Great military leader of Justinian's army. Defeated the Vandals in North Africa, took Italy, but in the end conquered more territory than could be controlled
Assistant to Belisarius and was an eyewitness in battle. Presented the story in classical Greco-Roman ideals. Wrote Wars, Buildings, and Secret Lives
Emperor of Byzantium at its height
Revolt at the Hippodrome that destroyed a large amount of Byzantium
Married Justinian, was a former call girl, proved to be a loyal, intelligent, and strong willed woman.
Monk who was isolated to the extreme by staying in the Egyptian Desert
Created the Benedictine rules for monastery communities - must participate in prayer, physical labor, minor trade, and hospitality for travelers
Who: A king
What: He converted to Roman Catholic Christianity; he created a unified kingdom for himself in Gaul
When: 5th/6th centuries CE
Where: Frankish kingdom of Gaul
Why: His conversion to Roman Catholic Christianity forged a new alliance between the Frankish kings and the Papacy; his conquests led to the creation of a unified Merovingian kingdom that would last (although not necessarily as a unit) until the dynasty was overthrown in the 8th century.
(died) Was hostage at Constantinople who took over Italy. He respected Romans but had separate systems for Ostrogoths and allowed no intermarriage. The systems didn't survive after his death.
With Visigothic rule in Spain there was no clear line of succession which lead to many assassinations and executions. The Church made it illegal to take over the government
Battle where Charles Martel defeated the Muslims
(died) Mayor of the palace in Gaul - did the work of a king but never became king. Gained power by propaganda.
Son of Charles Martel, Merovingian King. Attained legitimacy from the Pope and claimed a divine monarchy
Who: King, Emperor
What: He conquered most of western and central Europe; he was crowned Emperor of all the Romans by the Pope; he established the Carolingian Empire; he established the Carolingian Renaissance; he spread Roman Catholic Christianity throughout western and central Europe.
When: 8th/9th centuries CE
Where: western and central Europe (except Spain)
Why: His reign gave European civilization a breathing space between the destruction caused by the Germanic invasions and the Viking invasions.
Crowned Charlemagne giving him legitimacy in exchange for protection
Who: Vikings; Northmen/Norsemen
What: A series of devastating invasions by the Vikings
When: 9th/10th centuries CE
Where: western and central Europe; Russia; Byzantine Empire
Why: The Viking Invasions led to extreme decentralization of authority and led to the rise of the systems of feudalism and manorialism.
Who: Lords and Vassals
What: A mutual agreement between two free men that provided for an exchange of loyalty, military service, protection, and a fief (usually in the form of land).
When: 9th/10th centuries CE
Why: The extreme decentralization of authority led to centuries of conflict between kings, popes, and noblemen over whether power should be local or more centrally defined.
Son of Charlemagne; not a strong ruler. His sons fight over the throne
Son of Louis the Pious who received Frank
Treaty signed by the sons of Louis the Pious that splits the Merovingian empire into 3: Gaul, Frank, and Germany
Son of Louis the Pious who received Gaul
Son of Louis the Pious who received Germany
Viking who was given Normandy by Charles the Simple. He converted to Christianity
King of France that gave land (Normandy) to the viking Rollo to defend it against
Marked by an environmental warmer shift which led to longer growing season and surplus. The invent of the caruca - a heavier plow puled by horses with collars and horse shoes helped with farming. The population doubled in that 300 year period.
Earliest University in Italy
University in Northern Europe
University in Northern Europe (Before Cambridge)
University in Northern Europe (After Oxford)
Muslims that were militarily successful and controlled Asia minor
Formerly was on the counsel of Castillo (king of Christian Spain) but when he was forced into exile by his brother Alfonso he joined forced with the Muslims and gained land.
Emperor of Byzantine empire that wanted to stop the Seljuq Turks and enlisted the help of Pope Urbano II for men.
Pope that was asked by the Byzantine emperor Alexius I to send men to stop the Seljuq Turks and gave brilliant speech at council of Clermont
Franks take Nicaea, Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem. After Antioch they ran out of food and resorted even to eating each other. Killed many Jews and non-Christians
Brilliant speech given by Pope Urbano II to the Franks to fight the Seljuq Turks and thus started the Crusades. Told the that all of their sins would be forgiven and would receive a cross
Went on the Second Crusade.
Who: Muslim Ruler
What: Unified the Muslims during the Crusades; retook Jerusalem after the Battle of Hattin; negotiated an end to the Third Crusade with Richard I of England.
When: 1100s/12th century
Where: Egypt; Jerusalem
Why: Saladin’s conquest of Jerusalem led to the pope’s call for the Third Crusade; his merciful treatment of the people of Jerusalem serves as a contrast to the wholesale slaughter of the city’s residents when it was taken by Christian armies during the First Crusade.
On this Crusade many died when flour was replaced with chalk
Drowned on the third Crusade
Along with Richard I (the Lionheart) took Acre
Along with Phillip II Augustus take Acre. Negotiated an end of third crusade with Saladin
Orginally Phillip II Agustus, Richard I(the Lionheart), and Frederick I Barbarossa went on this conquest because Saladin (muslim military leader) was taking back Jerusalem, but Frederick II of Barbarossa and Richard made an agreement with Saladin
Franks take Constantinople
Lost of the Crusader city of Acre to the Muslims
Appointed by Duke of Aquitaine, he signs a document and gives control to the pope and many follow to save their eternal souls.
In France it is no longer the Carolingian dynasty but the Capetian dynasty starting with Hugh Capet.
Dane King that takes over control of England. He Supported the Catholic church.
(German) Takes south Italy
Angloe-Saxon that grew up in Normandy. Gave English land to the Norms,
Last of the Salian Kings and had great conflict with the Pope who controlled the city-states. Pope Gregory threatens to excommunicate Henry IV
(died) English brother-in-law of Edward the Confessor. After being taken captive by William he makes an oath that he will not take the throne in England and breaks that oath. William attacks in the Battle of Hastings and Harold is shot in the eye with an arrow and William became king of England.
Norman cousin of Edward the Confessor, and convinces him to exile his father-in-law. After Harold breaks his oath enlisted the help of juvenals to fight the English. Williams becomes the King of England
1- Declared England a royal possession and all feudal agreements were void
2- Created a Doomsday Book which was a detailed account of ownership for tax
3- Oath on Salisbury Plain where all vassals swear oath to him as king
Most Famous reform pope. Issued a decree that popes cannot accept power from secular sources and has the power to depose the emperor. Ultimately he dies in exile and is unsuccessful
Where Henry IV has to stand in the cold to receive forgiveness from Pope Gregory VIII
Detailed account of who owned what for tax. Effort of William the Conqueror to centralize control
Where all vassals swear oath to him as king. Effort of William the Conqueror to centralize control
(German) Brother of Robert the Cunning, took Sicily which becomes the most powerful state in Europe
Held the most powerful position in the Church in England. Forced Henry II to pay large fine
Agreement that Popes have the right to chose bishops
Was previously married to king Louis, married was enulled and two months later she married Henry II. Some of her sons rebelled against Henry and they were killed. Her son Richard I the Lionheart was given the throne.
Drowned in the Crusade (German). Tried to attack Northern Italian city-states but the Pope fights back. He negotiates with the Pope and says he will not attack if they pay tribute. This begins the Holy Roman Empire
Inherited the count of Anjou, married Elanor of Acquitane and became English King
Son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine that received the throne of England
Son of Louis VII who is king of France and attacked England but doesn't go near Aquitaine. Began to hire his own army of mercenaries instead of vassals
Frederick I Barbarossa arranges a marriage between his daughter and Henry VI and controls all but the Papal states
Loosens control over Germany but is still king; control in Germany becomes decentralized.
Made the claim that the Pope has more power than the king. Used interdict - Excommunication of an entire region to control the king.
Brother of Richard I the Lionheart because he had no sons when he died John took his place but wasn't a strong fighter
Crusade led by Pope Innocent III that denied the authority of the church. Lasted for 20 years and thousands of people were killed.
King of England John was forced to sign this feudal document saying what the king can and cannot do with the vassals and the church
Established to decide if a Christian was a hieratic
Carried by the black rat introduced by ships from Asia with the Mongols and Genoans, spread rapidly, killed 25-50% of the population in Europe in 4 years. Would go away and come back every 5-10 years
French king and father of Philip V who becomes king after him
Went against French king Philip. Decreed Unam Sanctum - Power over all Christians belongs to the Pope.
Papacy moved to Avignon by Pope Clement and king Philip IV, popes become puppets and raise taxes. Causes the great schism because goes against the Petrine supremacy
Frenchman elected by king Philip IV and moves Papal court to Avignon
Nephew of Charles IV, English-man that felt he was the closest living relative for the French throne after Charles IV died.
Was favored for the French throne of Charles IV by the French nobility thus beginning the hundred years war
(died) One of the three sons of Philip V of France and when he died Charles IV becomes king. When he dies he had only daughters, a dispute for his throne between English Edward III and French Philip VI takes place
Prince that never becomes king because his father out lived him
Caused by the dispute over the throne between Edward III and Philip IV
Battle France loses due to archery
Signed by both the French and the English
Was the Pope of the Roman Papacy
Italian elected by the french cardinals during the Great Schism
Frenchman chosen by the French cardinals during the Great Schism.
Chose to depose both Popes (Urban VI and Clement VII) and elect Alexander V creating 3 popes.
Claimed to have vision from God to lead Charles VII to be crowned. Her religious conviction helped lead the French to victory. Because she wanted to continue she was put on trial for witchcraft and burned at the stake at the age on 19
French lose 1,500 knights because of heavy armor and the muddy fields
During the Great schism, supported by the Holy Roman Empire the council of Constance deposed the three popes (Urban Vi, Clement VII, and Alexander V) and elected Martin V
King of England when France won the Hundred Years wars
Was crowned king of France in 1429