution defeat in southern Italy

1821

Greek revolt against the Ottoman Empire

1821

A revolt by the Greeks against their Ottoman Turkish masters. The principle of intervention was not applied because it was white Christians revolting against the Muslims.

Congress of Laibach

1821

Austria, Prussia, Russia were involved because Britain refused to agree to the principle of intervention.

Congress of Verona

1822

Austria, Russia, and Prussia authorized France to invade Spain to crush the revolt against Ferdinand VII.

Monroe Doctrine

1823

Guaranteed independence of Latin America and warned against any further European intervention in the New World.

Crushing of revolt in Spain

1823

Treaty of Adrianople

1829

It ended the Russian-Turkish war. The Russians received the protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia.

Independence of Greece and Belgium

1830

The three powers declared Greece an independent kingdom, and two years later, a new royal dynasty was established.