Western Civilization

Main

Bronze Age begins in Mesopotamia

3500 B.C.

Old Kingdom in Egypt

3200 B.C. - 2260 B.C.

Sargon of Akkad

2340 B.C.

Middle Kingdom in Egypt

2052 B.C. - 1786 B.C.

Abraham leads Hebrews to Canaan

1800 B.C. - 1700 B.C.

Reign of Hammurabi

1792 B.C. - 1750 B.C.

New Kingdom in Egypt

1575 B.C. - 1086 B.C.

Mycenaean Civilization flourishes on Greek mainland

1400 B.C. - 1200 B.C.

Moses leads Hebrew Exodus from Egypt

1300 B.C.

Trojan War

1230 B.C.

Massive destructions throughout the Mediterranean

1200 B.C.

Greek Dark Ages

1100 B.C. - 750 B.C.

Reigns of Hebrew Kings David and Solomon

1000 B.C. - 922 B.C.

First Olympic Games

776 B.C.

Greek revival of trade and colonization

750 B.C. - 700 B.C.

Homer's Illiad and Odyssey transcribed from oral tradition

725 B.C. - 700 B.C.

Age of Greek Tyrants

700 B.C. - 550 B.C.

Development of early Greek philosophy

600 B.C. - 500 B.C.

Babylonian Captivity of Hebrews

586 B.C. - 536 B.C.

Cleisthenes institutes democratic reforms in Athens

508 B.C. - 501 B.C.

Greeks defeat Persians at Marathon

490 B.C.

Greeks defeat Persians at Salamis

480 B.C.

Delian Confederacy established

478 B.C.

Delian treasury moved to Athens

454 B.C.

Parthenon begun with funds garnered from the Delian treasury

447 B.C.

Antigone by Sophocles wins first prize in Athens

441 B.C.

Peloponesian War

431 B.C. - 404 B.C.

Spartan hegemony over Greece

400 B.C. - 371 B.C.

Trial and execution of Socrates

399 B.C.

Theban hegemony over Greece

371 B.C. - 362 B.C.

Philip II of Macedon conquers Greeks

359 B.C. - 338 B.C.

Death of Plato

347 B.C.

Alexander the Great conquers Persian Empire and beyond

336 B.C. - 323 B.C.

Death of Aristotle

322 B.C.

Roman destruction of Carthage

146 B.C.

Reforms of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

133 B.C. - 122 B.C.

Ascendency of Marius and Sulla

120 B.C. - 78 B.C.

Revolt of Spartacus

73 B.C.

Consulate of Cicero

63 B.C.

Rirst Triumvirate (Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus)

60 B.C.

Civil War (Caesar vs. Pompey)

49 B.C. - 45 B.C.

Civil War (Antony vs. Octavian)

44 B.C. - 31 B.C.

Assassination of Julius Caesar

44 B.C.

Principate of Augustus

27 B.C. - 14 C.E.

Julio-Claudian Dynasty

14 C.E. - 68 C.E.

Crucifixion of Jesus Christ

30 C.E.

Conversion of Paul

35 C.E.

Death of apostles Peter and Paul

64 C.E.

Civil War (Year of the Four Emperors)

69 C.E.

Flavian Dynasty

69 C.E. - 96 C.E.

Four Gospels Written

70 C.E. - 100 C.E.

Five "Good Emperors"

96 C.E. - 180 C.E.

"Crisis of the Third Century" begins

180 C.E. - 284 C.E.

Christian persecution under Decius and Valerius

250 C.E. - 260 C.E.

Reign of Diocletian

284 C.E. - 305 C.E.

Christian persecution under Diocletian

303 C.E.

"Edict of Toleration"

311 C.E.

Reign of Constantine

312 C.E. - 337 C.E.

Council of Nicaea

323 C.E.

Christianity becomes official religion of Rome

392 C.E.

Rome sacked by Alaric the Visigoth

410 C.E.

Huns led by Attila invade Europe

451 C.E.

Last Western Roman emperor deposed

476 C.E.

Reign of Justinian

527 C.E. - 565 C.E.

Monastatic rule of St. Benedict established

530 C.E.

Life of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam

570 C.E. - 632 C.E.

Reign of Charlemagne, King of the Franks

768 C.E. - 814 C.E.

Viking raids throughout Europe

850 C.E. - 1050 C.E.

Foundation of the monastery at Cluny

910 C.E.

Norman invasion of England

1066 C.E.

Investiture Controversy

1075 C.E. - 1122 C.E.

Pope Urban II preaches first crusade

1095 C.E.

Life of Hildegard von Bingen

1098 C.E. - 1179 C.E.

Jerusalem falls to the Crusaders

1099 C.E.

Concordant of Worms ends investiture controversy

1122 C.E.

Life of Saint Francis of Assissi

1182 C.E. - 1226 C.E.

Third Crusade fails to recover Holy Land

1189 C.E. - 1192 C.E.

Papacy of Innocent III

1198 C.E. - 1216 C.E.

Constantinople sacked by Crusaders

1204 C.E.

Magna Carta establishes rights of Englishmen

1215 C.E.

Life of philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas

1225 C.E. - 1274 C.E.

Unam Sanctam: "Doctrine of the Two Swords"

1302 C.E.

Death of Pope Boniface VIII

1303 C.E.

Papacy relocated to Avignon

1309 C.E. - 1377 C.E.

Death of Dante

1321 C.E.

Defensor Pacis supports supremacy of church councils

1324 C.E.

Hundred Years' War

1337 C.E. - 1453 C.E.

Black Death rages in Europe

1347 C.E. - 1351 C.E.

Great Schism divides the Church

1378 C.E. - 1417 C.E.

Council of Pisa promotes conciliar authority

1409 C.E.

Medici rule established in Florence

1434 C.E.

Movable type printing press

1450 C.E.

Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks

1453 C.E.

Life of Nicolò MAchiavelli

1469 C.E. - 1527 C.E.

Rule of Lorenzo d' Medici in Florence

1478 C.E. - 1492 C.E.

Columbus's first voyage to the New World

1492 C.E.

Florentine theocracy of Girolamo Savonarola

1494 C.E. - 1498 C.E.

Florentine Republic

1498 C.E. - 1512 C.E.

Vasco da Gama trades on Malabar coast of India

1498 C.E.

Michelangelo's David completed

1504 C.E.

Erasmus writes The Praise of Folly

1509 C.E.

Luther posts Ninety-Five Theses

1517 C.E.

Refirmation

1517 C.E.

Cortés defeats Aztec forces in Mexico

1519 C.E. - 1521 C.E.

Luther excommunicated by Edict of Worms

1521 C.E.

Peasant Revolt

1524 C.E.

Francisco Pizarro conquers Incas of Peru

1531 C.E. - 1533 C.E.

Henry VIII's Act of Supremacy

1534 C.E.

Calvin active in Geneva

1536 C.E.

Jesuit order formed by Ignatius Loyola

1540 C.E.

Council of Trent

1545 C.E. - 1563 C.E.

Death of Martin Luther

1546 C.E.

Peace of Augsburg

1555 C.E.

Elizabeth I rules England

1558 C.E. - 1603 C.E.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572 C.E.

Spanish extract silver from mines of Potosí

1585 C.E.

Destruction of the Spanish Armada

1588 C.E.

Philip II launches Spanish Armada against England

1588 C.E.

Edict of Nantes

1589 C.E.

English Settlement at Jamestown

1607 C.E.

The Thirty Years War

1618 C.E. - 1648 C.E.

Pilgrims land at Plymouth

1620 C.E.

Puritans found Massachusetts Bay Colony

1630 C.E.