German Governments and Leaders (1815-1945)

Type of Government

Confederacy

1815 - 1871

Absolutist Monarchy

1871 - 1918

Parliamentary Democracy

1918 - 1933

Fascist Dictatorship

1933 - 1945

State

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Replacement to the Holy Roman Empire.
Confederation of many countries, all under one president.

German Empire (2nd Reich)

1871 - 1918

Weimar Republic

1918 - 1933

Provisional government set up post-WWI. Uprooted by Hitler.

German Empire (3rd Reich)

1933 - 1945

Hitler's reign over all of central and most of east Europe at his high point.

Leader

Various Presidents

1815 - 1866

Presidents of the German Confederation
1815–1835: Francis I of Austria
1835–1848: Ferdinand I of Austria
1848–1866: Francis Joseph I of Austria

Wilhelm I as King of Prussia

1861 - 1871

Bismarck as PM

1862 - 1871

Bismarck as Chancellor

1871 - 1890

Kaiser Wilhelm I

1871 - 1888

Kaiser Wilhelm II

1888 - 1918

Friedrich Ebert

1918 - 1925

Paul von Hinderburg

1925 - 1933

Adolf Hitler as Chancellor

1933 - 1945