Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.
In 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000
In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years. Then Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka
Such actions demonstrated Asoka’s concern for his subjects’ well-being. Noble as his policies of toleration and nonviolence were, they failed to hold the empire together after Asoka died in 232 B.C.
At the same time, northern India had to absorb a flood of new people fleeing political instability in other parts of Asia. For 500 years, beginning about 185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks, Persians, and Central Asians poured into northern India.
The first Gupta emperor came to power not through battle but by marrying a daughter of an influential royal family. After his marriage, Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320.
Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.
Over the next 100 years, the Gupta Empire broke into small king- doms. Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535.
Between the 13th and 16th centuries, 33 different sultans ruled
Cosimo de Medici was the wealthiest European of his time. In 1434, he won control of Florence’s government.
Leonardo da Vinci is born in 1452 and dies in 1519. He is famous for many things, and creates many inventions. He died in 1519.
Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.
Donatello’s statue was created in the late 1460s. It was the first European sculpture of a large, free-standing nude since ancient times.
Cosimo de Medici died in 1464, but his family continued to control Florence. His grandson, Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469.
Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.
In 1526, for example, he led 12,000 troops to
Baldassare Castiglione wrote a book to teach people how to be such a person.
Babur’s grandson was called Akbar, which means “Great.” Akbar certainly lived up to his name, ruling India with wisdom and tolerance from 1556 to 1605.
In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child.
When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne.
Aurangzeb ruled from 1658 through 1707.