Chapter 9 The West Between the Wars

Sec.2 Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

Fascio di Combattimento


In 1919, Benito Mussolini established the first European Fascist movement in Italy and created a new group the Fascio di Combattimento or League of Combat.

The Squadristi or Blackshirts

1920 - 1921

In 1920 and 1921, Mussolini formed bands of black shirted armed Fascists called squadristi. These bands used to enforce laws and used violence to break up strikes.

New Economic Policy (NEP)

March 1921

On March 1921, Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of a new program called the NEP. This program was a modified version of a capitalist economy which allowed Russia to improve its economy.

The Leader


In 1926, Mussolini was able to gain control of Italy and ruled it as II Duce or the leader.

Benefit of Youth Groups


Mussolini had Fascist youth groups that in 1939 included about 66% of the population (ages 8-18). With these youth camps, Moussalini hoped to create an Italian nation full of people who were fit, disciplined, and war loving.

Sec.3 Hitler and Nazi Germany

Enabling Act

March 23 1933

On March 23,1933 the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which allowed Adolf Hitler to gain power or control over the government and the country. Hitler became the sole ruler of Germany once President Hindenburg died in 1934.

Nuremberg Laws

September 1935

September of 1935 was when the Nuremberg laws had passed. These laws excluded Jews from being Germans. These laws forced Jews to wear yellow stars of David and carry id's stating that they were Jewish.

Kristallnacht-"Night of shattered glass"

November 9 1938

On the night of November 9th 1938, many Jews were harmed and killed. Nazis had burned synagogues and destroyed several Jewish businesses. In total a hundred Jews were killed and thirty thousand male Jews had been sent to concentration camps. This night became known as Kristallnacht.