The working conditions in the slums, mines, and factories after the Industrial Revolution gave rise to Socialism. It was influenced by Marxist beliefs at first, but became more of a political theory created by academics who wanted to create a society that was more equal. Those who believed in the possibility of a perfectly equal society were called Utopian Socialists. They were against private property and the competitive spirit of industrial capitalism.
Socialists believed they could create a better environment for humanity. There were different proposed models of socialist communities:
-Fourier proposed Phalansteries, small communities where members would live and work together. Job assignments rotated so no body was unhappy or stuck with bad jobs for too long.
-Robert Owen, a British manufacturer, believed that people were there best when living in a cooperative environment. He changed a factory in Scotland into this kind of community. Tried to create a community in Indiana, but it failed due to bickering of members.
-Louis Blanc, French, believed that social problems could be solved by the help of the government. He thought that competition was the main cause of economic problems and wanted to establish workshops that would create goods for the public. Workshops would be financed by the state, but the workers would own and operate them.
Many women were attracted to the idea of socialism because they were given equal opportunities to men and were able to work in politics. In socialist societies, men and women shared the responsibilities of childcare and house cleaning.
-Flora Tristan, a female Utopian Socialist who tried to make a "utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism." She traveled through France preaching her ideas.
Nationalism and Liberalism were more popular than socialism. It remained a fringe movement. Even though Utopian Socialists were criticized for being unrealistic, they laid the groundwork for later attacks on Capitalism.