BREAKUP OF THE MONOLITHIC COMMUNIST BLOC – led Nixon to re-evluate American policy toward China
By late 1960s the Sino-Soviet break was undeniable with fierce diplomatic clashes (despite jointly helping Vietnam during the war) which Nixon then sought to ecplot to pursue butter relations with after 1973, once he had pulled out of Vietnam
4 Main Reasons for Split
----Mao believes Kruechev does not support "True communism"
Mao was a great admirer of Stalin who led strong government and he hates the contrast between the leadership for ha tSoviet Union and the Khrushchev's new policy of "peaceful coexistence."
He sees that policy as a betrayal of Marxist/Leninist and Stalinist theory and now China wil begin to emerge as an alternative to the Soviet france of communism with some "Maoist" factions popping up in communist countries
----China's nuclear ambitions
Mao realizes that if he expects his country to become a real power he has to go nuclear but in 1959 Khrushchev abruptly reneged on pledge to supply sample atomic bomb and technical assistance to manufacture it
Despite the termination of Soviet assistance, China succeeded in developing nuclear weapons on their own, that they saw as necessary to
-ensure Chinese security form external threats
-increase Chinese prestige and power in the world
China exploded its first atomic bomb on October 16, 1964, launched its first nuclear missile on October 25, 1966, and tested its first hydrogen bomb on June 14, 1967.
----China's Rivalry w/ India (& USSR's Friendly Relatinoship w/India)
China resented that USSR sent more aid to India, a non-communist country, than to itself even though they are "Fraternal communist allies" - and all aid itself ends in 1960 to China
China and India also in border disputes in 1962 that were largely ignored due to the simultaneous Cuban Missile Crisis but China resented that the USSR had remained neutral rather than supporting it
-----China Border Dispute w/ USSR
Conflict erupts along the Sino-Soviet border when Mao revives an issue that goes back to tsarist times when the russians annexed Chinese land form the collapsing Qin dynasty
The Sino-Soviet split is made public when Albania breaks off relations with USSR and aligns with china, though it was the only state to do so, but now the idea of a monolithic Communist bloc is shattered and divided- which is going to play a major role in Nixon deciding to open relations and in the progression towards a multipolar state