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Black Death

1347 - 1457

Killed one-half to one-third of Europe's population from 1347 to 1352, and continued to break out for centuries. The last outbreak was Moscow 1771.

Invention of printing press

1450

by Johannes Gutenburg.

Fall of Constantinople

1453

to the Ottoman empire.

Religious

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Also known as the Babylonian captivity.

Lollard movement begins

1350

A precursor to the Reformation; led by John Wycliffe

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Conflict between the Avignon pope and the Roman pope after the
Avignon papacy.

Donation of Constantine proof of forging

1439 - 1440

Lorenzo Valla; philology.

Spanish Inquisition

1480 - 1530

The Inquisition was not formally disbanded until 1834, but these were the most active dates of its existence.

Intellectual

Nominalism

1300

Universal truth was merely a name. They had no connection to reality and could not be use to reason from particular observations to general truths. William of Ockham.

Francesco Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism. Created Petrarchan sonnets.
Italian.

Humanism

1400

Placeholder.

Christian Humanism

1400

Placeholder.

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Wrote "Utopia".

Political

The Jacquerie

1358

A violent peasant revolt in France. Put down by professional armies.

Ciompi revolt

1378 - 1382

Wool workers rioted and controlled Florence's government until 1382, when mercenaries took back the city.

Niccolo Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Wrote "The Prince".

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Split the New World between Spain and Portugal.

Wars of Italy

1494 - 1529

A series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.

Economic

Hanseatic League

1350

Political alliance to control northern trade. Member towns along the Baltic Sea, in Scandinavia and northern Germany.

Social

Cultural

Dante Aligheri

1265 - 1321

Wrote "The Divine Comedy".
Italian.

Giovanni Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Wrote "Decameron".
Italian.

William Langland

1330 - 1395

Wrote "Piers Plowman".
English.

Geoffrey Chaucer

1343 - 1400

Wrote "The Canterbury Tales".
English.

Christine de Pisan

1364 - 1430

Notable as a woman poet.

Filippo Brunelleschi

1377 - 1446

Architect. Designed dome of cathedral of Florence.]
Italian.

Donatello

1386 - 1466

Sculpted "Judith Slaying Holofernes".
Italian.

Renaissance

1400 - 1550

1400-1500: creation of a set of cultural values and artistic and literary achievements that defined Renaissance style.
1500-1550: Renaissance ideas travel all through Europe.

Masaccio

1401 - 1428

Painted "The Expulsion of Adam and Eve" and "The Holy Trinity".
Italian.

Leon Battista Alberti

1404 - 1472

Wrote "On Architecture" and "On the Family". Civic humanism.
Italian.

Sandro Botticelli

1445 - 1510

Painted "The Birth of Venus" and "Spring".
Italian.

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Renaissance man. Created fresco "The Last Supper", painting "Mona Lisa", drawing "The Vitruvian Man".
Italian.

Pico della Mirandola

1463 - 1494

Wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man".
Italian.

Michelangelo Buonarroti

1475 - 1564

Created sculptures "Pieta" and "David", painted ceiling of Sistine Chapel.
Italian.

Baldesar Castiglione

1478 - 1529

Wrote "The Courtier".

Britain

France

Spain

Portugal

Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, Germany

Austria, Austria-Hungary

Italy

Russia

Scandinavia

Netherlands

Switzerland

Poland

Ottoman Empire

Greece