The Mongolian Empire


Temujin Unifies Mongols


During this time, Temujin, a clan leader, wanted to bring together the Mongols under his power.

Temujin Accepts Title


Temujin was awarded the title of “Genghis Khan”, or universal leader. He was crowned the leader of the Mongol clan.

Genghis Conquers Jin Empire


After receiving his title, Genghis and his army of Mongols conquered many territories. In 1211, they conquered the northern Jin Empire, lunching the rest of Asia into terror of Genghis and the Mongols.

Genghis Gains Control


With all of Asia in peril, Genghis continues to destroy and conquer parts of China, including Utrar, Samarkand, and Bukhara. Eventually, all of Central Asia was under his control.

Genghis Khan's Death


Genghis Khan died in 1227—not from violence, but from illness. His successors continued to expand his empire. In less than 50 years, the Mongols conquered ter- ritory from China to Poland. In so doing, they created the largest unified land empire in history.

Mongol Empire Divides


By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates.

Marco Polo reaches China


The most famous European to visit China in these years was a young Venetian trader, Marco Polo. He traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275.

The Great Khan attacks Japan


1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets of ships to the Japanese archipelago.

Kublai Khan Dies


Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade. Family members continually argued over who would rule. In one eight-year period, four different khans took the throne.


Mauryan Empire founded by CM

321 BC

Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire. Mauryan capital city is Patliputra

CM gains control of immense area in Benegal

303 BC

By 303 B.C., Chandragupta Maurya (known to the Greeks as Sandracotta) had gained control of an immense area ranging from Bengal in the east to Afghanistan in the west and as far south as the Narmada River

Seleucus makes peace with CM

301 BC

Seleucus went as far as India, where, after two years of war, he reached an agreement with Chandragupta Maurya, in which he exchanged his eastern territories for a considerable force of 500 war elephants, which would play a decisive role at Ipsus

Asokas reign

269 BC - 232 BC

Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, ruled from 269 to 232 B.C. and was one of India's most illustrious rulers

The expansion of kingdoms

185 BC

The expansion of two kingdoms in the northeast laid the groundwork for the emergence of India's first empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty

India is ruled by the Gupta empire

320 - 335

After centuries of being split into small kingdoms and republics, India is ruled by the Gupta Empire. Under the rule of the Gupta kings, Hinduism becomes the major religion of the empire. Literature, art, architecture and science flourish during this "classical age" of peace and prosperity.

Chandragupta II rules

375 - 415

cave-temple of Elephanta Island (Bombay)


Invasion of Timur


The invasion of Timur in 1398 significantly weakened the Delhi Sultanate.

Babur founds an empire


In 1494, the Emir of Ferghana died suddenly, and 11-year-old Babur ascended his father's throne. His seat was anything but secure, however, with numerous uncles and cousins plotting to replace him.

The battle of Panipat


Akbar succeeds Humayun

1556 - 1605

Akbar was only 14 years of age in 1556 when he succeeded his father Humayun. That year, a formidable anti-Mughal coalition, consisting mainly of Afghanis, tried to recapture northern India but lost its battle against the Mughals at Panipat. Mughal control over northern India was finally established.

Arjumand Banu



Cosimo's reign

1434 - 1469

He ruled as king from 1434 until his death in 1469