In 1919, Benito Mussolini established the first European Fascist movement in Italy and created a new group the Fascio di Combattimento or League of Combat.
In 1920 and 1921, Mussolini formed bands of black shirted armed Fascists called squadristi. These bands used to enforce laws and used violence to break up strikes.
On March 1921, Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of a new program called the NEP. This program was a modified version of a capitalist economy which allowed Russia to improve its economy.
In 1926, Mussolini was able to gain control of Italy and ruled it as II Duce or the leader.
Mussolini had Fascist youth groups that in 1939 included about 66% of the population (ages 8-18). With these youth camps, Moussalini hoped to create an Italian nation full of people who were fit, disciplined, and war loving.
On March 23,1933 the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which allowed Adolf Hitler to gain power or control over the government and the country. Hitler became the sole ruler of Germany once President Hindenburg died in 1934.
September of 1935 was when the Nuremberg laws had passed. These laws excluded Jews from being Germans. These laws forced Jews to wear yellow stars of David and carry id's stating that they were Jewish.
On the night of November 9th 1938, many Jews were harmed and killed. Nazis had burned synagogues and destroyed several Jewish businesses. In total a hundred Jews were killed and thirty thousand male Jews had been sent to concentration camps. This night became known as Kristallnacht.