Around 1200, a Mongol clan leader named Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one.
In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans. He would lead for 26 years.
Genghis Khan first goal was China. After invading the northern Jin Empire in 1211, however, his attention turned to the Islamic region west of Mongolia.
By 1225, Central Asia was under Mongol control. Genghis Khan was in control but growing old.
In the year 1227 Ghenghjs Khan died. This was his 26th year of his rein.
By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates. These were the Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), the Khanate of Chagatai (Central Asia), the Ilkhanate (Persia), and the Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia). A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.
Marco Polo traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275.
After conquering China, Kublai Khan tried to extend his rule to Japan. In 1274 and again in 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan. The Mongols forced Koreans to build, sail, and provide provisions for the boats, a costly task that almost ruined Korea. Both times the Japanese turned back the Mongol fleets.
In 1294 Kublai Khan died. It was the end of his rein. He was 79.
Chandragupta gathered an army, killed the unpopular Nanda king, and in about 321 B.C. claimed the throne. This began the Mauryan Empire.
After several years of fighting, however, Chandragupta defeated Seleucus. By 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000
In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years. Then Chandragupta’s grandson, Asoka
Asoka became king in 269
Noble as his policies of toleration and nonviolence were, they failed to hold the empire together after Asoka died in 232 B.C.
For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320. His empire included Magadha and the area north of it, with his power base along the
This allowed the Guptas to engage in profitable trade with the Mediterranean world. Chandra Gupta II also strengthened his empire through peaceful means by negotiating diplomatic and marriage alliances. He ruled from A.D. 375 to 415.
End of Gupta II rule.
Over the next 100 years, the Gupta Empire broke into small king- doms. Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535.
Delhi is destroyed. Timer the lame is the cause of it. The city was so bad that even a bird didn’t fly in the sky.
A new king is born. An 11 year old named Babur inherits the throne. This area is now Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
Babur general. He lead 12,000 soldiers to victory against 100,000 soldiers. This army was commanded by the sultan of Delhi.
Babur's grandson rules. He ruled with wisdom and tolerance.
Mumtaz Mahal dies. She died at age 39 while giving birth. She gave birth to her 14th child.
Shah became ill. When he can ill his 4 sons scrambled to the throne. His third son Aurangzeb became throne.
They were about a mysterious woman named Laura, who was his ideal. (Little is known of Laura except that she died of the plague in 1348.) In classical Latin, he wrote letters to many important friends.
In 1434, he won control of Florence’s government. He did not seek political office for himself, but influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. For 30 years, he was dictator of Florence.
Leonardo da Vinci 1452–1519
Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks—and life—are mysterious. Some 3,500 pages closely covered with writings and drawings survive. His-writing is clear and easy to read, but only if you look at it in a mirror. No one-knows why he wrote backwards.
Third, Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manu- scripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.
His grandson, Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent, he ruled as a dictator yet kept up the appearance of having an elected government.
Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475–1564
Like Leonardo, Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet
Yet, some of them had great influence. Vittoria Colonna (1492–1547) was born of a noble family. In 1509, she married the Marquis of Pescara. He spent most of his life away from home on military campaigns.
The Prince (1513) by Niccolò Machiavelli (MAK