The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

League of Combat formed


Mussolini created a new political group called the "Fascio di Combattimento", which means "League of Combat"

Famine in Russia

1920 - 1922

Peasants hoarding food, plus a drought, caused major famine, 5 million lives lost.

First European fascist movement made


Benito Mussolini established the movement in Italy in the early 1920s

Lenin starts New Economic Policy


Lenin stops war communism and begins to follow his modified version of old capitalism where the government controlled industry, banking, and mines

USSR named


Lenin and the Communists created a new state called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Mussolini becomes prime minister


King of Italy made Mussolini prime minister

Death of Lenin


Lenin died. Immediately afterward there was a power struggle.

Il Duce


Mussolini ruled Itals as "Il Duce" = "The Leader"



Secret police known as OVRA started in Italy

Trotsky expelled


Trotsky was expelled from the communist party.

First Five-Year Plan

1928 - 1933

Stalin's first five-year plan emphasized production of armaments and capital goods. Rapid industrialization.

Great Purge

1930 - 1940

Over the 1930's Stalin had many real and imagined opponents put to death or sent to forced labor camps in Siberia. Old Bolsheviks, army officers, union officials, intellectuals, etc.

Even larger famine in Russia

1932 - 1933

Collectivization of farms didn't work well, output fell. 10 million people died of famine.

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Led by General Francisco Franco, Spanish military revolted against the democratic government in 1936. Ended in 1939 when Franco captured Madrid.

Hitler and Nazi Germany

Hitler in control of Nazi party


Hitler took control of Nazi party

Beer Hall Putsch


Hitler led failed uprising against the government. Wrote Mein Kampf in jail.

Enabling Act

March 1933

The Enabling Act passed in the Reichstag. It allowed Hitler the power to make decrees without the Reichstag.

Hindenburg died


President Hindenburg died and the office of president was abolished.

Nuremburg Laws


Jews were excluded from German citizenship. They were not allowed to marry Germans, and hard to wear yellow stars and carry identification papers.


November 1938

Synagogues were burned and 7000 Jewish businesses were destroyed.

Hitler Youth


By 1939 all German young people were expected to join the Hitler Youth and swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler.