The World and Europe I Final

Or just 2nd Semester

Holy Roman Empire

Louis the Child Dies

911 CE

Otto I

936 CE - 973 CE

Saxon Ruler

Battle of Lechfeld

955 C.E.

with the Magyars

The Late Middle Ages

ca. 1300 - 1500

College of Cardinals

1059 CE

Elected people since then
Stopping there

Philip IV

1285 CE - 1314 CE

His reign dates

Pope Bonifice VIII

1294 CE - 1303 CE

His reign dates

Strain of Medieval Technology

1300 CE - 1359 CE

Pope Clement V

1304 CE - 1314 CE

His reign dates

Babylonian Captivity

1304 CE - 1374 CE

The second and is when the popes went to Anjou instead of Rome

Too Much Rain

1310 Ce

Bad Harvests

1315 CE


1315 CE - 1322 CE

Rumors of hoarding gain

1322 CE

Capetian's Good Luck Ran Out

1328 CE

Hundred Years' War

1337 CE - 1453 CE

Plague Reached England

1348 CE

Jewish Communities Burned

1351 CE

60 or more important communities

England passes wage law

1351 CE

Puts a limit on how much free peasants/serfs can get paid fir their work

Pope Gregory XI

1370 CE - 1378 CE

His reign dates went back to Rome to rule b/c of Catherine of Siena.

Catherine of Siena went to Pope Gregory XI

1376 CE

To convince him to go back to Rome

Richard II

1377 CE - 1399 CE

His reign dates

Pope Urban VI

1378 CE - 1389 CE

His reign dates

Pope Clement VII

1378 CE - 1394 CE

His reign dates

War of the Roses

1455 CE - 1485 CE

Between the House of Lancaster (Red Rose) and House of York (White Rose), They were both descendants of Edward III. Ended with Henry of Tudor

Richard III

1483 CE - 1485 CE

His reign dates
Henry of Tudor defeated him at the Battle of Bosworth

Henry VII

1485 CE - 1509 CE

His reign dates

Battle at Bosworth Field

1485 CE

Renaissance, Reformation, and Counter-Reformation

Fourth Crusade

1204 CE

Led by Venetians led in the conquest of Constantinople.


1267 CE - 1337 CE

Visconti Family

1278 CE - 1447 CE

Began when the commune invited a solider from a family named Visconti to come in and keep the peace. He stayed on as prince and established a dynasty that reigned Milan.

Francesco Petrarch

1304 CE - 1374 CE

King Robert

1309 CE - 1343 CE

In Naples, held under his patronage were Giotto and Boccaccio and even was a friend of learning and virtue.

Black Death in Italy

1348 CE

Florence's population declined

1348 CE

Florence's population declined 40% b/c of the plague

Christine of Pizan

1365 CE - 1430 CE

(1365 - ca. 1430)

Cosimo de Medici

1389 CE - 1464 CE


Florentines invited Greek

1396 CE

Florentines invited Greek scholar from Byzantium to lecture at the University of Florence

Johannes Gutenberg

1400 CE - 1470 CE

German Silversmith who produced the first printed bible

Great Schism Ended

1417 CE

Marsilo Ficino

1433 CE - 1499 CE

Guided studies at Cosimo's School (Platonic Academy). He was a Neapolitan scholar and translated words of Plato.

Cosimo de Medici took control of Florence

1434 CE

Cosimo de Medici took control of the Florence oligarchy and exiled his rivals. He concentrated power in his household while ostensibly keeping a republican form of government.

Alfonso the Magnanimous

1435 CE - 1458 CE

He worked to centralize his administration, but was unable to fully subdue his barons, and Naples remained a feudal kingdom. He was a passionate devotee of Italian culture and served as a patron of the Renaissance.

King of Aragon reunited the crowns

1435 CE

He reunited the crowns of Naples and Sicily.

Visconti Dynasty Ended

1447 CE

With the death of the prince w/o an heir and opened a new power struggle.

Sforza Family Took Power

1450 CE

The family kept the city-state's proud military tradition, yet also served as patrons of the arts to enhance their own personal reputations. They continued to rule until the early 16th century, though always under pressure of growing republican aspirations.

Girolamo Savonarola

1452 CE - 1498 CE

He was a courageous, yet uncompromising, man who had resented the rule of the Medici and accused the clergy of corruption from the papacy on down. He argued vigorously against the lust for money that motivated citizens. He despised humanism, which he believed poisoned everything from art to religion by putting humans in the spotlight.

The First Printed Bible

1455 CE

Made Johannes Gutenberg

Pico della Mirandola

1463 CE - 1494 CE

Wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man; People determine their own destiny.

Lorenzo the Magnificent

1469 CE - 1492 CE

His reign dates. He is Cosimo's grandson.

Niccoló Machiavelli

1469 CE - 1537 CE

The most noted writer on political skill and diplomacy. The Prince, the book he wrote, still influences many modern-day political thinkers. Recognized the danger in confronting Florence in the 15th c as French armies threatened the independence of many city-states. He wanted to see past realism and a ruler must be tough.

Baldassare Castiglione

1473 CE - 1529 CE

Wrote The Book of the Coutier


1475 CE - 1564 CE

Cesore Borgia

1475 CE - 1507 CE

(ca) He was a candiate for uniting Italy under Alexander's authority. (The pope's warrior son)

Presses in Italian Cities

1480 CE

Possession of Madonna

1483 CE

Believed to have stopped destructive rainfall

Pope Alexander VI

1492 CE - 1503 CE

His reign dates. Borgia pope who tried to reclaim his lands from his acquisitive neighbors. He upheld the Renaissance Family Life.

French armies invaded Florence

1494 CE

French armies invaded the countryside around Florence, and the city-state was again buffeted w/ financial and material woes. The French allies found a ally within the city in the person of a fiery preacher who had objected the rule of the Medici (Savonarola).

Burning of Vanities

1497 CE

Produced by Savonarola, he preached against nude paintings and sculptures. It was a huge bonfire into which people tossed ornaments, pictures, cards, and other "frivolous" items.

Thousands of Presses over the Continent

1500 CE

Florence was bankrupted

1500 CE

During the early 1500's Florence was bankrupted and had massive debt, so they turned to the Medici.

Julius II

1503 CE - 1513 CE

One of the most memorable popes. Embodied the ambitious values of the times. He was a prefect Renaissance Ruler. A patron of the arts made in Rome a cultural hub on a par with the greatest of Florence.

Republic Formally Dissolved in Florence

1530 CE