John Homan's Second Semester Timeline

this is my timeline. it is the best

Chapter 24

One out of Three Births is Outside of Wedlock in Many European Cities

1840 - 1849

This applied to large cities is western, northern, and central Europe. By contrast, one out of two births was illegitimate in Vienna and Stockholm. This is a testament to the illegitimacy explosion from 1750 to 1850. It also reflects a generation of urban workers with a mindset that condoned premarital sex and illegitimacy.

Realism Emerges in Europe

1840 - 1899

The realist movement began in France and later spread to influence European culture and style. Realist writers, such as Emile Zola, believed literature should depict life how it really was. It rejected the romantic ideals of exoticism and sublimity in favor of an accurate narrative of the life of actual Europeans. It valued natural laws, human love, and everyday family interactions.

Edwin Chadwick Publishes his Report on Sanitary Conditions of the Poor

1842

Chadwick proved that diseases were caused by poor living conditions. This was the first step in the amelioration of conditions in European cities. His findings soon led to the creation of Britain's first public health law.

Great Britain Creates its First Public Health Law

1848

Based on Chadwick's findings, and catalyzed by the cholera epidemic of 1846, Great Britain's first public health law created a national health board and gave cities the power to build modern sanitary systems.

Modernization of Paris

1850 - 1870

The modernization of Paris provided a model for other great European cities. It also sparked the trend of modern urbanism. This brought about many improvements to cities including water supply issues, waste removal, and transportation.

Darwin Publishes "On the Origins of Species by the Means of Natural Selection"

1859

This book proposed the idea of natural selection among animals. His ideas heavily influenced European thought. For one, his findings further cemented the belief in the superiority of objective science. Also, the application of Darwin's ideas to the human race would later create Social Darwinism and be used to justify acts such as imperialism.

Lister Formulates his Antiseptic Principle

1865

This principle maintained that a chemical disinfectant could be applied to a wound and "destroy the life of the floating particles". This discovery led to increased sterilization of hands, medical instruments, clothing, and wounds throughout the 1880s.

Dmitri Mendeleev Creates the Periodic Law and the Periodic Table

1869

This was the first of several scientific triumphs of the late 1800s to early 1900s. His findings were used to create wonderful dyes for the fashion world. By 1913, systematic research and development had been born. The triumph of science fostered many social trends similar to the Enlightenment. For example, many saw science as the only legitimate pathway to truth and understanding, not religion or pretentious art.

155,000 Women Registered as Prostitutes in Paris

1871 - 1903

Further, 750,000 were suspected of prostitution during these same years. Prostitutes provided service to men of all classes, but the middle and upper classes were the most avid clients. Wealthy, urban men used their money to buy sex from poorer, more vulnerable women. This reveals the hypocrisy of the working class: they detested immoral behavior but so frequently involved themselves in such an immoral act. For many women, prostitution was a stage in life, like domestic servitude, and was only a temporary experience.

6.5 Million living in cities of 20,000+ in England and Wales

1891

In 1801, only 1.5 million were living in cities of 20,000 or more. This huge population increase helps to explain the problem of urbanization. Urbanization was a major phenomenon during this period that had wide-ranging effects.

Only 9% of English Urban Population is "Overcrowded"

1901

This was a result of several factors. New housing areas were being developed outside of the city and the newly-invented electric streetcar allowed easy transportation from farther-away homes into the city for work.

One out of Seven Employed Persons in Great Britain is a Domestic Servant

1911

The majority of these were women. Indeed, one out of three British girls aged 15-20 was a domestic servant at this time.This was long, arduous work with little pay. Many women from the countryside moved to the city and became domestic servants.

Chapter 25

Zollverein is Founded

1834

The Zollverein was the German customs union founded to increase trade and state revenue. Austria was not included in the Zollverein, and this fact played a great role in the Austro-Prussian rivalry. By 1853, all German states besides Austria had joined the Zollverein.

The U.S. is Producing 5 million Bales of Cotton Annually

1850

This was enough to provide for the immeasurable cotton demand coming from European textile mills (and New England mills, too). This also illustrates the vast extent to which slaves (the ones picking such exorbitant amounts of cotton) were crucial to the economy of both America and Europe.

Louis Napoleon Seizes Power in a Coup d'etat

December 2, 1851

The National Assembly did not want to allow Napoleon to disregard the constitution and run for a second term. Thus, President Louis Napoleon illegally dismissed the National Assembly and then seized power. Some violence occurred in the form of countryside protests, but the army crushed these revolts. The French people soon voted to elect Napoleon President for ten years. An overwhelming 92% voted for him.

Reign of Napoleon III

1852 - 1871

Louis Napoleon experienced his greatest success in terms of improving the French economy. He believed a strong economy would lessen political and social tensions. He was both successful and unsuccessful in other endeavors.

Cavour Persuades Austria to Attack Sardinia

1859

This brought Napoleon III to Sardinia's defense. However, Napoleon III soon realized that he did not want a strong Sardinia to the south of his empire. Thus, he abandoned Cavour, who only received Lombardy through this whole ordeal. Cavour's early attempt at northern Italian unification was unsuccessful.

Cavour Realizes his Goal of Northern Italian Unification

1860

Cavour gained the support of Napoleon III by ceding Savoy and Nice to France. With France's support, the people of central Italy voted to join with the northern Sardinian kingdom and create a single northern state.

Napoleon III Liberalizes France

1860 - 1869

Napoleon strongly valued public opinion. Thus, he sought to liberalize his empire during the 1860s in an attempt to gain favor in the public's eye. Napoleon gave more power to the Assembly and more freedom to opposing candidates.

Garibaldi's Red Shirts Begin to Liberate the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

May, 1860

Cavour supported Garibaldi and his Red Shirts as a way to use and also get rid of Garibaldi. After several conquests, the Red Shirts were knocking at Rome's doors. At this point, Cavour sent the army to capture Garibaldi and occupy most of the Papal States (not Rome, though).

Serfdom is Abolished in Russia

1861

This was the first and greatest of the "Great Reforms" in Russia. The government hoped that collective peasant ownership of their newly acquired land would strengthen the social abilities of the peasant village. However, it grew difficult for peasants to leave their village and thus old patterns of behavior remained. The reform was limited in its' effects.

William I Becomes King of Prussia

1861

William I desired to double the size of the Prussian army. This would mean higher taxes and a larger defense budget. This would lead to tensions within Prussia because the landed aristocracy believed that parliament should have power over the king. The people also did not want to increase the military's presence within Prussian society.

Prussian Parliament Rejects the Military Budget

1862

This reflected the feelings of the Prussian populous. Also, these elections were dominated by liberals. As a response, Otto von Bismarck was asked to head a new ministry and defy parliament. This had tremendous consequences.

Pope Pius IX Publishes the Syllabus of Errors

1864

Pius IX attacked rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty. This reflects the attitude of the papacy toward the revolutionary spirit of the times. The papacy was against national unification and other, less severe trends.

The Zemstvo is Established in Russia

1864

The zemstvo was a new institution of local Russian government. It was like a parliament for the local level. Liberals hoped this would lead to a national-level parliament, but it did not.

Prussia is Near Unity

1866

Bismarck asked parliament to pass an indemnity bill approving government spending between 1862 and 1866. This was a great accomplishment for Prussia. The liberal middle class was now also able to participate more in the government.

Austro-Prussian War

1866

This war only lasted seven weeks. Prussia was victorious. Austria was forced to withdraw from German affairs, and the German Confederation was dissolved. Bismarck's goal of Prussian expansion was beginning to take shape.

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Prussia defeated France and realized their goal of German unity. France was also dealt burdening peace terms, hurting French/German relations for years to come.

Third Rerform Bill of 1884

1884

This granted suffrage to nearly every adult male in Great Britain. This reflected the house of Commons' move toward democracy. This contrasts with the more conservative House of Lords.

Dreyfus Affair

1894 - 1904

This political crisis increased tensions between the church and the French state. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the army, was wrongly accused and convicted of treason. This case split apart France. It led to a greater separation of church and state by it's resolution several years later.

Japan Attacks Russia

January, 1904

This led to a Russian defeat. In turn, political tensions mounted in the homeland. Business and political leaders used this as an opportunity to end the last of Europe's dictatorships and institute a more liberal and representative government.

Revolution of 1905

January, 1905 - October, 1905

This was the culminating event of many different feelings and demonstrations of discontent within Russia. It led to a degree of changes within the great nation.

October Manifesto

October, 1905

This was issued by the Russian tsar during the revolution of 1905. It stated that a parliament (the duma) would be created and that it would have legitimate legislative power. This was a great victory for the revolutionaries.

Germany is the Most Socialized, Industrialized, and Unionized European Nation

1914

This reflected the great change that occurred in Germany during the later half of the 19th century.

Chapter 26

Over 60 Million Migrate out of Europe

1815 - 1932

Many of these migrants went to North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and Siberia. These areas were referred to as "areas of European settlement". European expansion contributed to this epic migration. There were also unique patterns of migration within each European country.

Lin Tse-hsu is Sent to Canton

1839

Lin Tse-hsu was sent to Canton by the Qing government to end the opium trade. China's silver was being traded to British merchants for opium. The British merchants refused, and war followed.

Treaty of Nanking

1842

The imperial government of China lost the war with the British. The China was forced to pay an indemnity of $100 million, cede Hong Kong to the British forever, and open four large cities to low-tariff foreign trade. This allowed the opium trade to increase and also demonstrated the British entry into Chinese affairs.

Commodore Matthew Perry lands in Edo Bay, Japan

1853

Perry sailed to present-day Tokyo (Edo Bay) to meet with the Japanese government. The U.S. wanted to open up trade with Japan. The Japanese felt threatened by Perry and did not feel prepared to fight a war against America. Thus, they acquiesced the opening of trade with the U.S. Unlike China, Japan was "opened up" without actual war.

Great Rebellion

1857 - 1858

Referred to as a mutiny by the British, this rebellion against British rule was the last attempt of its kind. Muslim and Hindu mercenaries of the British army started an insurrection in northern and central India. However, they were soon crushed and British dominion over India was cemented.

Reign of Ismail in Egypt

1863 - 1879

This grandson of Muhhamad Ali sought to modernize Egypt. He wanted to bring Egypt into the European fold. However, he was not patient or careful enough to realize this these goals. For example, his massive debt owed to the British and French invited foreign political intervention and subsequently a surrender of control over Egypt.

Meiji Restoration

1867

A patriotic samurai-led coalition in Japan seized power with little bloodshed. They restored the political power of the emperor. The new government sought to catch Japan up to the West and also protect their country from foreign threats. They would soon adopt several western ideals in their struggle with power.

Suez Canal is Completed in Egypt by a French Company

1869

This is a prime example of Ismail's attempts to modernize and improve Egypt. However, the massive project left Egypt greatly indebted to France. This would lead to French intervention in Egyptian politics and eventually the French and British would have control over the Egyptian government.

Japanese Feudal Structure is Abolished

1871

This decentralized the government and helped to unify the state. Also, it reflects the influence of the French Revolution on the Meiji government. Other liberal ideas came into being like a competitive, government-stimulated economy and the building of factories and railroads. This reflects the influence of western civilizations on the new Japan.

Berlin Conference

1884 - 1885

This conference was held to discuss the imperialization of Africa. The European nations present agreed on an "effective occupation" policy. That is, one single European nation could not occupy the entire continent. The neutrality of the Congo was also recognized, and an agreement to stop the slave trade in Africa was also made.

Indian national Congress is Founded

1885

This group was composed mostly of Hindus. Their major demands were equality and self-government, which Britain had already granted to other colonies such as Canada and Australia. This was the beginning of a legitimate movement for Indian independence.

Sino-Japanese War

1894 - 1895

With the loss of this war, China faced harsh peace terms. This worsened their already poor condition. China was not able to defend itself from imperialist-minded nations. This stirred up revolutionary feelings within China

The U.S. Receives the Philippines as a Colony

1898

This shows that the U.S had now entered the game of imperialism. The U.S. refused to grant independence to the Philippines which led to some violence. Imperialism was sweeping the globe.

Hundred Days of Reform Begins

1898

This was launched by the Chinese government in an attempt to combat foreign imperialism. It signaled the beginning of more radical attempts to overthrow the current government (the Qing Dynasty). The last of these attempts was the Boxer Rebellion (1900-1903) which successfully overthrew the Qing Dynasty.

British Slaughter Muslim Tribesmen at Omdurman

1898

This presented many Europeans with a grave realization of the horrors of imperialism. 11,000 Muslim tribesmen were killed, and only 28 British were killed. This also typifies the general course of imperialism in Africa: merciless and violent without regard for African life.

Rudyard Kipling Writes of the White Man's Burden

1899

Kipling wrote of the white man's burden in an 1899 poem. The white man's burden was the belief that western nations were vastly superior to other nations and thus had a responsibility (burden) to help advance the lesser nations of Africa and Asia. This was a major cause of the new imperialism.

Heart of Darkness is Published

1902

This book criticized western imperialism, specifically that involving Africa. It charged Europeans with being selfish creatures. This book represents the views of many European citizens toward imperialism.

Chapter 27

Three Emperors' League is Created

1873

This was a group comprised of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. It was created to join three monarchies that were all against the spread of revolutionary/radical movements. This reflects the tension between conservative, monarchical governments and liberal, revolutionary peoples.

France and Russia Become Military Allies

1894

This alliance was created and planned to stay in effect so long as the Triple Alliance of Austria, Germany, and Italy did. This split Europe into two rival factions. Military alliances were one of the major causes of WWI and this was one of the earliest of those dangerous alliances.

South African War

1899 - 1902

This was a war fought between Britain and the Dutch republics of South Africa. This war greatly affected Britain's foreign policy. They realized how spread out around the globe they were. This also stirred up more anti-British feelings around the globe. Political leaders in Britain thus worked to make alliances and agreements with other nations in an attempt to improve their image and position.

Algeciras Conference

1906

This conference was called by Germany to discuss the issue of Morocco. The Anglo-French Entente, formed in 1904, did not back down from German demands. Instead, the alliance was forged stronger and closer together. This further intensified rivalries in pre-WWI Europe. Also, this was the first time that many nations of the world saw Germany as a potential threat.

First Balkan War

1912

Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria were pitted against the ottoman Empire in the first of three Balkan Wars. Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria defeated the Ottoman Empire but disagreed over who got what after the victory. This led to the Second Balkan War.

Second Balkan War

1913

Austria got involved in this war. Austria forced Serbia to give up Albania. After many years, the Ottoman Empire was destroyed. Balkan nationalists were overjoyed while Austro-Hungarians were fearful that they may be next to fall to nationalism.

Archduke Francis Ferdinand is Assassinated

June 28, 1914

This was the final straw in in the situation involving Austria-Hungary and Serbia. Serbia was dealt an impossible-to-meet ultimatum by Austria-Hungary. Austria-Hungary soon mobilized for war. This led to the "Third Balkan War" (World War I).

Germany Passes Through Neutral Belgium

August 2, 1914

This act of aggression toward a neutral country brought Britain into the international conflict. Germany was moving though Belgium to get to France. Britain would not stand for this, and, along with France, soon declared war on Germany. WWI had begun!

Battle of the Somme

1916

The British and French lost 600,000 troops during this fight and only gained 125 square miles. The Germans lost 500,000 troops. This battle is exemplary of the fighting of WWI (trench warfare). Hundreds of thousands of young men were slaughtered for insignificant territorial gains.

Easter Rebellion

April, 1916

This rebellion was started by Irish Nationalists in the hope of ridding their country of British rule. They used the pressure of WWI on Britain to their advantage. The Irish believed that the British were so strained by, and preoccupied with, WWI that it would not be difficult to rise up. However, they were wrong and were soon crushed by the British.

Women Make up 43% of Russian Labor Force

1917

This reflects one of the major aspects of total war. Women became more involved in occupations typically held by men. This was because the men were fighting in the war. This helped make women more visible to society. Also, women became involved in a variety of different jobs and activities. WWI helped generate more social equality within the involved nations.

Russian Revolution Begins

March 8, 1917

This revolution would eventually lead to a great civil war within Russia. Lenin's Red Army would prove victorious in this civil war and Russia would fall under the spell of Communism.

U.S. Declares War on Germany

April, 1917

The U.S. joined the allied cause for several reasons. One was the annoyance with the Germans resuming unrestricted submarine warfare. Also, the U.S. felt sympathetic toward the cause of the allied nations. This sympathy grew out of a few factors, one major one being anti-German propaganda.

Balfour Declaration

November, 1917

This stated Britain's support of a "National Home for the Jewish People" in the area of Palestine. This proved to be an example of a problem with national self-determination in the early 20th century.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March, 1918

This ended Russia's participation in World War I. However, about one-third of Russia's population was ceded to Germany. Regardless, World War I was no longer a distraction for Lenin and his comrades. He could now focus on garnering full political control over Russia.

German Revolution

November, 1918

This revolution was quite similar to the Russian Revolution of March, 1917. One major difference was the absence of a Lenin-esque character in the german Revolution. There were some radical, Lenin-like individuals in Germany, but they did not triumph in the same way Lenin did. Thus, the revolution ended without a communist overtaking.

World War I Ends

November 11, 1918

The First World War was called to an end with the signing of an armistice between Germany and the allies. Two days prior, German Socialists had declared a German republic. This government agreed to the terms of surrender.

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

This treaty placed harsh reparations on Germany. Most importantly, Germany was proclaimed as bearing full responsibility for the war. Also, they had to limit their army to 100,000 men. These harsh terms only sowed the seeds for German anger and aggression. The U.S. did not ratify this treaty because of disputes over its content, specifically the issues involving the creation of a League of Nations.

Chapter 28

Nietzsche Begins to Question Established Values

1872

This foreshadowed a trend that would grow greatly in popularity following the devastation and destruction of WWI. After WWI, many people were left disillusioned by commonly held human values. What was the meaning to life? What is truly important?

Van Gogh's Starry Night

1889

This is an example of post-impressionism in painting. Post-impressionists sought to paint/illustrate not what the eye sees but rather to depict inner emotions. It made for some very abstract pieces of art.

Newton's Theory of Special Relativity

1905

This theory postulated that time and space were relative to the observer. Further, it argued that only the speed of light was constant. This important scientific discovery led to many more during this period. Also, it suggested that much was still to be discovered in the world of science.

Picasso Pioneers Cubism

1907

As the artist Wassily Kandinsky famously said "The observer must learn to look at my pictures...as a representation of mood and not as a representation of objects". Similarly, cubism depicted a variety of lines, color and form. Zigzags were heavily used.

Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring Causes Outrage

1913

When Stravisnky's piece (The rite of Spring) was performed by a troupe of dancers, it was viewed as overly risque and much commotion was created. The piece itself represents the intensity and emotion found in early 20th century orchestral music.

Rutherford Splits the Atom

1919

This was another monumental scientific discovery made during the early 20th century. It would lead to further discovery concerning atoms and marked the beginning of the road to the creation of the ever-destructive atomic bomb.

Keynes Publishes Economic Consequences of the Peace

1919

This writing attacked the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. Keynes maintained that harsh reparations toward Germany would only hurt Germany and the rest of Europe. He argued that Germany would become impoverished and that all of Europe would suffer because of it. This created feelings of guilt in the U.S. and Britain which would later help Germany to shirk some of its' post-war penalties.

Scandinavian Social Democrats Begin to Pass Social Reforms

1920

Many people of the time viewed the Social Democrats in Scandinavia as a sort of middle-of-the-road compromise between capitalism and communism/fascism. These social reforms reflected the idea of cooperation and betterment of the entire society.

Virginia Woolf Publishes Jacob's Room

1922

This novel was written using a popular style of the time: stream-of-consciousness. It was read like the inner-dialogue of a man speaking from a therapist's couch. This new style was slightly haphazard and confusing, much like the general spirit of post-war Europe and the world.

Stresemann Becomes leader of Germant

1923

Stresemann agreed to pay Germany's reparations, but asked that Germany's financial situation be considered. He did not believe Germany could afford to pay all of its' reparations. He urged the Allies to give compromise a chance.

Dadaists Shift to Surrealism

1924

Dadaism was defined by outrageous and wild content. Surrealism focused on dreams and symbols. In 1924, surrealism became more powerful, a testament to the disillusionment of the post-war world and the Age of Anxiety.

Dawes Plan

1924

The Dawes Plan reduced the severity of German reparations based on Germany's economic well-being. The U.S. provided Germany with loans so that they could repay France and England who in turn could repay the United States. This circular flow of loans/repayments worked for some time.

Franz Kafka Publishes The Trial

1925

This novel was typical of many post-war novels in the early 1900s. Many writers rejected the idea of progress and sought to depict the desolation of life. In this novel, many of the characters are helpless people lost in the sadness of post-war Europe.

Walter Gropius designs the Fagus Shoe Factory

1925

Gropius used glass and iron to create a clean, light, and elegant design. This was a break from pre-war architecture. Again, this shift in ideals after the war highlights the general disillusionment gripping the post-war world.

The Spirit of Locarno

1925

Around this time, a series of treaties and agreements were made. Issues such as border disputes and alliances were resolved. This time of political cooperation generated feelings of security and stability within Europe.

Heisenberg's Principle of Uncertainty

1927

This was another scientific discovery of the early 1900s. It's name reflects the uncertainty of the post-war world.

Kellogg-Brian Pact

1928

This agreement "condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy". It was idealistic in the sense that it provided no real plans for what to do if war did break out. However, it fostered optimism and created feelings of safety within the hearts and minds of so many people who yearned for stability after such a disastrous World War.

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

Beginning with the crash of the U.S. Stock Market in October of 1929, the Great Depression affected thee entire world. From 1929 to 1933, the world output of goods went down by 38%. Protective tariffs were put in place by many countries in an effort to help their own economies. This hurt international trade.

Popular Front in France

1936

In the May, 1936 elections in France, the popular Front emerged as an influential party. Communists, Socialists, and Radicals joined together to promote social reform. Their presence fostered the growth of extremism. When their leader, Leon Blum, resigned in 1937, the Popular Front began to grow irrelevant.

Chapter 29

Lenin's New Economic Policy

March, 1921

Lenin's New Economic Policy, or NEP, was intended to help rebuild the Russian agriculture and industry. It allowed mild economic freedom: peasants could now sell surpluses in free markets, and handicraft manufacturers began to spring up once more. The NEP was economically and politically successful.

Mussolini Takes Power in Italy

1922

In October of 1922, a group of fascists marched on Rome to show their disdain for the king and to ask for Mussolini to be given power. Albeit, this was done with the threat of violence. Mussolini was legally given dictatorial power by the king of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.

Nazism is Born

1923

Near the end of 1923, the Weimar Republic was nearing its doom. Hitler was inspired by Mussolini's march on Rome and decided to replicate that in Munich. The armed uprising was a failure, but Nazism was nonetheless born.

Enabling Act

March 23, 1923

This bill was passed through the Reichstag by the Nazi party. It gave Hitler full dictatorial power for four years. The Nazis worked to crush the influence of all other parties, and soon, Germany was a one-party state.

Nazi Party Grows

1924 - 1929

In 1928, the National Socialist German Workers' party had 100,000 members. However, the Nazi party received only 2.8% of the vote in the general elections of 1928. Once the great Depression hit in 1929, the Nazi party grew more popular, receiving 38% of the vote in the 1932 elections.

Stalin Comes to Power

1927

Stalin succeeded Lenin as ruler of the U.S.S.R. Stalin did so by employing his cunning political skill. From 1922 to 1927 he worked to garner power and support. In December, 1927, Stalin had achieved dictatorial status in the U.S.S.R.

Stalin Launches his First Five-Year Plan

1928

Less than a year after gaining power, Stalin began his "second revolution". Stalin set ridiculously high production goals for the U.S.S.R. As Stalin put it, the U.S.S.R. is "fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries". These five-year plans were designed to help the U.S.S.R. catch up with these "advanced countries" of the west.

Collectivization Begins in the U.S.S.R.

1929

Beginning in 1929, individual peasant farms were consolidated into large, state-controlled farms. The more well-off peasants, the kulaks, were targeted and orders were given to "liquidate them as a class". Soon, the word kulak came to mean any peasant who opposed the new system of collectivization, and many more peasants were being "liquidated".

Lateran Agreement

1929

In this agreement, Mussolini recognized the Vatican as an independent state and pledged hefty financial support for the church. In return, Mussolini received support from the Catholic church. The Pope encouraged Italians to support Mussolini and his government.

Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges Begin

1932

In November, 1932, Stalin's wife was murdered after she complained of the poor conditions of the Russian and Ukrainian people. This began the Stalinist terror. Secret police targeted dissidents. The great Purges resulted in many politicians being forced out of the Communist Party. The men who replaced them were very loyal to Stalin and "products of the Second Revolution".

Hitler Withdraws Germany from the League of Nations

1933

This action starkly contrasted with Gustav Stresemann's policy of compromise and cooperation. Germany no longer desired to compromise with other European nations. Hitler also walked out of a disarmament conference, proclaiming his desire to rearm Germany to the entire world.

Kristallnacht

1938

In late 1938, Jews were targeted by an organized wave of violence. Windows were broken, shops were looted, and homes and synagogues were destroyed. Around 150,000 Jews fled Germany. This reflects the massive support for Hitler's anti-Semitic regime.

World War II Begins

1939

On September 1, 1939, Germany attacked Poland from three sides. In two days, Britain and France abandoned their policy of appeasement and declared war on Germany, signaling the start of the Second World War.

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

August, 1939

This was a shocking decision. Hitler wanted to avoid a two-front war, and an alliance with Russia was the only way to do so. The two nations included a secret section in the pact which divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet territories "in the event of a political territorial reorganization".

Atomic Bombs are Dropped on Japan

1945

The Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima were the target of two atomic bombs. This signaled the end of WWII. Japan was left in ruins, and so was much of the rest of the world after such a devastating world war.

Chapter 30

Teheran Conference

November, 1943

The Big Three (Churchill, FDR, and Stalin) met in the Iranian capital of Teheran to discuss their plan to end the Second World War. They agreed to an Anglo-American attack on Germany through France. The Soviet Union would then be left to liberate the nations of Eastern Europe. This set in place the stage for post-war problems and issues.

Yalta Conference

February, 1945

At this conference, the Big Three (Churchill, FDR, and Stalin) focused on the issue of the Eastern European nations. There were to be free elections in these nations, but the governments elected were to be pro-Russian. This ambiguous agreement did not last long.

Potsdam Conference

July, 1945

At this conference, the tension over Eastern Europe grew very high. FDR had been succeeded by a less-compromise minded Harry Truman. Truman demanded that free elections be put in place in the nations of Eastern Europe immediately. Stalin refused, and there was nothing more Truman could do save for war. Thus, Stalin had his way, and tensions were mounted.

Marshall Plan

1947

The Marshall plan was designed to aid in the economic recovery of Europe. However, Stalin refused to be assisted by this plan and refused for all of Eastern Europe. This would lead to planes being flown over roadblocked areas of Eastern Europe to drop off provisions.

Truman Doctrine

1947

The Truman Doctrine was issued by American President Harry S. Truman in 1947. It's intent was to contain communism to already-occupied areas. Truman first asked for support for Turkey and Greece who could no longer rely on British support.

NATO is Formed

1949

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was a a military alliance of western nations against the Soviet union. Stalin responded a few years later with the formation of the Warsaw Pact (U.S.S.R. and its' Eastern European allies).

Korean War

1950 - 1953

This was one of the early surrogate wars of the Cold War. By intervening on the side of South Korea, the United States illustrated their intentions to spread the policy of containment to Asia.

De-Stalinization Begins

1953

Led by Nikita Khrushchev, this period in Russian history saw an attempt to reform the great nation. An attack was led on Stalin and his horrendous crimes, and Russia sought to liberalize itself. However, the Communist Party retained it's monopoly on political power. Also during this period, Khrushchev pushed for "peaceful coexistence" with capitalism.

Common Market Forms

1957

With the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the six member nations of the Coal and Steel Community formed the European Economic Community, or the Common Market. The first goal of this group was the reduction of tariffs among member nations. The group sought to create a market nearly as large as that of United States. This inspired further efforts toward economic and also political unity.

Berlin Wall is Built

1961

This marked the Soviet's Union desire to keep the influence of western capitalism out of the nations of it's Eastern allies. This wall came to symbolize the stark divide between the more politically-free west and the Soviet-led east.

Leonid Brezhnev Takes Power

1964

This marked the end of de-Stalinization. Brezhnev believed that de-Stalinization would eventually lead to the Russian people hating not only Stalin, but the Communist Party as a whole. Thus, Brezhnev could not allow for de-Stalinization to continue.

Vietnam War

1964 - 1973

This was another surrogate war fought during the Cold War years between the Soviet Union and the United States. America's involvement in the Vietnam War grew less and less popular in the United States. This left America confused as to it's proper role in foreign affairs.

Brezhnev Doctrine

1968

The Brezhnev Doctrine was issued in response to the invasion of Czechoslovakia. This doctrine stated that the Soviet Union and its' allies maintained the right to intervene in any socialist country when they deemed it necessary.

Student Rebellion in France

1968

This marked the end of an era and the emergence of a new one. The counterculture and youthful idealism of this era became more prevalent. While the students were not successful in their aims, they did shake the established order.

Apollo Program Lands Americans on the Moon

1969

The Apollo Program used around $5 billion a year to accomplish this goal. The United States needed to show its' superiority to the Russians after the Russians put a satellite in space in 1957. This reflects just another way that the Cold War was "fought" other than actual military battles.

Feminist Movement Begins

1970

This movement sought to create equality between the two genders and to promote the interests of women. This movement inspired other groups, like the physically disabled, to rise up and fight for their interests as well. It reflects a theme of a minority rising up against a dominant majority for liberty and equality.

OPEC Oil Embargo

1973

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries launched an embargo on the United States during the Arab-Israeli War. This led to crude oil prices being quadrupling within a year. This brought the world into one of it's worst economic periods since the 1930s. Energy-based industries greatly suffered and millions lost their jobs.