Temujin decides he wants to try to unify the Mongols in 1200. He defeats all of his rivals.
A Mongol clan leader named Temujin defeated his rivals. In 1206 he assumed the title Genghis Khan or universal leader
In the 21 years after he becomes ruler he conquers China. He conquers the Jin Empire in 1211. His next goal was to conquer the Mongols.
After the conquer of the Jin, Genghis turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia. He attacked Central Asia and slaughtered its inhabitants by 1225.
Ghengis Khan died in 1227 because of illness. After his death his successors created the largest unified land empire.
The Mongols divide their empire into 4 Khanates, Khanate of the Great Khan, the Khanate of Chagatai, the Ilkhanate, and the Khanate of the Golden Horde. A descendent of Ghengis Khan ruled each.
Marco Polo was the most famous European to visit China. He traveled by the Silk Road and arrived at the Mongol court in 1275.
In 1281 Kublai Khan sent fleets of ships to fight the Japanese for the second time. Both times the Japanese turned back the fleets.
In the 8 years after Kublai Khan's death in 1294, 4 different khans took the throne because his relatives kept arguing about who would rule. The Yuan dynasty faded
For 500 years after 185 BC, Greeks, Persians, and Central Asians come to Northern India. They disrupted Indian society but they also brought new languages and customs.
In 232 BC Asoka dies and the empire failed to stay together even with his noble policies of toleration and non violence.
Chandragupta's grandson becomes emperor in 269 BC. He waged war to expand the empire. He did feel sorrow for the lives lost at the battle at Kalinga.
Chandragupta's son assumes the throne and he rules for 32 years. After, Chandragupta's grandson, Asoka, ma the Mauryan empire the greatest it has ever been.
North India was united in 303 BC because the Mauryan empire stretched more than 2,000 miles.
After Chandra married the daughter of an influential royal family. He took the title " Great King of Kings" and his territory was Magadha and the area north of it.
An Indian military leader named Chandragupta Maurya created an army. This army killed the unpopular Nanda king and in 321 BC Chandragupta seized the throne.
Chandra Gupta I's son becomes king in 335 BC. He loved the arts but he also had a warlike side. For 40 years he expanded the empire through conquest.
Chandra Gupta II becomes king in 375 BC. He strengthened the empire by conquest and peaceful means. He defeated the Shakas which added their coastal territory to their empire.
Chandra Gupta II dies and his rule ends. New invaders threaten the empire aft his death.
After Chandra Gupta II's death the empire broke into small kingdoms and invaders threatened them. Many of the small kingdoms were overrun by the Hunas and other Central Asian Nomads.
The city was so destroyed one witness said "for months, not a bird moved in the city". It was eventually rebuilt.
In 1494 Babur inherited a kingdom in what is now Uzbekistan and Tajikstan. The elders eventually took it and drove him south.
He led 12,000 troops to
Akbar ruled from 1556 to 1605 ruling with tolerance and wisdom. He believed military power was the root of his strength.
Mumtaz Muhal, the wife of Shah Jahan, died in 1631 while giving birth to her 14th child at the age of 39. In order to enshrine her memory Shah had a beautiful tomb created, the Taj Mahal.
In 1657 Shah Jahan became ill and his 4 sons scrambled for the throne. Aurangzeb, the 3rd brother moved first and eventually killed his older brother who was his biggest rival. He also had his father arrested and imprisioned where he died.
From 1658 to 1707, Aurangzeb ruled as an aggressive empire builder and military strategist. He made the empire the biggest it had ever been.
In 1348 the book Decameron takes place about a group of worldly young people avoiding the plague. It talks about comic and tragic views of life.
In 1434 he won control of Florence's government because he was the wealthiest European of his time. He influenced others by giving them loans.
Leonardo was born in 1452 and died in 1519. He wrote notebooks with over 3,500 pages planning scholarly work and engineering feats.
Many cities grew after the war ended. Merchants eventually became wealthy enough to sponsor artists.
They wanted to look back to the learning of the Greeks and Romans. Christian scholars fled to Constantinople in 1453 after the Turks conquered it.
Donatello created the statue of David after a boy who according to the bible became a great king. It was the first free standing nude in Europe since ancient times.
After Cosmo di Medici died in 1464 his family continued to rule France. In 1469 Lorenzo came to power, he ruled as a dictator but kept and elected government.
Michelangelo was a great painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. He was known for the way he portrayed the human body in painting and sculpture.
Vittoria Colonna lived from 1492-1547 as a great Renaissance author. She was born into a noble family and also married the Marquis of Pescara in 1509. She exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo and helped publish The Courtier.
In 1494 a French king claims the throne of Naples in South Italy and launched an invasion into North Italy. Northern European artists that studied in Italy brought Renaissance ideas to their homelands.
Michelangelo sculpted David influenced by classical statues. The statue is 18 feet tall and portrays the character right before battle.
The Mona Lisa is believed to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini who married a wealthy merchant of Florence, Francesco del Giocondo, at age 16. Renaissance art portrayed the subject like they really looked.
In 1513 Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince which examines the imperfect conduct of human beings. It takes the form of a political handbook allowing it to do so.
In 1528 The Courtier was written by Baldassare Castiglione. This book talked about how to become a Renaissance Man.
Flemish painting reached its peak because of