Timeline for Lectures 14-20

Lecture 14: Byzantium

Pope Leo I

440 - 461


500 - 565

Great military leader of Justinian's army. Defeated the Vandals in North Africa, took Italy, but in the end conquered more territory than could be controlled


500 - 562

Assistant to Belisarius and was an eyewitness in battle. Presented the story in classical Greco-Roman ideals. Wrote Wars, Buildings, and Secret Lives


527 - 565

Emperor of Byzantium at its height

Nika Revolt


Revolt at the Hippodrome that destroyed a large amount of Byzantium



Married Justinian, was a former call girl, proved to be a loyal, intelligent, and strong willed woman.


610 - 641

Battle of Yarmuk


Emperor Leo III

717 - 741

Lecture 15: Early Middle Ages

St. Anthony

250 - 350

Monk who was isolated to the extreme by staying in the Egyptian Desert

St. Benedict of Nursia

480 - 543

Created the Benedictine rules for monastery communities - must participate in prayer, physical labor, minor trade, and hospitality for travelers


482 - 511

Who: A king
What: He converted to Roman Catholic Christianity; he created a unified kingdom for himself in Gaul
When: 5th/6th centuries CE
Where: Frankish kingdom of Gaul
Why: His conversion to Roman Catholic Christianity forged a new alliance between the Frankish kings and the Papacy; his conquests led to the creation of a unified Merovingian kingdom that would last (although not necessarily as a unit) until the dynasty was overthrown in the 8th century.



(died) Was hostage at Constantinople who took over Italy. He respected Romans but had separate systems for Ostrogoths and allowed no intermarriage. The systems didn't survive after his death.

Pope Gregory I (the Great)

590 - 604

Fourth Council of Toledo


With Visigothic rule in Spain there was no clear line of succession which lead to many assassinations and executions. The Church made it illegal to take over the government

Battle of Poitiers


Battle where Charles Martel defeated the Muslims


735 - 804

Charles Martel


(died) Mayor of the palace in Gaul - did the work of a king but never became king. Gained power by propaganda.

Pepin the Short

751 - 768

Son of Charles Martel, Merovingian King. Attained legitimacy from the Pope and claimed a divine monarchy

Charlemange (Carolus Magnus)

768 - 814

Who: King, Emperor
What: He conquered most of western and central Europe; he was crowned Emperor of all the Romans by the Pope; he established the Carolingian Empire; he established the Carolingian Renaissance; he spread Roman Catholic Christianity throughout western and central Europe.
When: 8th/9th centuries CE
Where: western and central Europe (except Spain)
Why: His reign gave European civilization a breathing space between the destruction caused by the Germanic invasions and the Viking invasions.


770 - 840

Missi dominici Pope Leo III

795 - 816

Crowned Charlemagne giving him legitimacy in exchange for protection

Lecture 16: Viking Invasions and the Rise of Feudalism

Viking Invasions

801 - 901

Who: Vikings; Northmen/Norsemen
What: A series of devastating invasions by the Vikings
When: 9th/10th centuries CE
Where: western and central Europe; Russia; Byzantine Empire
Why: The Viking Invasions led to extreme decentralization of authority and led to the rise of the systems of feudalism and manorialism.


801 - 901

Who: Lords and Vassals
What: A mutual agreement between two free men that provided for an exchange of loyalty, military service, protection, and a fief (usually in the form of land).
When: 9th/10th centuries CE
Where: Europe
Why: The extreme decentralization of authority led to centuries of conflict between kings, popes, and noblemen over whether power should be local or more centrally defined.

Louis the Pious

814 - 840

Son of Charlemagne; not a strong ruler. His sons fight over the throne


840 - 855

Son of Louis the Pious who received Frank

Treaty of Verdun


Treaty signed by the sons of Louis the Pious that splits the Merovingian empire into 3: Gaul, Frank, and Germany

Charles the Bald

843 - 877

Son of Louis the Pious who received Gaul

Louis the German

843 - 876

Son of Louis the Pious who received Germany


860 - 932

Viking who was given Normandy by Charles the Simple. He converted to Christianity



Charles the Simple

893 - 923

King of France that gave land (Normandy) to the viking Rollo to defend it against

Ahmad b. Fadlan


Erik the Red/ Greenland


Lecture 17: High Middle Ages - Economy and Culture

High Middle Ages

1000 - 1300

Marked by an environmental warmer shift which led to longer growing season and surplus. The invent of the caruca - a heavier plow puled by horses with collars and horse shoes helped with farming. The population doubled in that 300 year period.


1065 - 1067

Peter Abelard

1079 - 1142

Song of Roland


Ibn Rushd (Averroes)

1126 - 1198

University of Bologna


Earliest University in Italy

University of Paris


University in Northern Europe



University in Northern Europe (Before Cambridge)



University in Northern Europe (After Oxford)

Thomas Aquinas

1225 - 1274

Lecture 18: Reconquista and Crusade

Fatimid Dynasty

909 - 1171

Seljuq Turks

1037 - 1281

Muslims that were militarily successful and controlled Asia minor

Rodrigo Diaz (El Cid/ El Campeador)

1040 - 1099

Formerly was on the counsel of Castillo (king of Christian Spain) but when he was forced into exile by his brother Alfonso he joined forced with the Muslims and gained land.

Pope Leo IX/ Patriarch Michael Cerularius


Macedonian Dynasty



Battle of Manzikert


Alexius I Comnenus

1081 - 1118

Emperor of Byzantine empire that wanted to stop the Seljuq Turks and enlisted the help of Pope Urbano II for men.

Anna Comnenus

1083 - 1153

Pope Urban II

1088 - 1099

Pope that was asked by the Byzantine emperor Alexius I to send men to stop the Seljuq Turks and gave brilliant speech at council of Clermont

Emperor Conrad III

1093 - 1152

First Crusade

1095 - 1099

Franks take Nicaea, Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem. After Antioch they ran out of food and resorted even to eating each other. Killed many Jews and non-Christians

Usamah b. Munqidh

1095 - 1188

Council at Clermont


Brilliant speech given by Pope Urbano II to the Franks to fight the Seljuq Turks and thus started the Crusades. Told the that all of their sins would be forgiven and would receive a cross

King Louis VII

1120 - 1180

Went on the Second Crusade.

Saladin (Salah al-Din)

1137 - 1193

Who: Muslim Ruler
What: Unified the Muslims during the Crusades; retook Jerusalem after the Battle of Hattin; negotiated an end to the Third Crusade with Richard I of England.
When: 1100s/12th century
Where: Egypt; Jerusalem
Why: Saladin’s conquest of Jerusalem led to the pope’s call for the Third Crusade; his merciful treatment of the people of Jerusalem serves as a contrast to the wholesale slaughter of the city’s residents when it was taken by Christian armies during the First Crusade.

Second Crusade

1147 - 1149

On this Crusade many died when flour was replaced with chalk

Frederick I Barbarossa

1152 - 1190

Drowned on the third Crusade

Phillip II Augustus

1180 - 1223

Along with Richard I (the Lionheart) took Acre

Richard I (the Lionheart)

1189 - 1199

Along with Phillip II Augustus take Acre. Negotiated an end of third crusade with Saladin

Third Crusade

1189 - 1192

Orginally Phillip II Agustus, Richard I(the Lionheart), and Frederick I Barbarossa went on this conquest because Saladin (muslim military leader) was taking back Jerusalem, but Frederick II of Barbarossa and Richard made an agreement with Saladin

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

Franks take Constantinople

Children's Crusade


Fifth Crusade

1219 - 1221

Sixth Crusade

1228 - 1229

Seventh Crusade

1248 - 1254

Eighth Crusade


Ninth Crusade

1271 - 1272

Fall of Acre


Lost of the Crusader city of Acre to the Muslims

Lecture 19: High Middle Ages - Church and State

Abbey of Cluny


Appointed by Duke of Aquitaine, he signs a document and gives control to the pope and many follow to save their eternal souls.

Hugh Capet (Capetian Dynasty)

987 - 996

In France it is no longer the Carolingian dynasty but the Capetian dynasty starting with Hugh Capet.


1016 - 1035

Dane King that takes over control of England. He Supported the Catholic church.

Robert the Guiscard (the cunning)

1016 - 1085

(German) Takes south Italy

Edward the Confessor

1042 - 1066

Angloe-Saxon that grew up in Normandy. Gave English land to the Norms,

Henry IV (German)

1056 - 1106

Last of the Salian Kings and had great conflict with the Pope who controlled the city-states. Pope Gregory threatens to excommunicate Henry IV

Harold Godwinson


(died) English brother-in-law of Edward the Confessor. After being taken captive by William he makes an oath that he will not take the throne in England and breaks that oath. William attacks in the Battle of Hastings and Harold is shot in the eye with an arrow and William became king of England.

Battle of Hastings


William, Duke of Normandy (the Conqueror)

1066 - 1087

Norman cousin of Edward the Confessor, and convinces him to exile his father-in-law. After Harold breaks his oath enlisted the help of juvenals to fight the English. Williams becomes the King of England
1- Declared England a royal possession and all feudal agreements were void
2- Created a Doomsday Book which was a detailed account of ownership for tax
3- Oath on Salisbury Plain where all vassals swear oath to him as king

Pope Gregory VII

1073 - 1085

Most Famous reform pope. Issued a decree that popes cannot accept power from secular sources and has the power to depose the emperor. Ultimately he dies in exile and is unsuccessful



Where Henry IV has to stand in the cold to receive forgiveness from Pope Gregory VIII

Guibert of Ravenna/ "Anti-Pope" Clement III

1080 - 1100

Domesday Book


Detailed account of who owned what for tax. Effort of William the Conqueror to centralize control

Oath of Salisbury Plain


Where all vassals swear oath to him as king. Effort of William the Conqueror to centralize control

Roger II of Sicily

1095 - 1154

(German) Brother of Robert the Cunning, took Sicily which becomes the most powerful state in Europe

Thomas a Becket, archbishop of Canterbury

1118 - 1170

Held the most powerful position in the Church in England. Forced Henry II to pay large fine

Concordat of Worms


Agreement that Popes have the right to chose bishops

Eleanor of Aquitaine

1122 - 1204

Was previously married to king Louis, married was enulled and two months later she married Henry II. Some of her sons rebelled against Henry and they were killed. Her son Richard I the Lionheart was given the throne.

Frederick I Barbarossa

1152 - 1190

Drowned in the Crusade (German). Tried to attack Northern Italian city-states but the Pope fights back. He negotiates with the Pope and says he will not attack if they pay tribute. This begins the Holy Roman Empire

Henry II of England

1154 - 1189

Inherited the count of Anjou, married Elanor of Acquitane and became English King

Richard I (the Lionheart)

1157 - 1199

Son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine that received the throne of England

Philip II Augustus

1165 - 1223

Son of Louis VII who is king of France and attacked England but doesn't go near Aquitaine. Began to hire his own army of mercenaries instead of vassals

Henry VI

1190 - 1197

Frederick I Barbarossa arranges a marriage between his daughter and Henry VI and controls all but the Papal states

Frederick II

1194 - 1250

Loosens control over Germany but is still king; control in Germany becomes decentralized.

Innocent III/ Papal Monarchy/ Interdict

1198 - 1216

Made the claim that the Pope has more power than the king. Used interdict - Excommunication of an entire region to control the king.


1199 - 1216

Brother of Richard I the Lionheart because he had no sons when he died John took his place but wasn't a strong fighter

Albigensian Crusade


Crusade led by Pope Innocent III that denied the authority of the church. Lasted for 20 years and thousands of people were killed.

Magna Carta


King of England John was forced to sign this feudal document saying what the king can and cannot do with the vassals and the church

Papal Inquistion (Holy Office)


Established to decide if a Christian was a hieratic

Black Plague

1347 - 1351

Carried by the black rat introduced by ships from Asia with the Mongols and Genoans, spread rapidly, killed 25-50% of the population in Europe in 4 years. Would go away and come back every 5-10 years

Lecture 20: The Terrible Fourteenth Century

Henry III



Marsiglio of Padua (Defender of the Peace)

1270 - 1342

Philip IV (the Fair)

1285 - 1314

French king and father of Philip V who becomes king after him

Pope Boniface VIII

1294 - 1303

Went against French king Philip. Decreed Unam Sanctum - Power over all Christians belongs to the Pope.

Avignon Papacy

1305 - 1377

Papacy moved to Avignon by Pope Clement and king Philip IV, popes become puppets and raise taxes. Causes the great schism because goes against the Petrine supremacy

Clement V

1305 - 1314

Frenchman elected by king Philip IV and moves Papal court to Avignon

Giovanni Boccaccio (The Decameron)

1313 - 1375

Edward III

1327 - 1377

Nephew of Charles IV, English-man that felt he was the closest living relative for the French throne after Charles IV died.

Philip VI

1328 - 1350

Was favored for the French throne of Charles IV by the French nobility thus beginning the hundred years war

Charles IV


(died) One of the three sons of Philip V of France and when he died Charles IV becomes king. When he dies he had only daughters, a dispute for his throne between English Edward III and French Philip VI takes place

Edward, the Black Prince

1330 - 1376

Prince that never becomes king because his father out lived him

Hundreds Years' War

1337 - 1451

Caused by the dispute over the throne between Edward III and Philip IV

Jean Froissart

1337 - 1404

Pope of Alexander V

1339 - 1410

Battle of Crecy


Battle France loses due to archery

John II

1350 - 1364

Battle of Poitiers


Peace of Bretigny


Signed by both the French and the English

Pope Gregory XI

1370 - 1378

Was the Pope of the Roman Papacy

Pope Urban VI

1378 - 1389

Italian elected by the french cardinals during the Great Schism

Pope Clement VII

1378 - 1394

Frenchman chosen by the French cardinals during the Great Schism.

Council of Pisa


Chose to depose both Popes (Urban VI and Clement VII) and elect Alexander V creating 3 popes.

(Saint) Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

Claimed to have vision from God to lead Charles VII to be crowned. Her religious conviction helped lead the French to victory. Because she wanted to continue she was put on trial for witchcraft and burned at the stake at the age on 19

Charles V

1413 - 1422

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Battle of Agincourt


French lose 1,500 knights because of heavy armor and the muddy fields

Pope Martin V

1417 - 1431

During the Great schism, supported by the Holy Roman Empire the council of Constance deposed the three popes (Urban Vi, Clement VII, and Alexander V) and elected Martin V

Henry VI

1421 - 1471

King of England when France won the Hundred Years wars

Charles (the dauphin)/ Charles VII

1422 - 1461

Was crowned king of France in 1429