Chapters 21-25 timeline


Congress of Vienna

September 1814

The Quadruple Alliance (Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) restored the Bourbon monarchy to France and agreed to meet at a congress in Vienna to arrange a final peace settlement

Leader: Metternich

-The congress of Vienna imposed order on Europe based on the principles of monarchial government and a balance of power. Monarchs were restored in France, Spain, and other states recently under Napolean's control, and much territory changed hands, often at the expense of small and weak states

Outcome: It was successful, they almost had a century of peace until World War I

Repression in Central Europe


- liberalism and nationalism were weak as central Europe stayed under control of aristocratic landowning classes and autocratic, centralized monarchies.
-Austria and Prussia formed the Germanic Confederation but did not have much power
-it helped Metternich to contain revolutionary movements within the German states
-During the Napoleonic era King Frederick William III created reforms including: abolition of serfdom, municipal self-government through town councils, more primary and secondary schools, and military conscription (drafting) to form a national army
-In the German States liberal and national movements were limited to students and professors.
-Burschenschaften were created which were student societies dedicated to achieving the goal of a free united Germany
Key Players: Klemens Von Metternich, King Frederick William III
Short-term effect: Frederick William became more reactionary
-Burschenschaften performed multiple activities that alarmed the German governments
-These radical activities led to Metternich and the German rulers keeping the conservative status quo
-the people of the Austrian empire did not like being under German rule so they tried to break the empire apart
Long-term effect: Metternich managed to hold it together
-he did not support liberalism and nationalism because they were a threat to his plans


1815 - 1830

Causes: Enlightenment, American & French Revolutions
-significant in Industrial Revolution
-industrial middle class largely adopted it
Liberal belief: people should be as free from restraint as possible
two types of liberalism: economic & political

Key Players: Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo John Stuart Mill, industrial middle class

Economic Liberalism:
-laissez-faire: the belief that the state should not interrupt natural economic forces- supply and demand
-government should not restrain the economic liberty of the individual and should keep itself to only 3 main functions: defense of the country, police protection of individuals, and the construction and maintenance of public works
-they believed if people were allowed economic liberty, they would benefit society as a whole
Malthus: argued that the population was growing while food production was decreasing and the result will be overpopulation and starvation
-misery and poverty were the inevitable result of the law of nature
-no government or person should interfere with nature

Malthus' ideas were more developed by David Ricardo
Ricardo: argued that an increase in population= no workers
-result is misery and starvation

Political Liberalism:
-protection of civil liberties or basic rights of all people
-equality before the law
-freedom of assembly, speech, and freedom from arbitrary rest
-believed all of these freedoms should be noted by a written document
-religious toleration
-separation for church and state
believed in a constitutional state with limits on the power of government and written constitutions
-ministerial responsibility (king's ministers were responsible to the legislature rather than to the king)
first half of 19th century believed in limited suffrage
-people should not have equal political rights
-right to vote and hold office open to men who met certain qualifications
-tied to middle-class men, industrial middle-class men
-liberals were not democrats
John Stuart Mill- English philosopher
-argued "absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all objects"
-supporter of women's rights


1815 - 1830

The working conditions in the slums, mines, and factories after the Industrial Revolution gave rise to Socialism. It was influenced by Marxist beliefs at first, but became more of a political theory created by academics who wanted to create a society that was more equal. Those who believed in the possibility of a perfectly equal society were called Utopian Socialists. They were against private property and the competitive spirit of industrial capitalism.

Socialists believed they could create a better environment for humanity. There were different proposed models of socialist communities:

-Fourier proposed Phalansteries, small communities where members would live and work together. Job assignments rotated so no body was unhappy or stuck with bad jobs for too long.
-Robert Owen, a British manufacturer, believed that people were there best when living in a cooperative environment. He changed a factory in Scotland into this kind of community. Tried to create a community in Indiana, but it failed due to bickering of members.
-Louis Blanc, French, believed that social problems could be solved by the help of the government. He thought that competition was the main cause of economic problems and wanted to establish workshops that would create goods for the public. Workshops would be financed by the state, but the workers would own and operate them.

Many women were attracted to the idea of socialism because they were given equal opportunities to men and were able to work in politics. In socialist societies, men and women shared the responsibilities of childcare and house cleaning.
-Flora Tristan, a female Utopian Socialist who tried to make a "utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism." She traveled through France preaching her ideas.

Nationalism and Liberalism were more popular than socialism. It remained a fringe movement. Even though Utopian Socialists were criticized for being unrealistic, they laid the groundwork for later attacks on Capitalism.


1815 - 1830

Nationalism was an even more powerful force than liberalism. It is a pride in one's own community that shares the same language, traditions, institutions, and customs. Nationalism rose in popularity due to the French Revolution. From then on, Nationalists believed that each nationality should have its own government. It sparked desire for national unity in Germany, and for the Hungarians who wanted to rule themselves instead of being a minority under German control.

Nationalism threatened the balance of power in Europe because it meant that multi-national states would be broken up into smaller governments. Conservatives all over Europe tried hard to repress the radical threat of Nationalism.

Both Nationalists and Liberals believed that the boundaries of governments should follow the boundaries of nationalities.

The Conservative Order

1815 - 1830

The immediate response to the defeat of Napolean was the desire to contain revolution and the revolutionary forces by restoring much of the old order

The Principle of Legitimacy-
Metternich claims he was guided by the Principle of Legitimacy at the Congress of Vienna
-to reestablish peace and stability in Europe, he considered it necessary to restore the legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions

Ideology of Conservatism-
Metternich and his kind were representatives of the ideology known as conservatism
-got his ideas from Burke who wrote
-most conservatives held to a general body of beliefs
-they favored obedience to political authority, believed that organized religion was important for social order, were against radical protesting, thought the well-being of the state was more important than civil liberties, believed the society should organized and ordered, and believed in old traditions.

The Movement for Women's Rights


Cause: a number of women in the US and Europe became frustrated by the prejudices against females
-family and marriage laws were singled out because it was difficult for women to get divorces and property laws gave husbands pretty much complete control over the property of their wives
-women did not gain the right to to their property until 1870 in Britain, 1900 in Germany, and 1907 in France
-in Spain and Italy they were not able to achieve the right to divorce their husbands at all
-some middle and upper-middle-class women gained the right to higher education
-others wanted entry into occupations that were usually male jobs
-women also wanted equal political rights
Suffragists had one goal: the right of women to full citizenship in the nation-state

Key Players: Amalie Sieveking, Florence Nightingale, Clara Barton, Millicent Fawcett, Emmeline Pankhurst, suffragists, Bertha von Suttner, Maria Montessori
Short-term effect:
Amalie Sieveking: founded the Female Association for the Care of the Poor and Sick in Hamburg, Germany
Florence Nightingale: famous British nurse, transformed nursing into a profession of trained, middle-class women
Clara Barton: famous nurse in the American Civil War
Millicent Fawcett: organized a moderate group who believed that women must demonstrate that they would use political power responsibly if they wanted Parliament to give them the right to vote
Emmeline Pankhurst: very radical, founded the Women's Social and Political Union in 1903 with her two daughters, threw eggs at the government, she threw herself in front of a horse
Bertha von Suttner: became the head of the head of the Austrian Peace Society
Maria Montessori: attended medical school at the University of Rome, became the first Italian woman to receive a medical degree
-by the 1930's hundreds of Montessori schools had been established in Europe and the US

-women received the right to vote before 1914 in only Finland, Norway, and some American states
Long-term effect: women were eventually given the right to vote and had many more opportunities

The Revolutions of 1848


Causes: revolution in France sparked other countries to revolt

conservative order remained in control of most of Europe
-liberalism and nationalism continued to grow = revolution


1848 - 1889

Karl Marx’s beliefs:
-everything evolves, and all change in history is the result of conflicts between antagonistic elements
-the course of history is determined by material forces
-the government of the state reflected and defended the interests of the industrial middle class and its allies
-believed communists were: “the most advanced and resolute section of the working-class parties of every country”

Books: The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital

What Karl Marx believed the future had in store: -the workers would eventually overthrow their bourgeois masters
-the proletariat would form a dictatorship to reorganize the means of production
-a classless society would then emerge and the state would wither away since it no longer represented the interests of a particular class
-believed the emergence of a classless society would lead to progress in science, technology, and industry and to greater wealth for all

Other Key Players in Marxism: Friedrich Engels

Short-term effects: “First International” was created in British and French trade unionists (Marx was the General Council)

Long-term effects: the fate of socialism was in the hands of national socialist parties

Authoritarian governments regain control


Revolutions of 1848 defeated

Crimean War

1854 - 1856

Causes: motivated by desire to free France from the restrictions made by the Congress of Vienna
GOAL: make France the head country
-Ottoman Empire losing countries to Austrian Empire
-Ottoman Empire entered a period of decline
Decline in ottoman empire: leads to everyone fighting for land
-European powers feared Russian ambitions
-Austria craved more land in Balkans
-France and Great Britain were looking for naval bases
Effect: war erupted between Ottoman Empire and Russia
-lead up to Crimean War
-GB and France declared war on Russia (crimean war)
-concerned about upsetting Balance of Power
-scared that Russia would try and grab even more land from Ottoman Empire (especially land around Black Sea because they could threaten Britain)
-Napolean III thought the Russians insulted France
-Austria did not want to intervene

Short-term effect: Treaty of Paris- Russia was forced to accept the neutrality of Black Sea
-more than 250,000 soldiers died
Florence Nightingale- nursing helped
Long-term effect: Russia was weakened
-withdrew from European affairs
-GB also drew back
-Austria did not have any more friends along the Great Powers
-Concert of Europe had broken
-lead to the possibility of the unification of Italy and Germany

Social Darwinism


-Charles Darwin believed that animals evolved over time and in response to their environment
-principle of natural selection
-books: On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, The Descent of Man
BASIC IDEA: plants and animals evolved over a long period of time from earlier and simpler forms of life (organic evolution)
-Those who had succeeded the struggle for existence had been adapted better to their environment
-Chance variations that occurred in the process of inheritance allowed some organisms to be more adaptable to the environment than others
-Those that were naturally selected for survival, survived.
-the unfit did not, and became extinct
-Darwin’s theories were accepted by scientists and other intellectuals
-some people even tried to apply these principles to society



Key Players: Claude Monet, Pierre- Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, Mary Cassatt
-a self-named movement, Impressionism was attempted to capture how "the eye really sees"

Paris Commune

March 1871

Three Emperors' League formed


Austria-Hungary wanted to expand empire and control the Slavs
Russia-support slavs (trade)
-Bismarck feared French
-desire to regain AL (lost in Franco-Prussian War)
Key Players: *Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia
Short-term effect: It failed
Long-term effect: Russia and Austria-Hungary hate each other

Republican Constitution (Third Republic)


Serbia and Montenegro attack the Ottoman Empire


Congress of Berlin created


Cause: the Treaty of San Stefano
Short-term Effect: The Congress of Berlin
-met in the summer of 1878
-dominated by Bismarck
-demolished the Treaty of San Stefano
-humiliated Russia
Long-term effect: the new Bulgarian state was reduced and the rest was returned to the Ottoman control
-said that Austria could only occupy but not annex Bosnia and Herzegovina

Treaty of San Stefano


-1876 the Balkan states of Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Ottoman Empire
-both were defeated but Russia attacked and defeated the Ottomans
-The Treaty of San Stefano in 1878- a large Bulgarian state, extending from the Danube in the north to the Aegan Sea in the south was created
Effect: this Russian success caused other great power to call for a congress of European powers to discuss a revision of the treaty

Defensive alliance: Germany and Austria




-postimpressionists moved away from the Impressionist fascination with light and shadow
-more interested in form and structure
Key Players: Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Cezanne, Paul Gaugin, George Seurat

Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria, and Italy


Cause: after the Congress of Berlin, the European powers looked for new alliances to safeguard their security
-the Russian's terminated the Three Emperor's League

Key Players: Austria, Germany, and Italy
Short-term effect:
-Bismarck made an Alliance with Austria in 1879 and was joined by Italy in 1882
-The Triple Alliance of 1882 committed Italy, Germany, and Austria to support the existing social order while providing a defensive alliance against France
-Germany and Russia signed the Reinsurance Treaty with in 1887 hoping to prevent a French-Russian alliance that would threaten Germany
Long-term effect: Emperor William II dismissed Bismarck and began to chart a new direction for Germany's foreign policy

Social welfare legislation in Germany


Military alliance: Russia and France


The Zionist Movement and Theodore Herzl


-Palestine was the land of Jews' dreams
-the idea of national independence in Palestine spread
-a key figure in the growth of political Zionism was Herzl
-in 1896, Herzl published a booked called The Jewish State in which he said that "the Jews who wish it will have their state"
-financial support for the development of settlements in Palestine came from wealthy Jewish banking families
-settlements were difficult because Palestine was part of the Ottoman Empire
-they were opposed to jewish immigration
Key Figures: Theodor Herzl
Short-term effect: the first Zionist Congress (met in Switzerland) proclaimed as its aim the creation of a "home in Palestine secured by public law" for the Jews
Long-term effect: One thousand Jews migrated to Palestine in 1901 and the number rose to three thousand between 1904 and 1914



Key Player: Sigmund Freud
book: The Interpretation of Dreams
Believed: human behavior was strongly determined by the unconscious, by earlier experiences and inner forces of which people were largely oblivious

Russo-Japanese War


-grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
-The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden; and the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.

Triple Entente: France, Britain, and Russia


-alliance between France, Britain, and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on August 31, 1907.
-The alliance of the three powers, supplemented by agreements with Portugal and Japan, constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.

Social Democratic Party becomes largest party in Germany


First Balkan War


Cause: the Bosnian crisis of 1908-1909 created a chain of events that went out of control
-Bosnia and Herzegovina had been under the protection of Austria since 1878
-in 1908 Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
-Russia supported the serbs and opposed Austria
-serbs prepared for war against Austria with Russia
-William II demanded the Russians accept Austria's annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina or they would have to face war with Germany
-the Russians backed down because they were weak

Key Players: William II, military

Short-term effect: Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Greece organized the Balkan League and defeated the Ottomans in the First Balkan War
Long-term effect: Second Balkan War

Second Balkan War


-The victorious allies of the First Balkan War were unable to agree on how to divide the conquered Ottoman Empire provinces
-the Second Balkan war began
-Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the Ottoman Empire attacked and defeated Bulgaria
Key Players:
Short-term effect: Bulgaria obtained only a small part of Macedonia and the rest was divided between Serbia and Greece
-the two Balkan Wars created more tensions among the great powers
-Austria blocked Serbia's wished by creating an independent Albania
Long-term effect: The European "age of progress" was about to come to an inglorious and bloody end

Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

Cause: a Bosnian activist who worked for the Black Hand, a serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom
-Austria uses this as a way to declare war on Serbia
-Austrian leaders looked for help from their German allies
-Germany gave a blank check to Austria-Hungary which meant they gave full support to Austria-Hungary
Key Players: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Serbia, Emperor William II
Short-term effect: Austrian leaders issued an ultimatum to Serbia
Long-term effect: World War I

Germany declares war on France

August 3, 1914

Cause: Under the Schlieffen Plan, Germany could not mobilize its troops solely against Russia and therefore declared war on France
-after issuing an ultimatum to Belgium demanding the right of German troops to pass through Belgian territory

GB declares war on Germany

August 4, 1914

-officially declares war because of this violation of Belgian neutrality
-also because GB wanted to maintain world power

German troops invade Belgium

August 4, 1914

issuing an ultimatum to Belgium demanding the right of German troops to pass through Belgian territory

Battle of Tannenberg

August 30, 1914

Germany was defeated

First Battle of the Marne

September 6, 1914 - September 10, 1914

- failure of the Schlieffen Plan due to the fact that it called for a strong right flank for the encircling Paris but German military leaders, concerned by a Russian invasion in the east, had moved forces from the right flank to strengthen the Germany army in the east
-German troops crossed into Belgium and had reached the Marne River
-an unexpected counterattack by British and French forces stopped the Germans
Effect: The German troops fell back but the exhausted French army was unable to pursue its advantage
the battle was a stalemate

Battle of Masurian Lakes

September 15, 1914

Germany was defeated
Effect: Russians were no longer a threat to German territory

Russia, Great Britain, and France declare war on Ottoman Empire

November 1914

Cause: Russia, Great Britain, and France declare war on Ottoman Empire
Effect: although the forces of the British Empire attempted to open a Balkan front by landing forces at Gallipoli in April, the entry of Bulgaria into the war caused them to withdraw

Entry of Bulgaria into the War

September 1915

The Germans and Austrians were joined by Bulgaria and attacked and eliminated Serbia from the war

Battle of Verdun

February 21 1916 - December 18, 1916

700,000 men lost their live over a few square miles of land

Battle of Jutland

May 31, 1916

-German and British naval forces engaged in direct conflict
Outcome: Germans won

United States enters the war

April 6, 1917

Failed attempt to overthrow provisional government

July, 1917

Bolsheviks gain majority in Petrograd soviet

October 1917

Last German offensive

March 21, 1918

Allied Counteroffensive

July 18 1918

Second Battle of the Marne

July 18, 1918

the Second Battle of the Marne developed into a significant Allied victory. After it became clear that the Germans had not only failed in their aim to win the war in this offensive, but had in fact lost ground, a number of German commanders, including Crown Prince Wilhelm, believed the war was lost.
-The battle took place over the course of 15 July-5 August 1918, in the final year of the war. Erich Ludendorff, effectively the German Chief-of-Staff (although Paul von Hindenburg was the ostensible commander), was convinced that the war could best be won by an attack in Flanders. To that end he determined to lure Allied forces from Belgium to the Marne in a huge diversionary attack, preparatory to a renewed offensive further north

Armistice between Allies and Germany

November 11, 1918

Paris Peace Conference begins

January 18, 1919

-the Allied nations gathered in paris to conclude a final settlement of the Great War
-Treaty of Versailles

Britain and France declare war on Germany

September 3, 1939

this was in response to the defeat of Poland
"phony war"

Hitler and Stalin divided Poland between them

September 28, 1939

Hitler had overtaken Poland in 4 weeks
-significant because Hitler and Stalin were enemies but they came to an agreement to divide Poland

attack on Netherlands, Belgium, and France

May 10, 1940

-unexpected attack through Luxembourg and Ardennes forest allowed flanking of Marginot Line
-split allied forces and trapped British and French troops at Dunkirk

Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

-caused the United States to join the war
-three days later Hitler declared war on the United States

Teheran Conference


the allies agreed to fight until the Axis powers surrendered unconditionally
-although this said there was no option to defeat Germany for the allies, it meant that Hitler could not divide his foes

Battle of Stalingrad

February 2, 1943

-German troops were forced to surrender
-the entire German Sixth Army of 30,000 men was lost
-German forces in the SU were back to their position of June 1942
-even Hitler knew the Germans would not defeat the Soviet Union

Axis Powers Surrender

May 13, 1943

-the Axis forces surrendered in Tunisia on May 13, 1943
-the Allies crossed the Mediterranean and carried the war to Italy
-this caused Rome to fall to the Allies on June 4, 1944

Yalta Conference


Key Players: GB, US, SU
-decided that Poland would have a provisional government
-decided what they would do with Germany
-created UN
-SU: communistic, security concerns, very suspicious of US
1) spheres of influence 2) buffer to protect 3)obtain important resources
-US: capitalistic/democratic, economic concerns (containment), self determination
-Romania turned into a Stalinist Puppet State
-coup d'etat

US first used atomic bomb


End of WWII


-Germany split into 4 zones
-US economy is stable
-SU gained power

Japanese surrender and end of World War II

August 14, 1945

The Japanese surrendered due to the atomic bomb
-the war was finally over

Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech


-From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an "Iron Curtain" has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.
Much of the Western public still regarded the Soviet Union as a close ally in the context of the recent defeat of Nazi Germany and of Japan. Although not well received at the time, the phrase iron curtain gained popularity as a shorthand reference to the division of Europe as the Cold War strengthened.

Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan


-in light of the communist rebellions in Greece and Turkey President Harry Truman announced the Truman Doctrine which stated that America promised to "support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures"
-3 months after the Marshall Plan was introduced to serve as an economic and financial extension of the Doctrine
-gave loans
-Western Nations received Marshall Plan money
-US commits troops to any country threatened by communism

Czech falls to communism


-Czech did not want to be communist but Stalin forced them
-Communists carried out a coup in Prague

Unification of W. Germany


The western German side becomes unified. This was a result of the increase in tension and creation of the blockade. It officially split Germany and created a border for the communist/capitalism expansion

Berlin Blockade


-The SU instituted a blockade of Berlin to protest Western efforts to integrate their zones of occupation in Western Germany

Formation of NATO


a formal alliance between the territories of North America and Europe
-defend each other from the possibility of SU taking control of their nation
-alliance that brings them together

China falls to communism


-china fell to communism
-led the US to suspend diplomatic ties with the PRC for decades
-Mao Zedong (communist) vs. Chiang Kai Sheck (nationalist)

Soviets test atomic bomb


-The soviet union exploded its first atomic bomb
-it came as a shock to the US because they were not expecting the SU to possess the knowledge for nuclear weapons so soon
-the impact that the possession of the nuclear weapons by the SU had on the US was that it caused Americans to question their own safety
-President Truman responded by reevaluating the US position in the world and called for the US to build up its conventional and nuclear weapons to halt the spread of soviet influence around the globe

Rise of Mccarthyism in America


-accusing people of being communist in America
-Communist witch hunt

Korean War

1950 - 1953

-a split occurred in Korea where the North supported communism and the south supported the USA
-with Stalin's help North Korea invaded South Korea causing the US to send troops
-this was the first real war that arose from the SU and USA
-differences, North Korea would never have attacked without US
-in a sense the war was just a war between SU and USA
-decolonized nation after World War II

Truman's presidency ends


Eisenhower becomes President

January 20, 1953

West Germany added to NATO


CIA overthrows regimes in Guatemala and Iran


The CIA supported the overthrow of the democratically elected government of Guatemala led by Jacob Arenz
-the CIA claimed it intervened because it feared that a communist government would become a "soviet beachhead" in the Western Hemisphere
1960-overthrows Iran

Vietnam War Starts


Warsaw Pact


a gathering in Warsaw of many communist countries where they established a military alliance
-this put east alliances under political and military control of the SU
-it allowed them to gain support against all the Western powers

Hungarian Revolt


Suez Crisis


Israeli armed forces pushed into Egypt toward the Suez Canal after Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the canal in July of the same year, initiating the Suez Crisis
-The Israelis soon were joined by French and British forces which nearly brought the SU into the conflict and damaged their relationships with the US
-in the end, the British, French, and Israeli governments withdrew their troops in late 1956 and early 1957

Sputnik Launch


the SU successfully launched Sputnik I, the world's first artificial satellite
-the launch sparked new political, military, technological, and scientific developments
-it marked the start of the US-USSR space race

Castro Rises In Cuba


a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician, Fidel Castro, became prime minister of Cuba in 1959

Spy Plane Incident


Bay of Pigs Invasion


US decides to train Cubans to overthrow their own government
-embarrassment to US

Berlin Wall Building Begins


wall built around West Berlin
-keeps people out of West Berlin
-western side has graffiti

John F. Kennedy becomes President

January 20, 1961

Cuban Missile Crisis


Khrushev Vs. JFK
Cuba=90 miles from Florida
Turkey=borders SU
-blockade to prevent nuclear materials= SU and US

Treaty(SU & US)
public- SU removes missiles from Cuba
-US promises to NEVER invade Cuba
private-US takes to missiles out of Turkey

Kennedy Killed


Nuclear Test Ban


-representatives of the US, SU, and GB signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater, or in the atmosphere
-in 1960, the three sides seemed close to an agreement but the downing of an American spy plane over the Soviet Union in May brought negotiations to an end

Lyndon B. Johnson becomes president

November 22, 1963

Gulf of Tonkin


starts Vietnam War
-the American commitment to participating in the Vietnam War
-it is claimed that Vietnam torpedoed ships attached to US ships but this was claimed by some as fake
-many say it was just an excuse for USA to go to war

Vietnam War

1964 - 1973

was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955[A 1] to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by the People's Republic of China and other anti-capitalist, communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other capitalist, anti-communist countries.[29] The Viet Cong (also known as the National Liberation Front, or NLF), a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist common front directed by the North, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The Vietnam People's Army (North Vietnamese Army) engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units into battle. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes.

Apollo II


Nixon Takes Office


Iranian Hostage Crisis

November 4, 1979 - January 20, 1981

was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two Americans were held hostage for 444 days (November 4, 1979 to January 20, 1981), after a group of Islamist students and militants supporting the Iranian Revolution took over the American Embassy in Tehran. President Carter called the hostages "victims of terrorism and anarchy," adding that "the United States will not yield to blackmail.

Clinton becomes President

January 20, 1993


Emperor Ferdinand I comes to power


Francis Joseph I comes to power


Ferdinand I agreed to resign the thrown in favor of his nephew- Francis Joseph I
-he worked hard to restore the imperial government in hungary

Revolt in Austrian Empire; Metternich dismissed

March 1848

Cause: Revolts in Buda, Prague, and Vienna
Effect: Metternich was dismissed
-revolutionary forces took control of the capital and made the constituent assembly created a liberal constitution
-Hungary was now its own legislature, had a separate national army, and control over foreign policy

Austrian forces under General Windischgratz crush Czech rebels

June 1848

Causes: Czechs began to demand their own government
-The first success of the conservatives
-June 1848 military force under General Alfred Windischgratz crushed the Czech rebels in Prague

Viennese rebels crushed

October 1848

Austrian defeat of Hungarians with help of Russian troops


Austrian War


Key Players:
Short-term effect:
Long-term effect:

Austria's ultimatum to Serbia

July 23, 1914

-Austrian leaders mad their demands in the ultimatum so extreme that Serbia had little choice but to reject some of them

Austria declares war on Serbia

July 28, 1914

Cause: Austria's ultimatum to Serbia
Effect: -Germany and Austria had hoped to keep the war limited to Serbia and Austria to ensure Austria's success in the Balkans but their hopes soon disappeared


Peterloo Massacre


Corn Law 1815 caused protests in Manchester

Key Players: the army, the Tories, parliament, middle-class urban workers

The army kills 11 people
-Parliament restricted the people even more now
-no longer allowed to have meetings and "the poor" were no longer allowed to assemble, not allowed to give out newspapers or pamphlets

Reform Act


Causes: changes due to Industrial Revolution
-56 boroughs and 42 new towns
-new industrial urban communities were given some voice in government
-the number of voters increased from 478,000 to only 814,000- one in every thirty people was represented in parliament
Key Players: Parliament, upper middle class
Short-term effect: Reform Act of 1832 benefited the upper middle class
-the lower class, artisans, and industrial workers still had no vote
Long-term effect:
-didn't change the House of Commons
-The industrial middle class had been joined to the landed interests in Britain

Poor Law


based on the theory that giving aid to the poor and unemployed encouraged laziness
Short-term effect:
tried to fix this by making paupers be treated so horribly that they would choose to work
-if you were unable to support yourself then you would work crowded together in workhouses where living and working conditions were intentionally miserable so people would want to find profitable employment

MAIN GOAL: cause people to want to work because they thought poor people were just poor because they were lazy

Repeal of Corn Laws


Cause: Richard Cobden and John Bright formed the Anti-Corn Law League in 1838 to help workers by lowering bread prices.

Key Players: Richard Cobden and John Bright

Short-term effect: abolishing the Corn Laws would aid the industrial middle class (favored principles of free trade)

Long- term effect: Robert Peel (leader of the Tories) persuaded people to support free trade principles and get ride of the Corn Laws

Second ministry of William Gladstone (GB)


Reform Act in GB


Formation of Labour Party in Britain


Churchill replaces Chamberlain in GB as Prime Minister

May 10, 1940

Churchill was way different from Chamberlain and was able to stand strong against Germany
-this definitely affected the outcome of World War II


Revolts in southern Italy and Sardinia crushed


Cause: congress of Vienna established 9 states in Italy
-some people were unhappy with the Austrian control of Italy and wanted to control their own states

Key Players: Congress of Vienna, reactionary governments, revolters

Revolters are crushed by reactionary Austrian governments in Italian states

King Charles Albert of PIedmont comes to power in Italian States


Charles Albert became the leader for a war of liberation from Austrian domination in Italy.
-his invasion of Lombardy proved him to be unsuccessful
-the Austrians had full control over Lombardy and Venetia
-Counterrevolutionary forces showed up throughout Italy
-only Piedmont was able to keep its liberal constitution

Revolutions in Italy


Causes: failure of revolutionary uprisings in Italy in 1830-1831 lead to the Italian movement for unification to take a new direction
Giuseppe Mazzini was the leader of Italy's risorgimento ("resurgence")
-he was a nationalist who was the founder of an organization called Young Italy in 1831
-Goal: unite Italy
Critina Belgioioso worked to unify Italy
Key Players: Giuseppe Mazzini, Cristina Belgioioso, Charles Albert
Short-term effect: due to Mazzini and Belgioioso Italian states began to rise in revolt in 1848
-citizens in Venetia also rebelled against their Austrian rulers
-Venetians declared a republic in Venice
-Charles Albert became the king of Piedmont
Long-term effect: Austrians had complete control over Lombardy and Venetia

Italy's annexation of Rome


Unification of Italy


Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary

May 23, 1915

-Italians broke their alliance with Germany and Austria and entered the war on the Allied side by attacking Austria
-Germany came to the aid of Austria

Musollini wants in on the action and invades Southern France

June 10, 1940

France surrenders

June 22, 1940

Germany attacked France and Germany and Vichy France (authoritarian regime lead by world war I french war hero) occupied France
-outcome of Germany attacking france: French government-in-exile took up residence in Britain
Effect: Germany now controlled western and Central Europe


Germanic Confederation established


-new league of German States created by the Congress of Vienna
-replaced Napoleonic Confederation at the Rhine

Frederick William IV of Prussia comes to power


Frederick William IV comes to power in Germany and agrees to abolish censorship, establish a new constitution, and work for a united Germany
Effect: lead to the Frankfurt Assembly

Revolution in Germany


Causes: hearing about the revolution in Paris in 1848 lead to upheavals in central Europe as well
-people began to revolt
Key Players: King Frederick William IV
Short-term effects: German rulers promised constitutions, an free press, jury trials, and other liberal reforms
-concessions were also made to appease revolutionaries
-King Frederick William IV abolished censorship, established a new constitution, and worked towards a united Germany
Long-term effects: Frankfurt Assembly
-attempts to create a German state failed

Frankfurt Assembly


Causes: King Frederick William IV's agreement to work for a united Germany
Key Players: well-educated, articulate, middle-class people such as lawyers, professors, and bureaucrats
Short-term effect: through out all the German states elections by universal male suffrage created a all-German parliament to meet in Frankfurt (the seat of the German Confederation)
-PURPOSE: to fulfill a liberal and nationalist dream- to unite Germany
Long-term effect: the Frankfurt Assembly was disbanded
-attempt of the German liberals at Frankfurt to create a German state had failed

Unification of Germany


King William I of Prussia comes to power in Germany


Bismarck becomes minster-president of Prussia


Danish War


Outcome: -Germany defeated the Danish and received Schleswig and Holstein
-Austria and Prussia divided the two duchies
-The joint administration of the two duchies offered plenty of opportunities to create tension between Prussia and Austria and provide a reason for war

Austro-Prussian War


Outcome: -Austria lost no territory except Venetia to Italy
-Austria was now excluded from German affairs
-German states north of the Main River were organized into the North German Confederation, which was controlled by Prussia
-Southern German States were still independent
-Prussian parliament passed a bill of indemnity
-new constitution for the North German Confederation
-army and foreign policy remained in the hands of the king and his chancellor
-Parliament: Bundesrat (federal council) and Reichstag (elected by universal male suffrage)

Franco- Prussian War


-The Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
Outcome: -Prussia now dominated all of northern Germany
-Austria had been excluded from any significant role in German affairs
-Prussia beat France
-France had to pay and indemnity of 5 billion francs
- France had to give up the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine
-Southern German states agreed to enter the North German Confederation
-William I was proclaimed emperor of the Second German Empire

German Empire is proclaimed


Bismarck as chancellor in Germany


Surrender of French provisional government to Germany

January 28 1871

Reinsurance Treaty: Germany and Russia


-Germany and Russia signed the Reinsurance Treaty hoping to prevent a French-Russian alliance that would threaten Germany

Reign of Emperor William II

1888 - 1918

-new imperial Germany continued as an "authoritarian, conservative, military-beureacurcatic power state"
-he was unstable and aggressive
-he told his soldiers of a Berlin regiment that they must be prepared to shoot their fathers and mothers if he ordered them to do so
Effect: formed government policy
Germany had become the strongest military and industrial power on the continent by 1914

Schleiffen Plan


Cause: German war plans determined whether France would become involved in the war
-the Schlieffen Plan called for a minimal troop deployment against Russia while most of the German would make a rapid invasion of western France by way of neutral Belgium
-After the planned quick defeat of the French, the German army expected to redeploy to the east against Russia
-Germany could not mobilize its troops solely against Russia
Key Players: Germany, General Alfred von Schlieffen
Effect: Declared War on France

German ultimatum to Russia

July 31, 1914

Cause: Russian Mobilization
Effect: Germany responded to Russian Mobilization with its own ultimatum that the Russians must stop their mobilization within 12 hours

Germany declares war on Russia

August 1, 1914

Cause: The Russians ignored Germany's ultimatum
Effect: Germany declared war on Russia
-German war plans determined whether France would become involved in the war
-leads to Schleiffen Plan

Germany returns to unrestricted submarine warfare

January 1917

Germans attacked South France

June 5, 1940

-Hitler thought he would be able to take over France quickly
-Mussolini believed the war was over and he wanted to join so he declared war on France
Effect: French surrender

Luftwaffe attack on GB

August 1940

the Luftwaffe (the German air force) launched a major offensive against British air and naval bases, harbors, communication centers, and war industries
-radar system gave GB early notice of attacks

Germany invaded the Soviet Union

June 22, 1941

largest land battle in history
captured 2 million soviet soldiers quickly
Battle of Leningrad- German forces came to a halt due to a bad winter and soviet resistance
Effect: made it inevitable for Hitler to lose because this was the first time his army had been stopped due to the US joining the war

Crossing of the Rhine River

March 1945

-Allied armies crossed the Rhine River and advanced further into Germany
-At the end of April, allied forces in northern Germany moved toward the Elbe River, where they finally linked up with the Soviets

Hitler committed suicide

May 7, 1945

Hitler committed suicide and two days after Mossolini was shot by partisan Italian forces

German commanders surrendered

May 7, 1945

the war in Europe was now over

Hitler moved into bunker

June 1945

-Adolf Hitler moved into a bunker 55 feet under Berlin to direct the final stages of the war
-Hitler continued to arrange his armies as if it still mattered


Louis XVIII comes to power


-comes to power in France
-the Bourbon monarchy was restored to France under him
which led to the agreement to meet at a congress in Vienna to arrange peace settlement

July Revolution


Cause: 1830- conservatism in Europe begins to crack
new elections Charles X produced another victory for French Liberals

Key Players: Charles X, Louis-Phillipe, provisional government made up of moderate property liberals

Liberals were gaining power
lead to : Charles established the July Ordinances
-imposed censorship of the press
-dissolved congress
-reduced the number of people who could vote

Short-term effect: revolt called the July Revolution
-Louis-Phillipe was convinced to become king
-formed a provisional government
-Charles X fled to Britain

Louis-Philippe comes to power in France


Causes: political support for Louis Philippe's rule came from the upper middle class
- called to the bourgeois monarch
- dressed like a member of the middle class in business suits and hats
Key Players: Louis Philippe (1830-1848), middle class
Short-term effects: Constitutional changes that were in favor of the interests of the upper bourgeoise were put forth
-voting qualifications were lowered meaning only wealthy people could vote

June Days: workers' revolt in Paris


Cause: an uprising staged by the workers of France from 23 June to 26 June 1848.
-It was in response to plans to close the National Workshops, created by the Second Republic in order to provide work and a source of income for the unemployed however, only low pay,
-dead-end jobs were provided, which barely provided enough money to survive.
-The National Guard, led by General Louis Eugène Cavaignac, was called out to end the protests.
Effect: Things did not go peacefully and over 10,000 people were either killed or injured, while 4,000 insurgents were deported to Algeria.

Establishment of Second Republic


The new constitution in France which was ratified on November 4, 1848 established a republic (which was the Second Republic) with a one-house legislature of 750 elected people by universal male suffrage for 3 years and president who is elected by universal male suffrage for 4 years.

Abdication of Louis-Philippe; formation of provisional government


Causes: Louis-Philippe's government refused to make changes which lead to oppositions growing
-Radical republicans and socialists along with Adolphe Theirs used the political banquet to call for reforms
Key Players: upper middle class, radical republicans, socialists, Adolphe Theirs
Short-term effect: Lead to multiple political banquets
-Louis-Phillipe proposed a new reform but he was unable to form another ministry and abdicated on February 24th and fled to Britain
Long-term effect: A provisional government was established by a group of moderate and radical republicans
-The provisional government ordered the representatives to come up with a new constitution

Election of Louis Napoleon as French president


Causes: The new constitution in France which was ratified on November 4, 1848 established a republic (which was the Second Republic) with a one-house legislature of 750 elected people by universal male suffrage for 3 years and president who is elected by universal male suffrage for 4 years.
In the election which was in December of 1848 Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte beat four republicans.
-he was the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
Key Players: Louis Napoleon
Effect: Within four years, President Napoleon would become Emperor Napoleon

Louis Napolean comes to power


-president of National Assembly
-National Assembly rejected his plea for re-election
-He wanted them to make a new constitution but they wouldn't
-Louis Napolean formed troops
-National Assembly changed the constitution and elected him President for 10 years
-won support of the people of France
-he restored the right to vote to all men

Key Players: Louis Napolean, National Assembly,
Short-term effects: people agreed to restore the empire of France
Long-term effects: The 2nd Empire began

2nd Napoleonic Empire under Napoleon III

1852 - 1871

-fake constitutional monarchy
-first 5 years were successful
-Economic policies
-believed in using resources to stimulate National Economy
-French railways
-industrial expansion
-provided hospitals and medicine for workers
-better housing for working class
-reconstruction of Paris

1860's: Regime becomes more liberal
-response to opposition of these new policies
-granted the right to strike
-Liberalization policies goal: strengthen government

Key Players: Napolean III, government

Long-term effects: lead to the Franco-Prussian War
-ends the Regime
-bad foreign policy decisions

Dreyfus Affair in France


-political scandal that divided France from its inception in 1894 until its resolution in 1906.
-involved the conviction for treason in November 1894 of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Alsatian Jewish descent.
-Sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly having communicated French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was sent to the penal colony at Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent almost five years.

Peace of Versailles

June 28, 1919


The Netherlands


Decembrist Revolt


-In December 1825 the military leaders of the Northern Union rebelled against Nicholas I coming to the thrown
-it was crushed by troops who were loyal to Nicholas and the leaders of the Decembrist Revolt were killed
Long term effect: Nicholas I transformed from a conservative into a reactionary

Tsar Nicholas I comes to power in Russia


Nicolas I changed to a reactionary government
-even worse than Alexander
-strengthened secret police and beauracracy

Tsar Alexander I resigns from the throne


Cause: after the defeat of Napolean, his government became reactionary

Key Players: Alexander I

Short-term Effect:
Northern Union rose up against him
(against Alexander's reactionary government)

Decembrist Revolt crushed by Nicolas' troops

Long-term Effect: Nicolas I changed to a reactionary government
-even worse than Alexander
-strengthened secret police and beauracracy

Suppression of Polish revolt in Russia


-In september 1831, Russians crushed the revolt in Poland and established an oppressive military dictatorship over Poland

Reign of Tsar Nicholas II

1894 - 1917

First congress of Social Democratic Party in Russia


Revolution in Russia


Russia mobilizes

July 29, 1914

-the Russian government ordered full mobilization of the Russian army
-knowing that the Germans would consider this an act of war against them

Somme Offensive

July 1, 1916 - November 19, 1916

-on either side of the river Somme in France.
-The battle saw the British Expeditionary Force and the French Army mount a joint offensive against the German Army, which had occupied a large part of the north of France since its invasion of the country in August 1914.
-The Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the war; by the time fighting paused in late autumn 1916, the forces involved had suffered more than 1 million casualties
-making it one of the bloodiest military battles ever

March of women in Petrograd

March 8, 1917

about 10 thousand petrograd women marched through the city shouting "peace and bread" and "down with autocracy"

General strike in Petrograd

March 10, 1917

-the women were soon joined by other workers or a general strike that shut down all the factories in the city on March 10

Tsar abdicates

March 15, 1917

The Duma established a Provisional government
-The Tsar resigned

Establishment of Provisional Government in Russia

March 15, 1917

-the moderate constitutional democrats established a provisional government
- consisted a liberal agenda of working toward a parliamentary democracy
- passing reforms that provided universal suffrage, civil equality, and an 8 hour work day

Lenin arrives in Russia

April 3, 1917

-Lenin arrives in Russia
-Under Lenin's leadership, the Bolshevicks became a party dedicated to a violent revolution that would destroy the capital system

Lenin's "April Theses"

April 20, 1917

-Lenin presented a blueprint for revolutionary action based on his own version of Marxist theory
-according to him it was not necessary for Russia to experience a bourgeoise revolution before it could move toward socialism
-Lenin maintained that the soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants were "ready-made instruments of power"

Bolsheviks overthrow provisional government

November 6, 1917

Lenin disbands Constituent Assembly

January 1918

Civil War

1918 - 1921

Treaty of Brest- Litovsky

March 3, 1918

-the new communist government in Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsky with Germany
-gave up Eastern Poland, the Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces,
Effect: Russia went into a Civil War


Other countries

Union of Netherlands and Belgium


-due to Metternich
-Metternich surrounds France with strong nation states because he doesn't want them to gain more power and upset the balance of power
-new ruler King William 1 of the house of Orange

Beginning of the Progressive Era in the US


-an age of reform swept across the US
-state governments enacted economic and social legislation such as laws that governed hours, wages, and working conditions, especially for women and children
Effect: led to a progressive movement at the national level

Japanese takes control


in spring of 1942, almost all of Southeast Asia and much of the western Pacific had fallen into Japanese hands
-this lead to Tokyo declaring the creation of the Great East Asia- Co- Prosperity Sphere
-lead the to the US now joining European nations and Nationalist China in a combined effort to defeat Japan

Battle of Midway Island

June 4, 1942

-on June 4, at the Battle of Midway Island, American planes destroyed all four of the attacking Japanese aircraft carriers and established the American naval superiority in the Pacific
-lead to Japanese fortunes beginning to fade


Polish uprising


-Poland had a nationalist uprising in 1830 when revolutionaries tried to end Russian control of their Country
-Polish insurgents failed to get support from France and GB
Effect: crushed by the Russians

Soviet Union

Soviet Union sends troops to Eastern Poland

September 17,1939