. Babylonian crisis: Pope's Palace moves from Rome to Avignon, France
. 1377- 1417: Great Schism
. Conciliar Movement
These hurt the prestige of the church.
. simony: the sale of church offices (1487 Pope sells 27 offices)
. nepotism: give positions to relatives
. Pope Leo X: "God has given us the papacy. Let's enjoy it."
. sale of indulgences
. sexual immorality among papacy
Writings and Criticism:
. Thomas a Kempis "The Imitation of Christ" - you can reach Christ when you're in solitude; no need for reason.. just faith and feeling
. Erasmus "In Praise of Folly"
. 1558 Peace of Augsburg- Princes pick either Lutheran or Catholic
. 1525: Anabaptists- Knox and Calvin likey; voluntary association of believers; the ones who've seen the light; no connection to the state; reject secular agreements; total pacifism; GOVERNMENT HATES THEM
. Ulrich Zwingli: Swiss Reformation; establishes a theocracy; communion is a memorial service, nothing more; gets rid of icons
. John Calvin: French; influenced by humanism, especially Erasmus; exiled to Switzerland due to his reform ideas; "Institutes of the Christian Religion"- predestination, no free will; establishes a theocracy in Geneva (aka "the city that was a church"); most militant of the protestants
. Michael Servetus: Unitarian humanist from Spain, burned at stake in 1553 for denial of the Trinity; people not responsible for sin until age 20; no baby baptism
. WORK ETHIC is super important to protestants, especially Calvinists
. Financial success is a sign of God's pleasure
. Presbyterianism: started in Scotland by John Knox ("Give me Scotland else I die!"); church governed by the church
. Huguenots: France; nobles likey out of spite to king
. Dutch Reform Church:
. Puritans: England
. 1526: William Tyndale translates English Bible- base of King James version
. Wyclif and the Lollards
. Henry VIII Tudor writes "In Defense of the 7 Sacraments" and gets awarded "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope...
...Henry VII has 4 kids: Arthur, Henry, Mary and Margaret. When he dies, the throne goes to Arthur who is a runt and dies after marrying Katherine of Aragon. Henry VIII gets the throne and immediately wants Katherine of Aragon as his wifey too, so he gets permission from the Pope because she never had sexyfriday with Arthur. Katherine of Aragon only gave him a girl baby, Mary, so Henry VIII is like "weh. Gimme an annulment, Pope. Our marriage is cursed because she had sexyfriday with my bro. You were wrong to let me marry her. weh." But everyone hates the Pope already, so the Pope can't be wrong about something. Pope is like "nope." Henry VIII is like "FINE. I'll just LEAVE." And he forms his own church, the Anglican church (Act of Supremacy makes king head of church: he takes land from the Catholic church and gives it to nobles to tie them to him; Statute of Restraint of Appeals: all legal matters decided by the crown, not the church. Act of Succession: BOW... uprising in 1536). Then he marries Anne Boleyn WHO HAS 6 FINGERS ON HER RIGHT HAND! meaning SHE'S (probably) A WITCH! SHE TURNED ME INTO A NEWT! But he marries her anyway and she also only gives him a girl baby, Elizabeth. So he has her beheaded for witchcraft. Then he marries Jane Seymour, his favorite, who FINALLY gives him a boy baby, Edward, a wuss like Arthur, and then she dies in childbirth. Henry is like "wull shit" and marries the next woman who happens to be available, Anne of Cleve, who has a really pretty face but turned out to be MASSIVE. So he calls her "dear sister" and awards her the privilege of raising Mary and Elizabeth in some nast, moldy old reject castle since Katherine of Aragon died of a broken heart... then divorces her. Then he marries Anne Boleyn's hussy of a cousin, Catherine of Howard, who continues to be a hussy and is beheaded. Last, he marries a widow, Catherine Parr, who survives him.
. Edward VI dies after 7 years all Protestant- like and gives the throne to cousin Lady Jane Grey (Helena Bonham Carter) who rules with hubby (Cary Ewels/ Wesley) for a little more than a week before Mary I takes over.
. Mary I (Bloody Mary b/c some nasty plague from the reject castle) is SUPER CATHOLIC and bitter because her childhood sucked royal hippogriff. She marries Philip II of Spain (1st cousin, son of Charles V who had a panic attack and abdicated and split the HRE into West (Philip) and East (Ferdinand I)). She gets preggers, but it's one of those psycho- pregnancies (IMAGINARY FETUS!) So she gives up and dies.
. Elizabeth I takes the throne as an Anglican ("Book of Common Prayer"). She reads 7 languages and translates Boethius for FUN, delivers impromptu speeches in Latin and plays lute and virginals like a pro. She supports pirates, scientists, explorers, artists, musicians, and poets. She was a genius at public relations and knew by instinct how to use the best media of the day, always controlling her own image to create a monarch part real woman part legendary goddess of power, justice, benevolence, protestant piety, unattainable beauty and firm Tudor resolve. She issued her own series of sermons so that ignorant people would be able to understand. She starred as the heroine of John Foxe's Book of Martyrs." She had a sacred aura of majesty with the common touch and was a legend to all. She doesn't trust men because her dad sucked royal hippogriff. Philip II is like, "Yo. Mary said before she died that we should get married." Elizabeth is like "LIES AND SLANDER" and swears virginity for life. She likes pirates and the Netherlands and being spiteful to Philip and the Catholics... here comes the Armada... Philip secretly supporting Mary (Stuart) Queen of Scots- trying to assassinate Elizabeth- she has to kill Mary.
. 1513- 1517: 5th Lateran Council decides to re- examine doctrine and dogma. Pope Paul III finds out and is like "yo." "Men are to be changed by religion, not to change religion..." Council dismissed with no reforms. Sad day.
. Ignatius Loyola: Jesuits; used to be a warrior, now a warrior against Satan by studying scripture and becoming a priest; education= weapon! "If you will give me a child until the age of 5, I will give you a Catholic for life." Though Sunday School; wrote "Spiritual Exercises"- "If I see white and the church says it's black, I will see black."
. Ursaline order of nuns: educate chilluns, especially girls, to love the Church
. 1545- 1563: Council of Trent- to re- invigorate the Catholic church- reaffirm beliefs- "Index of Prohibited Books"- reform abuses and educate priests
. Baroque: evoke overwhelming emotion for glory of God
. Bernini: Colonnade in front of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; canopy over high altar of St. Peter's Cathedral; The Ecstasy of St. Theresa; David (w/ discus)
. religious division, religious enthusiasm rekindled, abuses in Roman Catholic Church remedied, religious wars
Overall: SAINT PAUL
Society of Jesus
Index of Prohibited Books
No significant change in Church doctrine
Trent, Council of
Pope Paul III
Ursuline Order of Nuns