History timeline


Temujin takes leadership over Mongols.


Around 1200, a Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one.

Temujin becomes Genghis Khan


In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans. Over the next 21 years, Genghis led the Mongols in conquering much of Asia.

Jin Empire Invasion


After invading the northern Jin Empire in 1211, however, his attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia. Angered by the murder of Mongol traders and an ambas- sador at the hands of the Muslims, Genghis launched a campaign of terror across Central Asia.

Central Asia under Mongol control


By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control. Genghis Khan was in control but growing old.

Genghis Khan died


In the year 1227 Genghis Khan died. This was his 26th year of his rein.

Mongols divide their empire


By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates. (See the map on page 334.) These were the Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia). A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.

Silk roads were traveled


He traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275. Polo had learned several Asian languages in his travels, and Kublai Khan sent him to various Chinese cities on government missions.

Huge fleets were sent against Japan


In 1274 and again in 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan. The Mongols forced Koreans to build, sail, and provide provisions for the boats, a costly task that almost ruined Korea. Both times the Japanese turned back the Mongol fleets.

Kublai Khan dies


Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade. Family members continually argued over who would rule. In one eight-year period, four different khans took the throne.


Beginning of Mauryan Empire

321 BC

Chandragupta Maurya may have been born in the powerful kingdom of Magadha.

North India unites with

303 BC

He wanted to reestablish Macedonian

Asoka became king

269 BC

Asoka dies

232 BC

Noble as his policies of toleration and nonviolence were, they failed to hold the empire together after Asoka died in 232 B.C.

Mauryan Empire ends

185 BC

India and regions as distant as Africa and Sumeria began more than 4,000 years ago. Trade expanded even after the Mauryan Empire ended around 185 B.C.

Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne


In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years. Then Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka

Chandra Gupta became king

320 AD

The first Gupta emperor came to power not through battle but by marrying a daughter of an influential royal family. After his marriage, Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320

Samadura Gupta becomes king

335 AD

His empire included Magadha and the area north of it, with his power base along the Ganges River. His son

Chandra Gupta II ruling

375 AD - 415 AD

This allowed the Guptas to engage in profitable trade with the Mediterranean world. Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.

Chandra Gupta the second ruling ends

415 AD

This allowed the Guptas to engage in profitable trade with the Mediterranean world. Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.

Empire ends

535 AD

Over the next 100 years, the Gupta Empire broke into small king- doms. Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535.

India 1398


Delhi is destroyed. Timer the lame is the cause of it. the city was so bad that even a bird didn't fly in the sky

A new king is born


A new king is born. an 11 year old names Babur inherits the throne. this area is now Uzbekistan and Tajikstan.

Babur the general


Babur General lead 12,000 soldiers to victory against 100,000 soldiers. This army was commanded by the sultan of the Delhi

Babur's grandson rules

1556 - 1605

Babur's grandson Akbar rules the empire. Akbar means great ruler. He ruled with wisdom and power.

Mumtaz Mahai dies


she died at age 39 while giving birth to her14th child.

Shah becomes ill


he becomes ill. when he is ill his 4 sons scrambled for throne. his third son Aurangzeb becomes throne.

Aurangzeb rules

1658 - 1707

Aurangzeb rules the empire.




In the year of Our Lord 1348 the deadly plague broke out in the great city of Florence, most beautiful of Italian cities. Whether through the operation of the heavenly bodies or because of our own iniquities [sins] which the just wrath of God sought to correct, the plague had arisen in the East some years before, causing the death of countless human beings.


1434 - 1464

In 1434, he won control of Florence’s government. He did not seek political office for himself, but influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. For 30 years, he was dictator of Florence. Cosimo de Medici died in 1464.



Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg, a craftsman from Mainz, Germany, devel- oped a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way. The process made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply. Using this improved process, Gutenberg printed a complete Bible, the Gutenberg Bible, in about 1455.


1452 - 1519

Leonardo da Vinci is born in 1452. he dies in 1519



By 1450 the population of northern Europe, which had declined due to bubonic plague, was beginning to grow again. When the destructive Hundred Years’ War between France and England ended in 1453, many cities grew rapidly. Urban mer- chants became wealthy enough to sponsor artists. This happened first in Flanders, which was rich from long-distance trade and the cloth industry.



Third, Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manu- scripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453

late 1460's


Donatello’s statue was created in the late 1460s.



His grandson, Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469.


1475 - 1564

Michelangelo Buonarroti is born in 1475. He dies in 1564


1492 - 1547

The women writers who gained fame during the Renaissance usually wrote about personal sub- jects, not politics. Yet, some of them had great influence. Vittoria Colonna (1492–1547) was born of a noble family.



In 1494, a French king claimed the throne of Naples in southern Italy and launched an invasion through northern Italy. As the war dragged on, many Italian artists and writers left for a safer life in Northern Europe. They brought with them the styles and techniques of the Italian Renaissance.



In 1509, she married the Marquis of Pescara. He spent most of his life away from home on military campaigns.



The Prince (1513) by Niccolò Machiavelli (MAK





Baldassare Castiglione wrote the book the courtier in 1528.



The Flemish painter Pieter Bruegel’s paintings provide information about peasant life in the 1500s.


1558 - 1603

The Renaissance spread to England in the mid-1500s. The period was known as the Elizabethan Age, after Queen Elizabeth I. Elizabeth reigned from 1558 to 1603. She was well educated and spoke French, Italian, Latin, and Greek. She also wrote poetry and music. As queen she did much to support the development of English art and literature.



Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon, a small town about 90 miles northwest of London. By 1592 he was living in London and writing poems and plays, and soon he would be performing at the Globe Theater.