Mussolini created a new political group called the "Fascio di Combattimento", which means "League of Combat"
Benito Mussolini established the movement in Italy in the early 1920s
Peasants hoarding food, plus a drought, caused major famine, 5 million lives lost.
Lenin stops war communism and begins to follow his modified version of old capitalism where the government controlled industry, banking, and mines
King of Italy made Mussolini prime minister
Lenin and the Communists created a new state called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Lenin died. Immediately afterward there was a power struggle.
Secret police known as OVRA started in Italy
Mussolini ruled Itals as "Il Duce" = "The Leader"
Trotsky was expelled from the communist party.
Stalin's first five-year plan emphasized production of armaments and capital goods. Rapid industrialization.
Over the 1930's Stalin had many real and imagined opponents put to death or sent to forced labor camps in Siberia. Old Bolsheviks, army officers, union officials, intellectuals, etc.
Collectivization of farms didn't work well, output fell. 10 million people died of famine.
Led by General Francisco Franco, Spanish military revolted against the democratic government in 1936. Ended in 1939 when Franco captured Madrid.
Hitler took control of Nazi party
Hitler led failed uprising against the government. Wrote Mein Kampf in jail.
The Enabling Act passed in the Reichstag. It allowed Hitler the power to make decrees without the Reichstag.
President Hindenburg died and the office of president was abolished.
Jews were excluded from German citizenship. They were not allowed to marry Germans, and hard to wear yellow stars and carry identification papers.
Synagogues were burned and 7000 Jewish businesses were destroyed.
By 1939 all German young people were expected to join the Hitler Youth and swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler.