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Crisis in the Church

1300 - 1400

. Pope Clement VI controlled the Holy Roman Church and all of the things in it.
. Eastern Orthodox Church is the same of Roman Catholic, but Byzantine and don't think Pope should rule

CRITICS:
. Marsiglio de Padua: "Defender of Peace"- claimed church should be subordinate to the state- believe church should be governed by a council of laity and priests superior to the pope
. John Wyclif: Church should follow only scripture... but it's not in a language people can understand..- he translated it into English!- followers called Lollards
. Jon Huss: Hussites- in Prague- like Wyclif

. Babylonian Captivity- sucky pope
. the Great Schism- Two popes
. Conciliar Movement- a council should rule over the Pope

Renaissance

1300 - 1550

. means "rebirth"- term coined by Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt
. end of Middle Ages
. starts in Italy and flowers North
. commercial revival in Venice, Milan, Genoa- on the sea- trade
. movement from theology to rationalism
. applies mostly to the nobles- aka popolo graso- not the popolo minuto/ peasants
. Italian city- states become wealthy with trade (Silk Road) -> wealthy families support arts, literature, education based on classical cultures of Greece and Rome -> Flowering of arts and learning
. city- states ruled by signori (despots) or oligarchies (rule of merchant aristocrats)
. Italy becomes most urban part of Europe
. politics: competition causes separation- Italy never unifies- war- create balance of power- if one city- state gets too strong, the rest ally- vulnerable for invasion- everyone invades one at a time- condottieri= mercenary generals of private armies hired by cities for military purposes
. meanwhile, Northern countries are unifying

Northern Renaissance:
. Christian Humanism: emphasis on early church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the church; less emphasis on pagan works from ancient Greece and Rome; how does man relate to God?
. emphasis on education; want to restore the church; writings lead to Reformation
Writers:
. Erasmus of Rotterdam- @ Netherlands, pure intellectual with no politics, taught "philosophy of Christ": We have to be like Christ; father of Northern Humanism; makes pure translation of Bible; first writer to make a living; "In Praise of Folly"- Best seller; devout Catholic who wants to reform the church; satirized people's worldly ambitions, including the clergy
. Sir Thomas More: "Utopia"- mixed civic humanism with religious ideals to describe a perfect society located on an imaginary island
. Cisneros: reforms the Spanish church; High Inquisitor of Spanish Inquisition
. Rabelais: more secular/ raunchy; "Gargantua and Pantaguel"; satirizes French societies
. Montaigne: developed the essay form; Skepticism- doubt that true knowledge can be obtained, so one must be tolerant of others' views; the object of life is to know yourself
. Shakespeare: classical culture, individualism, humanism
Cervantes: "Don Quixote"- critical of excessive religious idealism and chivalric romance

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

. England (6 mill people) vs. France (25 mill people)
. over claims to French throne by English king
. Direct cause: English king claims Aquitaine in France
. 1328: French king dies without heir- nobility selected Philip of Valois over King Edward III of England (grandson of late king Philip IV)
. 1340: Edward III claimed "King of France"... and England
. French helping Scottish effort to be independent
. nobles are taking sides
WAR
. France was NOT a united country before the war- National Identity
. Some fighting in Netherlands- (Story: boy puts finger in the dyke- saves Holland)
. Battle of Cresse- introduction of longbow (6 arrows a minute! Wowwee!) and cannon- French lose 10,000 English lose a few hundred
. end of era of the knight
. height of English dominance
. Joan of Arc- French peasant girl who heard voices telling her to help the king drive out the English- dressed like a man and was Charles' most charismatic and feared military leader- if the French are good boys, we'll win!
. Battle of Orleans- French win!
. Joan of Arc captured by English and burned at stake for cross dressing
. English pushed out of France

. Social disorder in England- Nottingham/Robin Hood
. Peasant revolts over taxation
. Statute of Labourers- Merchants and nobles ask the king (Richard III) to keep the wages of labor low
. 1381: English peasants' revolt- start of end of serfdom

. 1358: The Jacquerie- peasant revolts in France

. Rise of Nationalism

Religious Wars & Age of Expansion

1400 - 1643

New Monarchs:
. 1460- 1520- 3 families gaining power in France (Louis XI Valois), England, Spain
. step 1) reduce power of nobility by taxation (2) reduce power of clergy (3) create more efficient bureaucracy
. Valois: Louis XI- increases taxes, ruthless towards nobles, encourages economic growth, builds huge army, maintains roads, strategic marriages Francis I- Concordat of Bolgna- king has power to appoint bishops in French Gallican Catholic Church

England:
War of the Roses- Yorks (white rose) vs. Lancasters (red rose)- Tudors rule until Elizabeth I
. Henry VII: Star Chamber- secret trials- nobles tortured w/o witnesses or evidence- plead guilty or innocent

Spain:
. Ferdinand (Aragon) and Isabela (Castille)- reconquista- Isabela
kicks Muslims out of Spain

Holy Roman Empire:
. Hapsburg rule- from Austria- Maximilian I, Charles V- (ends up king of Spain- super powerful)

Money stuff:
. rise of banking- Amsterdam is awesome
. charter companies and monopolies
. stock market
. enclosure movement kicks people off land
. sugar makes a lot of people rich
. Mercantilism- more exports than imports; wealth is limited

Rise of Nationalist/ Vernacular Literature and Life

1400 - 1450

Humanism!- revival of antiquity in art, literature, philosophy; Strong belief in individualism and human potential- Virtu= "the quality of being a man"- excel in all pursuits; focused on study of ancient languages and texts; Focus on liberal education in the humanities- grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, moral philosophy; civic humanism- education should prepare leaders who would be active in civic life

Writers:
. Savanarola- "Bonfire of the Vanities" - unofficial leader of Florence between 1494 and 1498- rightly predicted the death of the pope- criticizes corruption of Pope Alexander VI (orgy pope- has mistresses, illegitimate children, orgies. William Manchester writes "servants kept score of each man's orgasms, for the pope greatly admired virility and measured a man's machismo by his ejaculative capacity. After everyone was exhausted, His Holiness distributed prizes- cloaks, boots, caps, and fine silken tunics. The winners were those who made love with those courtesans the greatest number of times."= NAST) and Medici's and moral vices of the people; predicts invasion of France, then joins Charles VIII of France when the pope excommunicates him; people tired of his moral denunciations; executed for criticizing the Pope/ heresy
. Niccolo Machiavelli- "The Prince"- Father of political science- observed the political leadership of Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI; his portrait was used as a reference for paintings of Jesus in this time period) who had ambitions of uniting Italy under his control; says "the end justifies the means." "it is better to be feared than to be loved" and rulers must be practical and cunning in addition to being aggressive and ruthless
. Petrarch- "Sonnets for Laura" - the father of humanism
. Boccacio- "Decameron"
. Bruni- "History of Florence"- research papers, paid by Medici's
. Dante- "Divine Comedy"- Italian- "special level of hell reserved for child molesters and people who talk in theaters."- Firefly
. Chaucer- "Canterbury Tales"- English tension in culture
. Lorenzo Valla- "Elegances on the Latin Language" and "On the False Detention of Constantine"- angered the Church
. Marsilio FIani- New Platonic Academy in Florence- translated Plato's writings, "The Republic"
. Baldassare Castiglione- "The Book of the Courtier"
. Thomas Aquinas- Scholasticism- tried to reconcile faith and reason by using logic and Aristotle's scientific ideas to support Christian doctrine
. Pico- "Oration on the Dignity of Man"

Fall of Byzantine Empire

1453

. Ottomans enter- rename Constantinople to Istanbul- bringing Islam- scholars panic and flee to Western Europe- Italy! - Start of Italian Renaissance
. clash of culture in the Balkans!

Columbus sails to find America

1492

Protestant Reformation & Catholic Revival

1500 - 1560

Causes:
. Babylonian crisis: Pope's Palace moves from Rome to Avignon, France
. 1377- 1417: Great Schism
. Conciliar Movement

These hurt the prestige of the church.
Corruption:
. simony: the sale of church offices (1487 Pope sells 27 offices)
. nepotism: give positions to relatives
. Pope Leo X: "God has given us the papacy. Let's enjoy it."
. sale of indulgences
. sexual immorality among papacy

Writings and Criticism:
. Thomas a Kempis "The Imitation of Christ" - you can reach Christ when you're in solitude; no need for reason.. just faith and feeling
. Erasmus "In Praise of Folly"

. 1558 Peace of Augsburg- Princes pick either Lutheran or Catholic

. 1525: Anabaptists- Knox and Calvin likey; voluntary association of believers; the ones who've seen the light; no connection to the state; reject secular agreements; total pacifism; GOVERNMENT HATES THEM
. Ulrich Zwingli: Swiss Reformation; establishes a theocracy; communion is a memorial service, nothing more; gets rid of icons
. John Calvin: French; influenced by humanism, especially Erasmus; exiled to Switzerland due to his reform ideas; "Institutes of the Christian Religion"- predestination, no free will; establishes a theocracy in Geneva (aka "the city that was a church"); most militant of the protestants
. Michael Servetus: Unitarian humanist from Spain, burned at stake in 1553 for denial of the Trinity; people not responsible for sin until age 20; no baby baptism

. WORK ETHIC is super important to protestants, especially Calvinists
. Financial success is a sign of God's pleasure

Calvinist groups:
. Presbyterianism: started in Scotland by John Knox ("Give me Scotland else I die!"); church governed by the church
. Huguenots: France; nobles likey out of spite to king
. Dutch Reform Church:
. Puritans: England

English Reformation:
. 1526: William Tyndale translates English Bible- base of King James version
. Wyclif and the Lollards
. Henry VIII Tudor writes "In Defense of the 7 Sacraments" and gets awarded "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope...
...Henry VII has 4 kids: Arthur, Henry, Mary and Margaret. When he dies, the throne goes to Arthur who is a runt and dies after marrying Katherine of Aragon. Henry VIII gets the throne and immediately wants Katherine of Aragon as his wifey too, so he gets permission from the Pope because she never had sexyfriday with Arthur. Katherine of Aragon only gave him a girl baby, Mary, so Henry VIII is like "weh. Gimme an annulment, Pope. Our marriage is cursed because she had sexyfriday with my bro. You were wrong to let me marry her. weh." But everyone hates the Pope already, so the Pope can't be wrong about something. Pope is like "nope." Henry VIII is like "FINE. I'll just LEAVE." And he forms his own church, the Anglican church (Act of Supremacy makes king head of church: he takes land from the Catholic church and gives it to nobles to tie them to him; Statute of Restraint of Appeals: all legal matters decided by the crown, not the church. Act of Succession: BOW... uprising in 1536). Then he marries Anne Boleyn WHO HAS 6 FINGERS ON HER RIGHT HAND! meaning SHE'S (probably) A WITCH! SHE TURNED ME INTO A NEWT! But he marries her anyway and she also only gives him a girl baby, Elizabeth. So he has her beheaded for witchcraft. Then he marries Jane Seymour, his favorite, who FINALLY gives him a boy baby, Edward, a wuss like Arthur, and then she dies in childbirth. Henry is like "wull shit" and marries the next woman who happens to be available, Anne of Cleve, who has a really pretty face but turned out to be MASSIVE. So he calls her "dear sister" and awards her the privilege of raising Mary and Elizabeth in some nast, moldy old reject castle since Katherine of Aragon died of a broken heart... then divorces her. Then he marries Anne Boleyn's hussy of a cousin, Catherine of Howard, who continues to be a hussy and is beheaded. Last, he marries a widow, Catherine Parr, who survives him.
. Edward VI dies after 7 years all Protestant- like and gives the throne to cousin Lady Jane Grey (Helena Bonham Carter) who rules with hubby (Cary Ewels/ Wesley) for a little more than a week before Mary I takes over.
. Mary I (Bloody Mary b/c some nasty plague from the reject castle) is SUPER CATHOLIC and bitter because her childhood sucked royal hippogriff. She marries Philip II of Spain (1st cousin, son of Charles V who had a panic attack and abdicated and split the HRE into West (Philip) and East (Ferdinand I)). She gets preggers, but it's one of those psycho- pregnancies (IMAGINARY FETUS!) So she gives up and dies.
. Elizabeth I takes the throne as an Anglican ("Book of Common Prayer"). She reads 7 languages and translates Boethius for FUN, delivers impromptu speeches in Latin and plays lute and virginals like a pro. She supports pirates, scientists, explorers, artists, musicians, and poets. She was a genius at public relations and knew by instinct how to use the best media of the day, always controlling her own image to create a monarch part real woman part legendary goddess of power, justice, benevolence, protestant piety, unattainable beauty and firm Tudor resolve. She issued her own series of sermons so that ignorant people would be able to understand. She starred as the heroine of John Foxe's Book of Martyrs." She had a sacred aura of majesty with the common touch and was a legend to all. She doesn't trust men because her dad sucked royal hippogriff. Philip II is like, "Yo. Mary said before she died that we should get married." Elizabeth is like "LIES AND SLANDER" and swears virginity for life. She likes pirates and the Netherlands and being spiteful to Philip and the Catholics... here comes the Armada... Philip secretly supporting Mary (Stuart) Queen of Scots- trying to assassinate Elizabeth- she has to kill Mary.

Catholic Revival:
. 1513- 1517: 5th Lateran Council decides to re- examine doctrine and dogma. Pope Paul III finds out and is like "yo." "Men are to be changed by religion, not to change religion..." Council dismissed with no reforms. Sad day.
. Ignatius Loyola: Jesuits; used to be a warrior, now a warrior against Satan by studying scripture and becoming a priest; education= weapon! "If you will give me a child until the age of 5, I will give you a Catholic for life." Though Sunday School; wrote "Spiritual Exercises"- "If I see white and the church says it's black, I will see black."
. Ursaline order of nuns: educate chilluns, especially girls, to love the Church
. 1545- 1563: Council of Trent- to re- invigorate the Catholic church- reaffirm beliefs- "Index of Prohibited Books"- reform abuses and educate priests

Art:
. Baroque: evoke overwhelming emotion for glory of God

. Bernini: Colonnade in front of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; canopy over high altar of St. Peter's Cathedral; The Ecstasy of St. Theresa; David (w/ discus)
. Carvaggio:
. Reubens:

Results:
. religious division, religious enthusiasm rekindled, abuses in Roman Catholic Church remedied, religious wars

Overall: SAINT PAUL
Society of Jesus
Abuses reformed
Index of Prohibited Books
No significant change in Church doctrine
Trent, Council of

Pope Paul III
Anti- Protestant
Ursuline Order of Nuns
Latin Vulgate

Martin Luther's 95 Theses

1517

nailed to the door of the church in Wittenburg; sparked beginning of Protestant Reformation by starting division within and questioning of the Catholic Church.
- Wanted theses addressed and end of church corruptions such as sale of indulgences and disconnection between church and scripture
- Disagreed with belief that Sacraments should include Confession and Confirmation. Only Baptism and Communion are in Scripture.
- Believed faith alone saves you.
- Church said faith + works + rituals save you
- Posted theses to start discussion
- 1519: Debate between Luther and John Eck; Pope writes to Luther threatening to excommunicate him- he writes back saying the Pope doesn’t have that power; Wartburg whisks Luther away from Diet of Worms.
- Luther wouldn’t recant unless Diet of Worms could show him in Scripture
- 1524-25: The Peasants’ War- response to Luther’s writing/ break from the church; Luther writes “To the murdering peasants…” condemning their actions
- 1530: Luther writes “Augsburg Confessions” in Wartburg; became the Lutheran doctrine
- When the church didn’t want to reform, the people who read Luther’s writing made their own church

End of Renaissance

1527

. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacks Rome

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1687

Before Sci Rev: Medieval world view- everything framed by theology; Aristotle= huge; geocentric; spheres around earth; 4 essences make up everything except quintessence/ crystal sphere around earth where planets travel
. Dante's "Inferno"= geocentric

Sci Rev:
1. comes from medieval universities- natural philosophy
2. Renaissance stimulated by science and rediscovering ancient mathematics
3. Navigational problems on sea voyages in the age of overseas expansion
4. Scientific methodology
. major cause of new world view
Middle Ages- Aristotle and Ptolemy: geocentric theory; transparent crystal spheres around Earth; angels move them; 4 known essences (earth, air, fire, water, perfect and incorruptible essence called quintessence that makes up planets)
1473- 1543- Copernicus: "the Challenger;" attacks Aristotilian study of the universe; 1543 "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres" dedicated to Pope- heliocentric, verified using math, "In the middle of it all sits the Sun enthroned."; goes against Ecclesiastes 1:5; father dies and he goes to live with rich bishop uncle; studies medicine and law and learns Greek in Italy; trained doctor and portrait painter; Luther and Calvin are AGAINST it; Catholic Church turns against it by 1660
. Tycho Brahe: lost part of his nose in a duel when drunk at age 20- wears a fake gold or copper nose; built best observatory in Europe and collected massive data on his observations of the universe; data later confirms Copernican theory even though Brahe doesn't believe it; last words were to Kepler: "Let me not have lived in vain."
. Johannes Kepler: Brahe's assistant; mathematically proved Copernican theory; 3 laws of planetary motion (1) orbits of planets are ellipses (2) planets travel at different speeds (3) time it takes to orbit Sun is directly proportional to distance from the Sun
17th century:
. Galileo Galilei: sassy; 1610 "Starry Messenger"; laws of motion; beginning of Scientific Method; gravity produced uniform acceleration; leaning tower of pizza; law of inertia- object in motion stays in motion unless stopped; validated Copernican theory with telescope; 1616 Catholic Church declared Copernican theory heretical; 1632 Galileo publishes "Dialogue Concerning Two Sciences" commissioned by Pope to show both views; 1633 inquisition of Pope Urban VII forces Galileo to recant his support of Copernican theory
. Francis Bacon: formalized empirical method (empiricism) that had already been used by Brahe and Galileo; the only way we know things is based on experience and evidence through senses= empiricism; Inductive Method (fact to axium to law) added with Descartes deductive reason formed backbone for modern Scientific Method; "renounce notions"
. Rene Descartes: 1637 "Discourse on Method" advocated use of deductive reasoning where logic is key (fact to logic to conclusion LIKE GEOMETRY PROOFS!); "cognito ergo sum"= "I think, therefore, I am"; Cartesian Dualism divides all existence into spiritual and material (body and mind are separate); loved cross- eyed women because window to the soul?; geometry and algebra are connected!; start with doubt and figure out what you're certain of using logic; proves God (I exist. I think of a perfect being. I am imperfect, so I couldn't think up the perfect being on my own. The perfect being gave me that knowledge. God is the perfect being.)
. know difference between Bacon's inductive and Descartes' deductive (I love Bacon; Deductive Descartes)
. Sir Isaac Newton: incorporated the astronomy of Copernicus and Kepler with physics of Galileo into an overarching theory explaining order and design to universe; 1687 "Principia Mathematica" principle of universal gravitation (every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe); natural laws are unchangeable and predictable, so God's active participation in natural world is not needed to explain forces of nature- DEISM; "If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants."
. REMEMBER: Cops Bring Kids Great Big Donuts Now
Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, Newton

.extras:
. Vesalius: "The Structure of the Human Body"; anatomy and physiology
. William Harvey: "On the Movement of the Heart and Blood"
. Anton van Leewenhoek: develops first microscope
. Royal Scientific Societies: governments and monarchs encourage scientific inquiry as a means to further the prestige of the state and remain at the cutting edge of technology; scientific societies created a means by which scientists could communicate with each other internationally forging an international scientific community; Royal Society in England was most successful and prestigious

Impact on society: led directly to Enlightenment; improves exploration; spirit of experimentation accelerated Agricultural Revolution of 18th century; improvements in medical knowledge; science and religion

Wars of Religion

1559 - 1648

I. Hapsburg- Valois Wars: Fuss over part of Italy; Calvinism spreading, so they quit
II. Religious Wars: Catholic vs. Protestant vs. Islam; English probs
III. Spain's Catholic Crusade: Philip II Hapsburg (fanatic Catholic; married to Mary I Tudor, builds Escorial; wants ultimate power for Spain; absolutism; PARANOID)
. 1560: Turkish navy attacks Spanish navy and does real damage (hurts Ignatius of Loyola). Philip rebuilds and recognizes Islam as a real threat
. 1564: Philip sends new navy to confront Turkish navy (puts bro Don Juan in charge)- 1571: Battle of Lepanto- Don Juan and navy kick Muslim ass
. Dutch Revolt in Netherlands: Philip hates William of Orange (the Silent) and sends the Duke of Alva (aka Duke of Blood) to Netherlands to keep control. Duke raises taxes, takes Protestant nobles' estates, destroys the Protestant churches and art. REVOLT. Spanish fury- ransack Dutch- Dutch destroy their dykes to flood the Netherlands and kill off Spanish soldiers, then flee to England.
. 1588: Philip is mad at Elizabeth I Tudor for being sassy and helping the Netherlands and the pirates; sends armada to whoop ass, but there's a storm and Elizabeth gives the greatest pep talk of all history and England, aided by the unicorns, magically defeats them.
IV. French Religious Civil Wars: "Une foi, un loi, un roi"- One faith, one law, one king; Edict of Nantes end hostilities; Henry II's policy decisions were generally influenced by wifey Catherine de'Medici; Henry II at jousting tournament celebrating Treaty- sliver of lance penetrates his eye and he dies- succeeded by wussy sons Francis II (1st hubby of Mary Queen of Scots; ear infection turned into brain absess), Charles IX (mentally unstable, sickly and neurotic), Henry III (severely neurotic; cross dresser; HOOOMOOOSEXUAL!!; assassinated by another crazy stabbing monk) ALL controlled by Mama Cathy
. 1572: Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre: At Henry Navarre and Cathy's son's wedding, Henry Guise has a Huguenot leader murdered, shoved out a window, castrated, and dragged through the streets by children the night before to cause trouble. Huguenots are like "YO." Cathy is scared they'll rebel, so she tells Charles IX to go massacre 20,000 unarmed Huguenots. NOT COOL. The Pope is THRILLED. Charles IX has mixed feelings and mood swings and his mom fusses at him and he hemorrhages and dies.
. 1584- 1582: War of the 3 Henrys- Henri de Navarre, Bourbon (Huguenot; married to Catherine de'Medici's daughter); Henry, Duke of Guise (Super- Catholic; include Mary Queen of Scots; assassinated); Henri, Prince de Conde, Valois (Catholic)- Henry Navarre wins by default and becomes Henry IV Bourbon- becomes a Catholic- "Paris is worth a mass"
. 1598: issues Edict of Nantes- allows Huguenots to worship privately; access to universities; can hold public office; 200 fortified towns
- peace between protestants and Catholics, help for French economy, creating ABSOLUTISM- eventually murdered by a crazy monk who jumps out of a tree and stabs him to death.
V. Germany: 1618- 1648- Thirty Years War: fragmented Germany; religious division- 3 periods: (1) Bohemian- Ferdinand II Hapsburg returns Bohemia to "true faith"; Defenstration of Prague (HRE, King of Bohemia, restricts protestants entirely. Protestants aren't happy- try to kick him out- they have a meeting. People get mad and Huguenots throw the two other guys out the window 70 ft and they survive because they fell into a pile of crap.) when message arrives that everyone must be Catholic again; Spain sent troops to help Ferdinand II keep control; Catholic Hapsburgs win! invention of private mercenary armies(2) Danish- Catholic Hapsburgs win! They plunder at will. Edict of Restitution w/ land height of Catholic power (3) Swedish- Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, uses army to push Catholics back to Bohemia-Catholic Hapsburgs win! (4) Swedish- French- Cardinal Richelieu of France leads protestants...?- Catholic Hapsburgs lose?!
. 1648: Peace of Westphalia- reaffirmed Peace of Augsburg, but now Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism are options

(P 14- English family tree)

English defeat Spanish Armada

1588

British naval superiority established; beginning of the end for Spain; result of Elizabeth I's sass (and support of pirates) towards her brother in law, Spain's Philip II, who wanted to marry her.

Absolutism in France

1589 - 1715

Western Europe:
. Divine Right
. Louis XIV of France was the quintessential monarch
. sovereignty of a country embodied in ruler
. Absolute monarch not subordinate to national assemblies
. nobility brought under control in exchange for prestige
. bureaucracies solely accountable to the king
. large standing armies
. French and Spanish control Roman Catholic Church in their countries
. use secret police
. Jean Bodin: believed only absolutism could provide order and force people to obey government; king= God's representative on Earth
. Thomas Hobbes- "Leviathan"- about the craken.. basically..; "in a state of nature, life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, short."; absolutism prevents this; (like Voltaire, but not divine right)
. Bishop Bossuet: tutor of Louis XIV; advocated "divine right of kings"

France: 3 estates: Clergy, nobility, everyone else (95%)
. Henry IV, Navarre (Bourbon): builds foundations for French absolutism; old nobility of the sword ignored; creation of new Nobility of the Robe by $ (Duke of Sully= protestant financial minister; pushes mercantilism; reduces debt; more equal taxes with tax farmers; canals); but Henry stabbed by crazy monk in 1610
. Louis XIII gets throne, mom Marie de Medici= regent; Louis XIII: 3 musketeers- Cardinal Richelieu (goals: centralize monarchial power and weaken Hapsburgs): creates Intendants (middle class bourgeoise replace nobles in power- centralizes and extends power of monarchy)- Siege of La Rochelle- leads destruction of Huguenot town and celebrates Mass; Peace of Alsace- Huguenots lose fortified towns but can still worship; strengthens France's position in Europe; 30 Years War (to increase Bourbon power they must decrease Hapsburg power)- France gets Alsace
. 1643: Louis XIV: aka The Sun King: "the state, it is me"; comes to throne at age 5 and assumes all power at age 16, rules for 72 years; When he grows up he wants to be a ROCKETTE!; advisors include mom and Cardinal Mazarin, who taught him NEVER TO TRUST ANYONE and Bishop Boussuet who enforces divine right; The Fronde- civil war between upper classes... rumor spreads that Louis XIV is dead and mom and Mazarin are secret lovers ruling together. A mob breaks into the palace and demands to see 6 year old Louis- wake him up, candles dripping hot wax, strangers pushing him, he cries for his mom... develops phobia of crowds and moves palace to hunting lodge in Versailles (Baroque). Poor baby.
I. Domestic Policies:
(1) Military Reforms: (a) creates volunteer army with salaries- social mobility!; hired Prussians to train (b) rewards merit with rank- strengthens military and creates loyalty (c) king becomes head of military (d) appoints Sebastien Vauban as France's military engineer- first trench warfare system (e) 250,000 men in army- bachelors only- improved discipline- became "respectable" profession.
(2) Religious Issues: (a) "one king, one nation, one faith" (b) 1685 Revocation of Edict of Nantes- no more free worship for Huguenots. Many Huguenots leave France. Hurt economy- huguenots were entrepreneurs, physicians, lawyers, merchants, etc. NO MORE MIDDLE CLASS! (c) creates Gallican church
(3) extras: (a) never called Estates General (b) hired Colbert who built roads and canals, increased industrial output, 5 Great Farms/ unions in France can trade within themselves without tariffs, Mercantilism. subsidization; French East Indian Co.- government and private funds; Joint- stock investment (c) tax raises even on nobility (d) keeps tabs on nobility by having them all come stay a season at Versailles like a pleasure prison so they like him more and he can keep tabs on them at the same time
(4) Foreign Policy: goal= to make France a strong absolutist state and recreate Kingdom of Charlemagne and reunite ALL of Europe under French control.
...4 major wars: 1. 1667- 68 War of Devolution: France vs. Spain for Spanish Netherlands; Treaty of Aix- la- Chapelle (1668) let France keep half of the land they'd taken. 2. 1672- 76 Dutch War: France and Sweden vs. United Provinces; neutralizes England before with secret Treaty of Dover (1670) with Charles II; France wins and takes Alsace, Lorraine, Luxembourg. 3. 1688- 97 War of League of Augsburg: France vs. League of Augsburg (1686) including HRE, Spain, Brandenburg, Saxony, Sweden, Bavaria, England, United Provinces and Savoy; at first, France takes Rhineland, then trouble; France has to give up all new territory plus Lorraine and Luxembourg, but keeps Alsace, because of 1697 Treaty of Ryswick. 4. 1701- 13 War of Spanish Succession: France vs. Spain; Spain's new king is Louis XIV's grandson, but their governments can't be united

Legacy: Spain no longer a major power; Hapsburgs less powerful; France= strongest, absolutist, best army, grandest culture, sucky economy (because of all the wars)

Constitutional Conflicts in Eastern Europe

1600 - 1720

EASTERN EUROPE:
3 Aging Empires: Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire and Polish kingdom give way to Russia (Catherine the Great), Austria (Joseph II= simba w/ Maria Theresa (p 34)) and Prussia (Frederick the Great) (P 33)
. HRE: hundreds of states; like Poland b/c no revenue, no centralized government; before, they had Catholicism to bind them, but now they have different religions; died in Peace of Westphalia in 1648
. Ottomans: aka Turks; too spread out; larger, more powerful, more organized, formed around military, ruled by fear; janissaries= boogey man- kidnap Christian children and raise them Muslim, then send them into battle (Grandma in My Big Fat Greek Wedding is ALWAYS running from the Turks); grand vizier= government; religious tolerance- divided into millets of autonomous self- rule
. Poland: too democratic; progressive, but bag government because of LIBERUM VETO- exploding diets if ANYONE disagrees- no unity- attached to local government; people= happy; best land in Europe; BUT it's smack in the middle of all things, so if anyone invades anyone, they have to ransack Poland first; King Jan Sobieski- father of Poland- united Poland
ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS! YAY!
. everything is power in the NOBILITY!
. in times of crisis, people are willing to give more power to government- Tar Tars ATTACK!
. revival of serfdom- labor shortage after Black Death; if you run, they nail your ear to a post and give you a knife so you can cut loose when you want to be free; landlord= prosecutor, judge AND jailer; "robots"= Bohemia, where people work 4 days for free per week

. Austrian Empire- Hapsburgs (Ferdinand I) controlled Hungary, Austria and Bohemia; kill Protestant nobles and give land to Catholics so new nobles owe everything to the king; constant standing army; multi- national- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gp2sVtGT0mw&list=PL892A152022FCA677; 1713 Pragmatic Sanction (practical) by Charles VI- Hapsburg lands will never be divided again... also, the lands will go to my daughter, Maria- Theresa...

. Prussia and Hohenzollerns:
. Frederick Wilhelm: "Great Elector" religious toleration; Calvinist; 1667 invaded by Tar Tars; nobles called "Junkers" = military officers
. Frederick I: "The Ostentatious" - flashy
. Frederick Wilhelm I: "The Soldier King" - LOVES tall soldiers "The most beautiful girl or woman in the world would be a matter of indifference to me, but tall soldiers- they are my weakness."; he wouldn't use them in battle.. they might die! So he paints them. And has them march around his room.; Potsdam Giants; SUPER talented reformer: infused militarism into all of Prussian society; "Sparta of the North"; walked around Berlin with a stick and beat lazy people; woke up super early and expected everyone else to, too; if a woman is dressed too fancy, he'd rip her clothes off; lashes out at Fritz, his son, when he gets old and cranky; makes his son grovel at his feet in public; doubles size of army; but most peaceful country; efficient bureaucracy based on merit- social mobility; lossa taxes "I must be served with life and limb..... everything must be committed except for salvation. That belongs to God. But everything else is mine."

. Russia:

Constitutional Conflicts in England

1600 - 1720

Constitutionalism: government power is limited by law. There is a delicate balance between power of government and the rights and liberties of individuals.
England was centered around capitalism/ free market, helping with social mobility. Commercial revolution increases the middle class. Gentry (landowners) control House of Commons and always try to use Magna Carta to limit king's power.
1215: Magna Carta- nobles limit King John's power and start making a Parliament

. 1603: Elizabeth is the end of the Tudors, so the throne goes to James VI of Scotland who becomes James I, Stuart, of England. He's the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, who is the granddaughter of Margaret Tudor, Henry VIII's sister.
. James I
. "The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon Earth: for kings are not only God's lieutenants upon Earth and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself they are called gods..." - Jimmy doesn't have many friends
1) Came to England with a series of problems facing him: (a) treasury depleted- Elizabeth ruined it with Roanoke and Jamestown settlements. (b) James I's mama bear, Mary Queen of Scots, was devoutly Catholic, which the English don't appreciate.
2) Did little to reassure the English people: (a) he's rude and smells bad because he's a rugged -mountain- glen- man from the Scottish highlands. He's also a HOOOMOOOOSEXUAL. (b) Political rule probs: he keeps passing stuff without congressional consent. He needs $, so he raises $ himself without calling them taxes. (c) Religious leadership probs: maybe he's a secret Catholic. (d) There's no Scottish word for diplomacy... O-O
3) people want Presbyterian form of church government, not absolutist episcopal
. Gunpowder Plot: Guy Fox tries to blow him up when he visits the House of Lords, but plans are leaked and they get caught- "V for Vendetta" - "remember remember the fifth of November..."
. Hampton Court- "Millenary Petition"- Puritans let James know what's up.
. 1613: James agrees there needs to be a more chill Bible... New Bible! King James Version
. many Puritans done up and R. U. N. N. O. F. T. (Massachusetts Bay Colony)
. 1618: "Book of Sports"- every Sunday after church, families should all do sports.
. 1625: James died, Charles I comes to throne

. Charles I:
Problems:
1) Inadequate funds to finance personal lifestyle and wage war against Spain, so... (a) forced loans- Parliament is wary (b) instead of building barracks, he sticks soldiers in homes to save $. Peasants are like "YO."
2) 1628: Parliament gives Charles funding if he signs the Petition of Rights- right to trial with peer jury and habeas corpus- religious innovative leading to popery was treason and levying taxes without Parliament's approval was treason and punishable by death.
3) Charles wigs, dissolves Parliament, and vows to rule alone.
(a) Makes peace with France (1629) and Spain (1630).
(b) annoys Puritans by siding with the Arminians (Baptists; choice of faith prompted by God) who favored high rituals in Church.
(c) Charlie and new chief minister, Thomas Wentworth, institute THOROUGH policy- centralize all power in King's hands and eliminate Parliament, then impose new taxes! Yay! Absolute monarchy!
(d) Charlie expands the Court, hires lots of artists (Jan Van Eyck, Handel, etc), begins selling knighthoods, etc.
(e) provokes war with Scotland by forcing uniformity in religious observances (no more Presbyterian services). William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, announces Scotland will now: have church governed by bishops; elaborate liturgy; no preaching, only teaching from pulpit; no personal observance and devotion; no publishing without Archbishop's approval; 1637 must use Anglican Book of Common Prayer
(f) Scots rebel: form army, begin march toward English border
(g) Charlie needs $ for army and is forced to recall Parliament
(h) Parliament has been waiting for this. John Pym, leader, refuses $ unless grievances addressed.
(i) Charles dismisses Parliament- THE SHORT PARLIAMENT
(j) 1640: Scots cross border and defeat English at Battle of Newburn. Charlie forced to recall Parliament and sign Petition of Rights
4) New Parliamentary Phase begins:
(a) lots of folks angry with Charlie- landowners, merchants, Puritans, Scots, etc.
(b) House of Commons "impeaches" Archbishop Laud and Charlie's advisor the Earl of Stafford- accuse them of treason, found guilty and executed.
(c) THOROUGH system abolished- all new taxes declared illegal.
(d) New Resolution- Parliamentary procedure- Parliament MUST meet every 3 years and CANNOT be dismissed without Parliament's vote.
(e) division in Parliament:
. Puritans determined to abolish episcopal system and Book of Common Prayer
. Presbyterians want total local control of church and state
. Independents want decentralized church with each congregation in charge
. Conservatives/ Anglicans want Anglican Church preserved.. most march out in 1642
. WHOSE ARMY IS IT?- Charlie claims control. Puritans argue he cannot be trusted. Conservatives are like "WAT?"
5) Civil War/ Puritan Revolution:
(a) Charles decides to reinstate absolutist rule while Parliament argues- BAD MOVE.
(b) December 1, 1641: Great Remonstrance- 204 item list of stuff Parliament hates about Charles
(c) Charles is like "weh. No friends." and tries to take control of Parliament- forced to flee!
(d) Charles raises army of loyal subjects- The Cavaliers (as in the dog that was bred to look like Charles)
(e) House of Commons passes Militia Ordinance- raises its own army
6) WAR COMING! 2 issues: 1. Absolute monarchy or parliamentary government? 2. English religion controlled by king's bishops (episcopal) or a decentralized Presbyterian system?
7) Parliament agrees to Solemn League and Covenant- England will have Presbyterian system
8) New Model Army- created by Parliament; va. Oliver Cromwell leads "Roundheads"- Puritans with bowl- cuts = part. time. models.
9) 1646: Actual fighting! After Battles of Marslon Moor and Noseby, Charles I surrenders and is placed under house arrest- Scottish army invades to restore Charles to the throne and are defeated at Battle of Preston- Charlie is in trouble.
10) December 1648: Colonel Thomas Pride physically barred 96 Presbyterians from taking seats in Parliament- Pride's Purge- leaves only RUMP PARLIAMENT of 60 Puritans
11) English are like "Can we kill the king?" Rump Parliament decides yes, so..
January 30, 1649: Charles I beheaded.
12) England is now a Puritan Republic with Cromwell in control as "Lord Protector." 1652: English Commonwealth/ Crommonwealth.
. Invade Ireland- "Curse of Cromwell"
. Charles II tries to invade England with Scottish army. Charles II is like "I just want to party."
. Launches naval war against Dutch- Dutch lose commercial supremacy
. 1652: Cromwell disbands Parliament because they cut funding for the New Model Army
. 1656: Go to war with Spain and take Jamaica
. Cromwell's budget is 3x Charles I's budget
. Puritan ban on "pleasure"
. 1658: Cromwell dies. Son Richard is DUMBER THAN A BAG OF HAMMERS, but he's about to become Lord Protector.
. 1660: Parliament begs Charles II to come back.

RESTORATION:
1) Favorable position of Anglican Church restored
2) Social reaction against Puritans- many leave for Netherlands and New World
3) Parliament managed to retain powers especially financial control during clashes with Charles II who tried to go absolutist
4) 1661: Clarendon Code- Tories trying to kick Puritans out
5) 1666: The Great London Fire
6) 1673: Test Act- if you aren't Anglican you cant do anything.
7) Charles II gets 200,000 pounds annually from Louis XIV to be nice to Catholics
8) dies Catholic
. Habeas Corpus Act- everyone has right to trial- passed by Parliament

James II = brother to Charlie II; Catholic; sucks at being king
. appoints a bunch of Catholics to power.
. grants Catholics free worship
. wifey gives birth to a boy! and heir!
. Parliament is like "Oh HELL no."
. 1688: Glorious Revolution- James II's daughter, Mary, and her Dutch hubby William of Orange III take the throne
. 1689: English Bill of Rights- foundation of constitutional monarchy- king can't be Roman Catholic; laws can't be made without Parliament; Parliament has free speech; no standing army in peace time; taxation illegal without Parliament's approval; no excessive bail; no cruel or unusual punishment; right to trial by jury; due process of law; Protestants have right to bear arms; free elections to Parliament; people can petition their government
. 1690: John Locke's "Two Treatises of Government"
. Articles of Union: unify Scotland and England into Great Britain

Cabinet System
. after William and Mary, the throne goes to Anne I, then to George I (Hanover; the sad one), who only speaks German... so Robert Walpole moves in and is like "Yo. You need help with that power?" George is like "uhhhh... Gutentaug?" And Robert Walpole has George sign him in as Prime Minister not knowing what's going on.
. Cabinet has executive and legislative power.
. Cabinet led by prime minister Robert Walpole

Enlightenment

1600 - 1790

Enlightenment: intellectual and cultural movement; faith in reason rather than revelation; man is autonomous from God; society can be improved

Deism: God wound the clock of the universe and let it run on its own
PHILOSOPHES: (France is the center)
. John Locke: 1690 "Two Treatises on Government"; natural rights; life, liberty, property; man is naturally good (Hobbes disagrees); government is there to protect natural rights; if government doesn't protect natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow it- "Social Contract"; 1690 "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (epistemology- how humans form ideas); environment is important to peoples' growth; tabula rasa= born with a blank slate (Luther and Calvin disagree)
CHALLENGE OLD THEORIES! NO ABSOLUTE TRUTH!
. Bernard de Fontanelle: makes science witty and fun LIKE MISS. GORDON!!; skeptical of absolute truth
. Pierre Bayle: "Critical and Historical Dictionary"; all kinds of believe systems persecute other belief systems; stresses toleration; let's test the ideas before conclusion (like Montaigne)
. Voltaire: wrote 70 sassy books; Deist; "faith leads to savage human action"; "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it."; "crush the infamous thing" (bigotry, injustice, intolerance); hates organized religion; "If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him."; loved enlightened despotism and didn't trust democracy
. Baron de Montesquieu: 1748 "On the Spirit of the Laws"; 3 branches of government (1) executive (2) legislature (3)judiciary; French noble hates absolutism of Louis XIV; absolute power corrupts absolutely; "Persian Letters" satire on absurdities of French society where two persians visit Paris
. 1778- Jean Jacques Rousseau: THE DIFFERENT ONE; EMOTIONAL; 1762 "On the Social Contract" too much emphasis on property and not enough on people in civilization; GENERAL WILL- consensus of the majority, sometimes strong leaders know better; attacks rationalism and logic and goes for emotion; romanticism; "Emile" education- learn by DOING; man used to be a "noble savage" but materialism of civilization has ruined man
. Diderot: "Encyclopedia"- put in Index of Prohibited Books; believed more knowledge makes you happier
. Beccaria: "On Crime and Punishment"- punishment of a crime should reflect the crime (if you break a window, you have to replace it); opposes torture to extract confessions; influences enlightened despots

Economic Theory: move societies from mercantilism to capitalism
. Quesnay: leader of physiocrats- hate mercantilism and want laissez- fairre; land reform
. ADAM SMITH: 1776 "Wealth of Nations"; Scottish professor; laissez- fairre; every person free to pursue own interests; supply and demand= invisible hand; capitalism turns greed into serving others!

. Women:
. Salons- women invite thinkers to come think! Yaay! "Women are the mediators of the changing society."
. Madame Geoffrin- artists on Monday, writers on Wednesday
. increase rights and education of women!
. Mary Wollestonecraft: 1792 "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"- women denied educational opportunities; mom of Mary Shelley (Frankenstein)

ENLIGHTENMENT ON:
. Baron Paul d'Holbach: You're just a machine. You have no control. DETERMINISM; attacks Christianity; Even Voltaire is repelled
. David Hume: ideas are the result of sensory experiences; no God; "reason can tell you nothing"
. Jean de Condorcet: "Progress of the Human Mind"; Utopian; 9 stages of human progress have occurred- the tenth will be perfection
. Rousseau: attacks rationalism; civilization destroys rather than liberates the individual
. Immanuel Kant= CRAY confusing

Classical Liberalism: Enlightenment ideas applied to politics
. freedom of the individual; people equal before the law; natural rights

Opposition: New Christian groups
. German Pietism- you have to feel it to know what truth is
. Methodism - John Wesley- ditto- born again
. Jansenism- God is personal and involved

Impact:
. secular
. enlightened despots
. American and French revolutions
. educational reform
. growth of laissez- fairre capitalism

Russia: Peter the Great - Nicholas II (with Ivans and stuff)

1680 - 1918

. Long long time ago: Mongols invade- Genghis Khan sets Russian standard of government as harsh and totalitarian- has princes of Moscow become the Moscovy and act as bureaucrats; consolidate their rule (Ivan I, Ivan III, etc).
. Muscovy starts to become important
. Russian nobles= boyars
. 1442: Ivan the Great/ III kicks out the Mongol Khan and establishes himself hereditary head of Moscovy; starts calling himself a Tzar as in Caesar; Tzar becomes head of Russian Orthodox Church; marries princess of Byzantine Empire (before it falls); bring in Greek scholars; Tzar claims divine right absolute power- boyars are like "YO" so Ivan takes their land
. Ivan IV/ the Terrible: 1533- comes to throne at age 3; dominated by boyars as a kid; first to call himself Tzar; marries into the Romanov familia; expands to Black Sea region WANT WARM WATER PORTS FOR TRADE and to Balkans; starts to modernize Russia; wars against Poland and Lithuania; encourages trade with Britain and Netherlands; nobles and peasants both have to serve in military; pushing back Ottomans; reduces boyar powers, but allows serfdom; creates Service Nobility by taking land from rebellious old nobles; becomes paranoid, believing the boyars poisoned his wifey and were planning to replace him; takes over profitable enterprises to create monopoly; likes throwing puppies and kitties out of windows; beats preggers daughter in law causing miscarriage- fights with son- beats him to death- NO HEIR!; dies playing chess
. Kussacks: little peasant militia groups independent of Tzar
. Time of Trouble- famine and power struggle after Ivan the Terrible's death; choose grand nephew Michael Romanov: serfdom solidified into law- rebellion; Old Believers don't want change in church- they burn themselves..

. 1682- 95: Peter the Great! aka "the Moving Thunderbolt: 6'8"; strong enough to bend a horseshoe with bare hands; sister, Sophia, acts as regent until she tries to kill him and he overthrows her; uneducated, but really smart; made up armies of his friends and played war games at age 7
3 goals- 1. absolute power of Tzar- landowners have to be in army, civil service, or member of court so that they're all under Peter; subjugates Russian Orthodox Church so that it's under his direct authority; ostracizes Muslims and Jews. 2. westernize Russia- French government and Dutch trade are models; "Grand Tour" when Peter travels Europe incognito for two years apprenticing himself to different trades, coming back to build navy, new technology, changes calendar to Julian calendar (nermal kind), force western clothes (no more veils) and social events and shave beards BEARD TAX. He's like "Yo. Your soul patch is an equilateral triangle. That's embarrassing. Ima tax it off yo sorry face, foo." Buys dentist equipment and becomes obsessed with teeth pulling- deep fascination with ALL THE THINGS! Builds St. Petersburg as a capital and a port; Hermitage looks JUST LIKE VERSAILLES! showdown 3. "Windows on the Sea:" Russia can't trade because they're landlocked- only ports are frozen over- need warm water ports.
Domestic Policy: allows no representative body; creates Table of Ranks to classify jobs and start a point system of social mobility; promotes industry and commerce; gives some people monopolies; creates science academy and pays cool kids to come help from other countries; creates public schools (elementary to either academy/college or vocational/tech college); conscripted labor (no pay); secret police; revises Russian alphabet to make it easier to learn; 1st newspaper for national identity; abolishes church and makes Holy Synod (leaders and civilians; leads to TROUBLE); system of military draft; upgrades military equipment (they were still using pikes); 75% of budget goes to military; Love of the arts (French theater, Italian opera, Hermitage looks like Versailles (baroque))
Foreign Policy: 1695- fight Turks- get a port for a decade, then lose it because he splits his army; in constant warfare every year of his reign but one; success in fighting against Sweden (who becomes neutral) in Great Northern War by drawing them back into nasty weather of Russia- get some Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia (Treaty of Nicestad)
. 1725- Peter dies
. Peter's issue= literally larger than life- only son he strangles to death, so no heir for Peter

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

Before, people eat dandelions, grass, bark, ANYTHING.
No enclosure.
Failed harvest. People malnourished and sick.
English and Dutch lead.
Application of science to agriculture.
Progressive elimination of the fallow (letting the land rest for a year every three years)
Increased food supply, new methods of cultivation, selective breeding of livestock.
Enclose land, manure fertilization, drainage
. Cornelius Vermuyden- engineered drainage techniques in Netherlands; motto= "Nothing without work!"
. Charles Townsend- pioneered crop rotation (turnip towns) in England
. Jethro Tull- Seed drill- allows for weeding
. Robert Bakewell- pioneered selective breeding of livestock- larger and healthier animals
. New foods from Columbian exchange: potatoes and corn! TATERS, PRECIOUS! Boil 'em. Mash 'em. Stick 'em in a stew.
. Enclosure Movement in England- to raise sheep- kicked peasants off- go to America- hedgehogs- 3,000 Parliamentary Enclosure Acts- tenant farmers and poor people move to cities.
. Corn Laws (LATER)- tariffs passed by rich Parl- PEOPLE LIKE TO EAT FOOD.
. POPULATION EXPLOSION- potato becomes staple crop

Proto- Industrialization/ Cottage Industry/ "Putting Out" System: rural industry= pillar of economy;
. 1733 John Kay invents flying shuttle which let weavers throw shuttle back and forth with one hand
. 1764 James Hargreaves invents spinning jenny
. 1779 Samuel Crompton invents spinning mule

Enlightened Despotism

1740 - 1800

Rousseau doesn't like it. Everyone else does.

I. 1740- 1786- Frederick (II) the Great of Prussia: "Old Fritz"; son of soldier king Frederick Wilhelm II; smart; likes reading and music and French and no interest in military; at age 18 tries to run oft to England to see his intended bride without telling anyone; dad executes his friend who helped him and forces him to serve in army; only 3% budget goes to palace; loves Voltaire and they live together for a while; writes the "Anti- Machiavelli"; starts War of Austrian Succession by annexing Silesia, violating Pragmatic Sanction; Treaty of Aix- Chappelle, takes Silesia; Seven Years War- Maria Theresa gets Russia and France to help take back Silesia until Russia pulls out- Treaty of Paris 1763- Prussia keeps Silesia and France loses all of North American stuff; servant of the state; lead military personally and made new strategy Oblique Order of Battle; modernized and united lands; established Prussia as strong; "King in Prussia" to "King OF Prussia"; patronized arts, besties with Voltaire, abolished torture and corporal punishment, rococo palace, multilingual, long rule, freedom of press, most honest courts in Europe; regulated tariffs for international trade, built canals, indirect taxes increased revenue, controlled grain prices to fight poverty, storehouses prevented famine; promoted religious tolerance, raised Calvinist, but feared he wasn't one of the elect, so he had a cray work ethic; Prussian code; frees serfs on his personal land; social structure stays the same without social mobility

. 1740s- Catherine the Great of Russia- TOTAL HO; actually German but related to Romanovs; married to Tzar Peter III (assassinated by military with Catherine's help because he pulled out of the war); Pugachev Rebellion- Cossack who leads huge serf uprising claiming to be the true Tzar and goes around killing a bunch of landlords and officials- put down and boyars given total control; strong military, defeated Turks; loves French culture and only speaks French; Diderot lives in her court and she buys his library; legislative commission; studied philosophs; westernizes Russia; education reforms; publishing of books; school for noble girls; Jews have civil equality; abolishes torture; Russia gets a third of Poland 1795 when Poland ceases to exist; Russia gets Turkish land

. Maria Theresa= NOT AN ENLIGHTENED DESPOT: centralized control of Hapsburg empire, "Sheep must be well- fed if they are to yield more wool and milk"; brings church under control; makes Vienna pretty; emphasis on arts; STRONGEST of Absolutist women; mom of Joseph II- held him up as a baby off the balcony over crowds like Simba and everyone bows; daughter of Charles VI, Hapsburg, who has only daughters- can't be Holy Roman Empress because women are uncleanseable... sooo Pragmatic Sanction- makes princes sign loyalty to Maria Theresa- worth NOTHING without military backup; Charles dies and Maria Theresa takes throne in 1740, but cranky Frederick the Great (Hohenzollern) just came to throne AFTER Pragmatic Sanction, so he takes Silesia and starts the 7 Years War...

. Joseph II of Austria= best Enlightened Despot: absolutist; abolishes local diets- made central council= easier and more just debate; used nobility for power and efficiency; limited power of judicial courts- more power to monarch and less to nobles and clergy; made German national language- unified nation; taxed nobles and clergy; Edict of Tolerance= good for Catholics; abolishes serfdom (actually a problem); civic rights to protestants and jews; freedom of press; expands state schools; makes parks and gardens... buuuuut they get overthrown- Leopold succeeds

Industrialization & the Age of "Isms"

1750 - 1870

American Independence

1776

French Revolution: Age of Montesqieu/ Moderate Stage

1789 - 1792

Crane Britton's "Anatomy of a Revolution"- When people are their most depressed, they have no hope. When things begin to improve, people seize the opportunity and revolt.

Louis XV comes to throne at age 5- nobles gain power- ministers= influential- mistress Madame de Pompadour= SUPERMEGAFOXYAWESOMEHOT and brilliant and influential. Louis wants to raise taxes to pay for Seven Years War and War of Austrian Succession. Parlema- judicial body, NOT legislative like English Parliament, gains power to veto king, made up of Nobility of the Robe (bought their position w/ Henry IV Navarre) says "NO!" 1768 Louis picks Rene de Maupeou to abolish Parlema of Paris and exile them to make a new Parlema of people who are loyal to Louis XV. People are like "YO."

Louis XVI: tries really hard to get people to like him. Dismisses Maupeou and reinstates OLD Parlema, but they don't oppose him at all.

3 Estates= Ancien Régime: (1) clergy: 20% of land, no taxes, 1% of population (2) nobility: 25% of land, ability to tax peasants, can carry swords in public!!, 2% of population (3) everyone else (including bourgeoisie who have money and no power): 45% land, 97% of population; pay ALL OF THE TAXES!; like to eat food; pay so many taxes, they have no money to buy food- THIS IS GREATLY DISPLEASING

lettre de cahot- "sealed letter"= prominent symbol of tyranny of ancient regime; puts bourgeoise people in jail for NO REASON.

. causes: people from all classes angry, think they have more potential, hopeful, but forced to accept less, bitter towards other classes, especially those closest to them; government doesn't respond to people's needs; scholars and thinkers give up on societal operation; leaders doubt themselves and join opposing side because of responsibility; government can't organize $ and either goes bankrupt or taxes 3rd estate excessively (taille= land tax; gabelle= tax on salt; aides= taxes to help build roads; corvee= peasants have to work for free several days each year building roads for rich people; ferme= tax on tobacco; octrot= tax on goods brought into cities; capitation= poll tax; vingtieme= income tax; feudal dues)- peasants are like "YO! We're poor. Buh."; ALSO, "Louis XVI is an inept dumpling"- Linda Mines
. breakdown of ancien regime- French people sitting around talking about Enlightenment philosophs and how Americans are living the dream, yo. So they sign up to go fight for Americans. They come back all like "why can't we do that here?"
. French hates Britain, so they give a huge amount of $ to aid the Americans during the revolution. NOW THEY'RE POOR! Half of their annual budget goes to interest on the debt! And we repay them by calling "french fries" "freedom fries" because we had to help them later in WWI and WWII. Louis picks Jacques Necker as finance minister. Necker is like "welp. We have to start taxing the 1st and 2nd estates since the 3rd estate literally has no more money to tax. Also, you need to stop spending so much $." The 1st and 2nd estates are like "YO." So Louis XVI calls Assembly of Notables to either approve new tax program or pay taxes or pay land tax. Nobles are like "how about you quit spending your $." King is like "NO. God wants me to have it." So he dismisses them and tries to increase taxes anyway.
. laissez- fairre ideas of physiocrats Quesnay and Smith are popular

1789- 1792 Age of Montesqieu/ Moderate Stage:
. 1789 Abbe Sieyes' "What is the Third Estate?"- "What is the third estate? Everything. What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something therein." The people providing the food should have the power. THEY are the nation. "Dem parasites NEED. TO GO."
. June 6, 1778 Louis XVI is out of money, so he calls the Estates General... the last time they met was 175 years ago when Marie de Medici fusses at them for questioning her authority after Henry IV of Navarre dies... Louis asks them to come up w/ list of grievances. They do, expecting him to actually try to fix stuff, but he's like "that's nice. Let's talk about tax raises!"
. Estates General- 300 each for 1st and 2nd estates and 300 for 3rd estate, which makes up 98% of the population. So 3rd Estate wants to vote by population.
. June 17, 1789 Mirabeau says 3rd estate can leave and form National Assembly, so Louis locks them out. They're like "well that's just peachy. Good thing the nation of France contains more than one room." They rally in an indoor tennis court.
. June 20- Tennis Court Oath- "We're not leaving until we've written a constitution." Louis is like "Oh HEEELLL no." and kills the Estates General. Paris is pumped about National Assembly being an autocracy. Louis' military surrounds Paris just in case. Louis is like "no one will ever notice these troops I've set up around my nation's capital city!" Welp. They notice. And they wig out.
. July 14- Fall of the Bastille- Parisians get ALL the guns and free the seven prisoners inside.
. Paris Commune- arm yourselves! Tricolor adopted. Middle class militia formed to prevent mob rule; National Guard under command of Marquis de Lafayette. Emigres flee France. Louis XVI recognizes National Assembly because he's a limp noodle.
. July- The Great Fear- rumor that other nations (England) fixin' to invade France. Peasants flip their shit, kill all the lords of manors and burn all documents that say they lived there- fresh start.
. 1789- 1791- National/ Constituent Assembly: August Decrees- abolish serfdom, all men= equal, abolish feudal system, abolish class system; Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (basically Declaration of Independence)- women are like "YO."- Olympia de Gouges' Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen- men are like "SUCK IT."
. LEFT= Jacobins, Girondists; CENTER= the Plain, unorganized group of moderate republicans and monarchists without leadership who were swayed by leaders of the left; RIGHT= monarchists and royalists of various kinds, but primarily constitutional monarchists
. "madame"/ "monsieur" to "citizen."
. Marat: pamphleteer/ provocateur; writes that Marie Antoinette said "Let them eat cake."
. Oct 5, 1789 Women's Bread March- Rumor spreads that Queen Marie Antoinette (daughter of Maria Theresa, sister of Joseph II) is hoarding grain in the palace. The peasant women are sick of watching their children starve. PEOPLE LIKE TO EAT FOOD. 20,000 dirt poor mama bears flip their shit, arm themselves with kitchen utensils and brooms, march to Versailles (all the while gaining 40,000), storm in, slaughter the guards, scream for the blood of Queen Marie Antoinette, who runs for it and barely makes it to Louis XVI's chambers in time. Women force King and Queen under house arrest in Paris. Constituent Assembly also moved to Paris.
. November 1789 Confiscation of church lands by the state to the revolutionaries (like Henry VIII, Tudor when forming Anglican church); assignat= paper money backed by land, NOT GOLD- church buys bonds in revolution- if revolution succeeds, church gets their $ back; Robespierre and Marat want no mo ancient regime- 10 day weeks, new calendar where 1791= year 0, 100 minutes per hour, etc.
This is where stuff starts to go wrong.
. July 1790 Civil Constitution of the Clergy- clergy no longer attached to Rome- agents of/ under authority of the state- swear oath (refracting)- non refractors= executed.
. June 20, 1791 Flight to Varennes- Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette and fam dress up as peasants and make a run for the Austrian border. They almost make it! But they were stopped when a guy held up a coin and was like "hey! That guy looks just like the king!" Also, his documents were signed by the king instead of by the Constituent Assembly. They're dragged back to Paris.
. September 1791 Constitution of 1791- modeled off England; 1st written constitution establishing constitutional monarchy with supreme power to a legislative assembly of one body; separation of powers (Montesqieu's "Spirit of the Laws" 3 branches); limited democratic concept- only land owners can hold office- only tax payers can vote; Louis XVI signed!
. Oct 1797 Constituent/ Legislative Assembly- 745 mostly middle class members- RIGHT= conservative monarchists and royalists; CENTER= moderate republicans and monarchists both swayed by left; LEFT= liberal Jacobins ("KILL THE -WITCH- I MEAN KING!") and Girondists ("Can I keep it?")
. Emigres abroad set up clamor for foreign intervention
. 1790 Edmund Burke/ SPOCK attacks revolution in "Reflections on the Revolution in France" predicting chaos, anarchy, and death if they try to overthrow the monarchy too quickly because Frenchies are irrational and emotional
. 1791 Thomas Paine attacks Burke's position in "Rights of Man"

French Revolution: Age of Rousseau/ Reign of Terror

1792 - 1794

1792- 1794 Age of Rousseau/ Reign of Terror:
. November 1792 Legislative Assembly/ National Convention- 749 members almost all republicans- RIGHT= conservative Girondists; CENTER= mamahuhu; LEFT= "The Mountain" Jacobins (Danton and Robespierre); based on "Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite"; Sans- Culottes= very influential on National Convention; working class; extremely radical; not in National Convention; economic agenda
. September 21, 1792 Monarchy abolished- French Republic! Oh Happy Day!
. January 1792- Louis XVI tried and found guilty of crimes against humanity- Jan 21- Louis XVI executed!!
. October 1793- Marie Antoinette executed and protesting royalists executed
. June 1793 Committee for Public Safety- start of Reign of Terror- purpose= to act as a war cabinet in the face of civil war and economic unrest at home and attacks by 1st Coalition- 9 to 12 members: Danton, Robespierre (sends Herbert of Paris Commune and Danton to guillotine b/c cray and paranoid), Carnot (leader of military in combat), and Marat (recorder of thoughts, plans, etc); Mountain and Paris Commune (Robespierre) oust Girondists b/c of treason charges
. Charlotte Corday= Girondist supporter; mad at Marat for causing violence; tells Marat she has names of Girondists, so he gave her an audience. He had some nast skin disease, so he was chillin in a bath tub. She was like "just kidding!!" and stabs him. (Jacque Louis David paints it in "Death of Marat")
. Committee of Public Safety: organized to help urban poor (1) Law of Maximum- planned economy to deal with famine; fixed bread prices; creation of "The Bread of Equality"= CRAY; nationalization of small businesses (socialism! AAAH!) (2) get rid of slavery in Haiti (3) Law of Suspects: enemies of the state tried and executed - kill ALL THE PEOPLE!!
. levee en mass- draft for 1,000,000 man army
. Sept 20, 1792 Battle of Valmy: Prussians stopped by revolutionary army- great moral victory for Nat Con
. Nov 1792 Battle of Jemappes: first major victory for France resulting in occupation of entire Austrian Netherlands
. August 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz- Leopold II of Austria is like "if you hurt the royal fam I will CUT. YOU. (fear of spreading revolution)
. April 1792 French Declaration of War
. First Coalition formed- (Fins are ski- and- shoot snipers, yo. Errbodeh else thinks they're hillbillies.)
. Jac Heber- Cult of Reason= atheist; leads the "Angry Men" who end up being killed for an excess of zeal.
. 1794 Robespierre creates Cult of Supreme Being and dechristianization; deism; festivals of reason; "Terror without virtue is disastrous. Virtue without terror is useless."- Robespierre

French Revolution: Thermidorian Reaction

1795 - 1799

1795- 1799 Thermidorean Reaction:
. people flip and denounce, arrest, and execute Robespierre
. shift to Right conservatism
. The Directory= republican form of government; bi cameral legislature; almost all adult males can vote; office holding reserved for property owners; print more money; inflation; oh no.; disbands womens' workshops
. October 1795: aristocracy attempts uprising shut down with help from Nappy Bonaparte
. Babouf leads Conspiracy of Equals (basically communist)
. government ignored poor probs
. royalists elect a guy, but it's annulled by the rest
. Battle of Pyramids= Nappy!!
. Abbe Sieyes invites Nappy to help join a coup in November

French Revolution: NAPPY TIME/ Age of Voltaire/ Consulate Era

1799 - 1815

1799- 1815 Age of Voltaire/ Consulate Era/ NAPPY TIMES!!!:
. Enlightened Despotism
. minor Italian fam
. age 9 enrolled in French military school- good at math and geography
. age 16 begins military career
. "it's better to eat than to be eaten"
. 5'2"
. bureaucracy rewarded based on loyalty

Reforms:
. 1804 Napoleonic Code: creates unity in the law- STILL USED TODAY- outlaws "REAL crimes, not phony offenses created by superstition, feudalism, and royal despotism."- results in strong central government- equality of all male citizens before law; freedom of religion; serfdom abolished; women get inheritance rights; private property protected; divorce easier
. creates meritocracy- talent system allowing social mobility; new nobility based on talent
. creates 3600 titles
. amnesty for 100,000 emigres in return for loyalty (tying errbodeh to their state)
. crowns himself Emperor Dec 25
. no trade unions
. Concordat of 1801- deal between Nappy and Roman Catholic Church as a bulwark of order to bring common folk in line- Pope renounces claims to land and Nappy announces Catholicism is religion of French majority; bishops swear loyalty to Nappy; Catholic worship allowed; errbody gets the civil rights
. "How can there be order in society without religion?" "Religion is what keeps the poor man from murdering the rich."

Finances:
. Bank of France
. Balance national budget
. credit and money
. stimulate economy with low prices food, less farmer taxes

Education:
. available to masses
. reorganization for work force or more
. increases middle class size

Police State:
. spy system for surveillance
. after 1810 political opponents imprisoned
. arrests and executed Bourbon in 1804

drawbacks:
. inequality for women
. workers cant have unions
. liberty repressed
. absolutism
. nepotism

WARS:
. War of First Coalition- Italian Campaign and Egyptian Expedition (Horatio Nelson and Brits defeat French fleet at Battle of the Nile)

1798- 1801 War of Second Coalition: beats Austria and gets Rhineland and italian stuff; Britain fights alone (peace at Treaty of Armiens 1802)
. probs in Haiti
. sells Louisiana to Thomas Jefferson so Nappy has $ to take over Prussia and Russia

1805- 1807 War of Third Coalition:
. Dec 1805 Battle of Ulm- Nappy defeated an Austrian army of 50,000, surrounded it and forced it to surrounds- captured Vienna!
. Dec 2, 1805 Battle of Austerlitz/ Battle of the Three Emperors- "most perfect battle in history"/ Nappy's masterpiece- vs. Alex I (Russia) and Francis I (Austria)
. Battle of Trafalgar- Admiral Nelson destroyed French and Spanish fleet insuring British control of seas- Nelson dies heroically
. 1807 TREATY OF TILSIT
. Continental System: (a) attempted economic blockade of England in hope to ruin "that nation of shopkeepers" (b) 2 decrees (Berlin and Milan) closed nations on continent to trade with Britain (c) fail- too many ports along the coast (d) Portugal refused to comply and was occupied by French troops (e) Nappy is like "welp, might as well take Spain, too."
. 1808- 1814 Peninsular War- (a) Nappy forced Spanish Bourbon family to abdicate and put his bro, Joseph, on the throne of Spain (b) Spanish people NOT AMUSED- Guerilla War Brits send Duke of Wellington with a small force= BAD NEWS for Nappy
. 1809 War with Austria: Austria announces "war of liberation" assuming Nappy is busy in Spain. WRONGO. Nappy leaves Spain to lead an army against Austria who panic and are like "HERE. TAKE OUT PRINCESS (Mary Louise) AND LEAVE THIS LAND!" Nappy's like "Aight." and marries her. COOL.
. 1812 Invasion of Russia: (a) Russians are starving, so they're like "maybe if we break the Continental System and trade with Britain Nappy won't notice." If they don't, they'll starve to death. SURPRISE! They choose life. (b) Nappy "falls prey to one of history's most classic blunders, the first of which being 'never get involved in a land war in Asia.'" (c) Nappy leaves Paris with over 500,000 men and will return with less than 50,000. He was like "we'll be home by Christmas!" Newp. French surround Moscow for weeks until Russians in Moscow are like "I know! We'll burn our city!" French forced to retreat. Russians celebrate with Tchaikovsky's "1812 Overture"
. 1803- 1814 War of the Fourth Coalition: Russians and Prussians start a War of Liberation in the Germanies and are joined by Austrians against France.
. Oct 16- 19, 1813 Battle of Leipzig/ Battle of the Nations: Allies outnumber French 2:1. Day 1 Nappy barely wins. Day 2 Nappy forced to retreat trying to negotiate peace but is refused by the Allies. Day 3 Allies attack Nappy's troops and French are defeated 9 hours in. March 31- Allies forces enter Paris with help from French foreign minister, Talleyrand.
. April 11- Nappy forced to abdicate and is exiled to island of Elba off coast of Italy with right to rule the island and lotsa $.
. March 20- June 22, 1815 THE HUNDRED DAYS- (a) Allies fighting over how to divide spoils. (b) Nappy escapes Elba and lands in France March 1. (c) French troops sent to capture Nappy... instead, they declare him to be their leader. (d) Louis XVIII (Louis XVI's bro) done up and R.U.N.N.O.F.T. (e) Nappy arrives in Paris on March 20 and is named Emperor of France again. (f) March 25, Allies have stopped fussing and joined forces against Nappy. They put together an army of 1,000,000 men under direct command of Duke of Wellington (British).
. June 18, 1815 BATTLE OF WATERLOO- in Belgium. Nappy starts to cross Belgium with troops and meets only a lil resistance. And then, out of the blue, British forces and Blucher's Prussian forces defeat Nappy. Sad. Day.
. June 22- Nappy abdicates again and is exiled to St. Helena, an English island in the South Atlantic, to be a British prisoner. He dies in May 1821.
END OF NAPPY TIMES.
Restoration begins!

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

. Austria- Prince Clemens von Metternich
. Prussia- von Hardenburg- crush revolution
. Russia- Tzar Alexander I- prayerful man and father of the Concert of Europe
. Britain- Lord Castlereigh- nervous about Russian control- wants Poland to go to Prussians because tall soldiers
. France- Talleyrand (ex French foreign affairs minister)- sucks up to errbodeh separately, so everyone goes easy on France thinking it's for their own good. First he's Louis XVI's bitch, then Robespierre's bitch, then Nappy's bitch, then Louis XVIII's bitch, then Nappy's bitch again, then Louis XVIII's bitch again. He's just a bitch.

Nappy is exiled to Elba- "I shall return when the lilacs bloom."

Nations meet to reestablish Europe:
. Balance of Power (status quo pre Nappy)- Concert of Europe
. Legitimacy- restore old rulers
. Reactionary System (back to how it was pre Nappy)
- Nappy returns right on time for the lilacs and they break up and make up at Waterloo. Nappy is sent to St. Helena for good. 1822- Castlereigh's suicide
Successes:
1) France loses new territory
2) Austrian Netherlands get Dutch Republic (House of Orange)
3) Sweden gets Norway
4) Switzerland= ETERNALLY NEUTRAL!
5) Russia gets Poland and Finland
6) Prussia gets Saxony and Westphalia and the Rhineland
7) Austria gets Lombardy and Venice (ports! They can balance British navy now!)
8) Britain gets Gibraltar (control over Jamaica and shit; recognition as "Master and Commander of the Sea")
9) Louis XVIII gets France
10) Ferdinand VII gets Spain

Metternich say... ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity will not be discussed... and old status quo pre Nappy restored IMMEDIAMENTE!

1815- 1848 Era of Reaction/ Age of Metternich
. Legit rulers on all thrones
. Balance of power
. Stem the tide of revolution

Age of Nationalism

1850 - 1900

see notes page 50 for -ISMS and Post- Nappy reactions

Western World Enters Modern Age

1871 - 1914

WWI

1880 - 1919

Long Term Causes: MANIA
Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, Assassination
Militarism- "my army is bigger than yours."
Alliances- everywhere
Nationalism- Imperialism absorbs lil' guys (panslavs; serbs-picked on because little and like to read- Russia= big bro)
Imperialism- Italians and Germans got into that a lil too late
Assassination- Cray serbs with TB shot Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wifey, Sophie.
The Great War:
Triple Alliance-Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary + Turkey (1914), Bulgaria (1915)
Triple Entente-Allied Powers: GB, France, Russia, Serbia, Belgium + Japan (1914), Italy (1915), USA (1917)

1st Moroccan Crisis- Cause of WWI

1905

.Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany) gives a speech in Morocco encouraging their independence from France
.France is like "YO"- everyone hates Germany except for Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia & Herzogovina- Cause of WWI

1908

.Bosnia and Herzogovina both Turkish- made up of SLAVS!
.Russia (Nick II) is like "YO"
.GB and France calm Russia down

2nd Moroccan Crisis "Panther Crisis"- Cause of WWI

1911

.Germans send a gunboat, "the Panther," to Morocco to "help keep order" (hold them hostage from France)
.France is like "YO. MOVE YO ASS." Germany is like "International water, yo." GB & Russia are like "No really. Move."

Wars in Balkans- Cause of WWI

1912 - 1913

.Bismarck called it
.Balkans claim independence from Turkey (aka "weak man of Europe")
.Austria-Hungary absorbs Balkans
.Russia and Serbs are like "YO"
EVERYONE IS EYEBALLIN' EVERYONE ELSE

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand- Cause of WWI

June 28, 1914

.Austrian Archduke, and heir to Franz Joseph's throne, Franz Ferdinand brings his preggers commoner wifey, Sophie, to visit Serbia on Serbian independence day.
.Parade-route published
.Cray baby Serbs with TB (called "The Black Hand") shoot them.

Germany gives Austria a "blank check"- Cause of WWI

July 5, 1914

.Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph, great uncle of Franz Ferdinand, asks Kaiser Wilhelm II for help
.Willy gives him a "blank check"- "You can have whatever you like."

Franz Joseph & Serbs fuss- Cause of WWI

July 23, 1914

.Franz Joseph is like "Y'all suck Royal hippogriff. I blame the entirety of Serbia for the assassination of my heir, yo."
.Serbs are like "Yep. Sorry."
.Austria wants to kick some ass, so... "Oh no! Too late! We didn't get your apology telegram on time!"

There she blows- Start of WWI

July 25, 1914 - April 1917

.July 25: Serbia and Austria-Hungary mobilizing
.July 28: Austria-Hungary declares war. Germans are like "chill."
.July 30: Russians mobilize army- passing through Germany
.July 31: Germany is like "cease and desist." Russia is like "nope."
.Aug 1: Germany declares war on Russia
.Aug 2: Germany invades Luxembourg ...?
- France and GB from the left - Russia from the right - Germany panics and takes France
.Aug 3: Wilhelm (Germany) is like "Yo. Cousin Leppy. Can I come over on my way to take over France? Love, Willy." Leppy (Belgium; neutral) is like "Yo Willy. How's the fam? And yeah no. You can't." Germany goes anyway, impaling chilluns and rapin' nuns all the way to France. Leppy is like "YO."
. afternoon- Italy declares neutrality. "We just wanna eat pizza."
.Aug 4: Leppy is like "Weh. Cousin George (V), Willy hurt my subjects. Weh." GB declared war on Germany.
.Aug 23: Japan declares war on Allies... Errbody is like "WAAAT?"
SHE DOESN'T EVEN GO HERE!! Japan wants to get land back from Russia by walking behind Axis Powers and picking up the scraps.
.Oct 29: Secret German-Turkish alliance. Turks mobilize towards Russia
.Nov 2: Russia declares war on Turkey
.May, 1915: Italy FINALLY joins the war
.Oct, 1915: Bulgaria joins Axis Powers
.Aug, 1916: Romania joins Allies (for freedom)
.April, 1917: US FINALLY joins the war
(P 66-68)

Battle of the Marne- WWI

September 1914

Germans trying to take Paris-
French and Brits attack Germans @ Marne River Valley
German defeat in 4 days- end of Schlieffen Plan

Trench Warfare- WWI

October 1914 - 1918

Stalemate after Battle of the Marne
"No-man's Land"= place between trenches

Naval Blockade & Sinking of Luisitania

1915

Allies cut off Central Powers from trade, so Central Powers go for unrestricted submarine warfare and shoot down ALL DA BOATS to GB. Germans put add in NY Times saying "don't take any boats here." Americans sail anyway towards GB in the Luisitania and are shot down- 120 Americans dead. USA is like "YO." President is like "APOLOGIZE and promise never to do it again." They do it again in 1917. America enters the war (while Russia is exiting).

Battle of Verdun and Battle of the Somme

1916

in France
Verdun= longest battle of WWI
250,000 dead

Somme- more than 1,000,000 casualties- day 1 60,000 dead

Balfour Note

1916

T.E. Lawrence is running around Middle East telling Arabs they can have autonomy in this land in Ottoman Empire. Meanwhile, Brits are telling Jews they can go live there. So they're both like "YO."

Zimmerman Note

1916

Another reason USA entered WWI
Germany offers to help Italy get some old territories back- SECRET TREATY
*Germany sends a coded telegram to Mexico offering to help them get their old territories (Texas, New Mex, etc) back that US stole if Mexico allies with Germany when US enters war. British intercept it and decode it and show it to US. US is like "YO."

Russian Revolutions

February 1916 - 1939

FEBRUARY REVOLUTION: 1917
Long term causes:
I. Rasputin and Tzarina Alexandra: shenannies and shit
II. The Tzar: Nick II sucks Royal Hippogriff
III. Discontent w/ WWI: casualties and food shortages PEOPLE LIKE TO EAT FOOD
IV. Duma probs: "Yo, Tzar. Stop ignoring us!"
V. Growing opposition groups
VI. Rasputin smells like a dead goat

.Rodzyanko (president of Duma) predicted the fall of the Russian empire if Nick II didn't listen to the people (like Louis XVI)
.Regular outbreaks in working class
.Feb 18: Putilov workers strike
.Feb 23: International Women's Day- women join Putilov protestors - end bread rationing, better wages, end WWI
.Feb 25: General strike paralyzed Petrograd- police do nothing out of sympathy. - Nick II is 400 miles away playing soldier and tells General Petrograd to shut the strike down.
.Feb 26: Khabalov, Petrograd army commander, failed to put down demonstrators. Most desert and join protestors.
.Feb 27: Tzar dissolves Duma
.March 1: Duma for Provisional Committee led by Alexander Kerensky calls for Tzar to quit. Petrograd Soviet set up. Provisional Committee and Soviet decide to rule together as "de facto" government. Tzar is advised by Rodzyanko to abdicate, but Nick II thinks is he talks to the people, they'll forgive him. His train is intercepted by anti- Tzar protestors and he decides to abdicate.
.March 2: Tzar Nick II abdicates- gives throne to lil' bro Mikhail, who is like "oh HEEELL no" and gives the power over to the Provisional Government and Alexander Kerensky.
END OF ROMANOV DYNASTY
.March 3: Provisional Committee announces their power/ Russia ruled by Dual Authority.
BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION:
.Many Russians unhappy with new government
.Sept: General Kornilov of Russian Army leads right- wing military coup (believes Russian people need order and structure- not options and chaos)
.3 Bolshevik Leaders:
1) Vlad Lenin returns from Finland!
2) Joe Stalin returns from Siberia! - ("man of steel" - Superman invented to fight against original man w/ "S" on his chest.)
3) Leon Trotsky returns from USA! - (Jewish- SHALOM!- That's not a real word but keep trying.)
THE NEW GOV:
.Provisional Government shared Dual Authority with...
..Petrograd Soviets- led by Prince Lvov- many old Duma members join - workers' council; 1905 Revolution; watchdog for the workers; more credible, popular, powerful than Provisional Gov; ultimate control of armed forces w/ Soviet Order No. 1
- Kerensky led both authorities.
. recognized trade unions
. 8 hr day for industrial workers
. full civil and religious freedoms
. commitment to constitutional assembly
BUT
. Provisional Gov gets more paranoid and conservative, so workers go liberal- separation- fight about land ownership and involvement in WWI
. Soviets throw party for Lenin's homecoming after Germans give him a free escorted train home to cause destabilization in Russia
. Lenin hits Russian ground fussing about the Provisional Gov
.April 4: Lenin's April Theses- 1) we support the soviets. 2) long live the people. 3) Slogans: "Bread, Peace, and Land" and "All power to the Soviets"
(P68-71)

Ottoman Arab Probs

1917

Brits send T.E. Lawrence to stir up Arab nationalism within Ottoman Empire. Promises autonomy after war- can't follow through.

Gallipoli Campaign

1917

British come in and Germans and Turks defend until stalemate- 250,000 casualties by the time Brits give up.

Battle of Tannenburg

1917

TURNING POINT: Germans overthrow Russia on Eastern Front b/c Russia havin problems at home- not enough supplies b/c Russians don't have Industrial Rev.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

December 1917

Lenin and Hitler make secret treaty- Russia pulls out of WWI by giving up 25% of Russia

Musse-Argon Offensive

1918

Germany's last attempt at Schlieffen Plan to take Paris- US is there and swats them down. Germany gives up.
Woodrow Wilson drops pamphlets of Fourteen Points all over Central Powers to get the people on their side.

Flu Epidemic

1918

more die than the 20,000,000 in WWI

Creation of Weimar Republic

November 9, 1918 - 1920

. Social Democratic Party take control of government.
. Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates
. fear of communist revolution throughout Germany prompted Philip Shneidman to proclaim a republic without support of any party- threats from the left- republic becomes prisoner to the German army- group of communists called Spartacists led by Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Leibknecht who control Berlin in January 1919- the free core, a private right wing military group led by former senior German officers, try to support Weimar republic for security, they come into Berlin and crush the Spartacists and their leaders.
. Elections in 1920 bring right-wingers to center of government and SPD has to share seats in Reichstag
. Weimar republic started after Treaty of Versailles= harsh and needs to be repudiated
. John Maynord Caines- 1919 "Economic Consequences of the Peace"- punishing Germany so harshly will lead to economic collapse of Europe
. June 1919- Weimar republic signs Treaty of Versailles- all Germans hate them for it
. August 1919- new Constitution- Reichsratt and Reichstag- universal suffrage- chancellor- female suffrage- YAY
. 1920- cap push- March 1920- right-wing conservative parties take control of government and of Bavaria
. SPD withdraws- weakness

Treaty of Versailles

1919

.Nov 3, 1918: Austria-Hungary surrenders
.Nov 11, 1918: @ 11 AM 11/11/18 German armistice/cease-fire signed (they blame the Jews and the Socialists) in a railroad car in the woods in France
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE:
1. Different Allied Objectives within "the Big Four"
a) David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of England, sought to expand England's colonial empire, preserve her naval and industrial supremacy, and "make Germany pay for the war."
b) George Clemenceau, Premier of France, sought to ensure France's security against future invasion and to weaken Germany by imposing military limitations, financial payments, and territorial losses. He went stomping around the tables shrieking about how Germany needs to DIE.
c) Vittorio Orlando, Premier of Italy, sought to enlarge Italy's territory in Europe and expand her empire overseas. He storms off when he finds out he's not gunna get his territories
d) Woodrow Wilson, President of USA, (idealist who wants "peace w/o victory") sought to provide a just peace and create a better world by implementing the Fourteen Points (1. Open treaties of peace openly arrived at. 2. freedom of the seas. 3. removal of international trade barriers and tariffs. 4. reduction of armaments. 5. impartial adjustment of colonial claims with due regard for interests of native peoples. 6- 14. establishment of a League of Nations)
2. Major Treaty Provisions
a) Territorial: Germany gives Alsace-Lorraine to France, the Saar Valley to League of Nations, Saar coal mines to France with provision that in 15 years the Saar inhabitants decide political future by plebiscite, Alsace and Lorraine to France, minor border regions to Denmark and Belgium, parts of Posen and West Prussia (including a corridor to the Baltic Sea) to Polish republic (cut off East Prussia from the rest of Germany), Danzig (Baltic seaport bordering Poland) to League of Nations as a "free city" for Poles to use.
b) Colonial: Germany gave all colonies to the Allies as League of Nations mandates
c) Disarmament: German army limited to 100,000 volunteers. Conscription forbidden. Rhineland demilitarized as a buffer zone for France. Navy reduced to a few small ships. Submarines, military aircraft, and war industries prohibited.
d) War Guilt and Reparations: Article 231- Germany accepted sole responsibility for causing the war and agreed to pay reparations for all damages. (Dawes Plan, 1924, provided for orderly payment. Young Plan, 1931, reduced debt. Germany still repudiated remaining debt after 1931. Germany killed their Gold Standard and printed a helluvalot of money to pay off the debt, but inflation meant a loaf of bread cost like $100,000 or something.)
e) League of Nations
f) Iraq created- but 3 different people having unrest b/c mandates freakin SUCK ROYAL HIPPOGRIFF

Age of Anxiety - Democracies & Dictatorship

1919 - 1939

.Friedrich Nietzsche- "God is dead in the hearts and minds of modern men."- killed off by rationalism and science- means morality and purpose are dead, too.- leads to existentialism- claims Christianity is a "slave morality" rooted in Exodus from Egypt and this kills individualism: 1888 "The Will to Power": a few people can escape from the herd and create their own morality- "Ubermention"= Superman (adopted by Hitler)- "embrace the meaninglessness of life and let it be liberating" (like John Green's: how treacherous it is to believe a person is more than just a person.)- "faith is not wanting to know what's true"- "don't be owned by the herd"- "that which does not kill me makes me stronger"- Christianity= "the Great Unholy Lie"
. George Sorrel: Syndicalism- (like Marxism, thinks socialism will need a spark)
. Sigmund Freud- (Marx and Darwin are equals) humans respond irrationally to things: people are "greedy, grasping, irrational"- soul divided into id (2 year old), ego (rational), superego (should's all over, conscience)- peoples' superego represses their id and they end up exploding- do what you want
. Paul Valerette- French poet- "weh. y'all are sad"
. Positivism- Ludvig van Ichtenstein- "philosophy is only the logical clarification of thought."- all we can talk about is what we know from experience
Anti-Utopian authors:
. Oswald Spengler- "Decline of the West"- every culture has a lifecycle of growth and decline. WWI is the start of decline. The asians are about to rise up.
. T. S. Eliot: English poet- "The Wasteland"- "weh"
. Franz Kafka- "The Metamorphosis"- stuck in incontrolable situation- "weh. Ima cockroach."
.Existentialists:
. Jean-Paul Sarte- people just exist- seek to define ourselves- but honesty will lead to despair- our condemnation is that we're free- if you don't kill yourself, you have to create meaning in life
. Albert Camus- to create meaning you must take action against things you disagree against
Christian Existentialists:
. Sorin Kierkegaard- "Christianity is a leap of faith"
. T. S. Eliot

. George Orwell- "1984"- totalitarian state controls thoughts and life. Strip people of individuality via technology. "big brother is watching you."- "Animal Farm"
SCIENCE:
. Max Planck- energy and matter are the same, but different forms
. Einstein- theory of relativity- time isn't a constant
. Ernest Rutherford- atom can be split
. Werner Heisenberg- (see Breaking Bad) principle of uncertainty- impossible to find position of individual electron, so impossible to predict it's motion- to observe a quark is to effect it.
ART
. Architecture: form should follow function (skyscrapers)
. 1905- Bahaus Movement- form follows function- starts with elegant lil shoe factory
. Picasso- cubism- "Guernica"
. Duchamp- "The Fountain"- urinal = Dada-ism
. Salvador Dali- "Persistence of Memory"- Surrealism- dream symbols from Freud's "Interpretism of Dreams"
. Joseph Beuys- "How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare"
. MUSIC
. Strovinsky- "The Rite of Spring- Fantasia"- dissonance instead of harmony
. Shoneburg- 12 tone tonality instead of 8 tone
. MOVIES- entertainment of the masses and tool of dictatorship
. Eisenstein makes Stalin look awesome
. Lenny Reifenstall makes Hitler look awesome like Jesus in the clouds in "Triumph of the Will"
. RADIO- manipulates people

FASCISM:
1) Totalitarianism
2) Personal dictatorship: the arbitrary, unlimited rule of the Fuhrer/Father figure
3) Glorification of the state
4) Political ideology becomes a fervent "religion"
5) Single political party
6) Elaborate propaganda
7) Secret police
8) Racial intolerance- usually anti-Semitic
9) Attacked democracy as decadent and a sign of moral weakness
Communism vs. Fascism:
. Fascism really hated democracy
. Communism accepted democracy in theory but stressed economic and social equality rather than political equality
. Fascism preserved capitalism and its profit system- under complete government control- many powerful industrialists were the financial supporters for the party
. Communism killed capitalism
. Fascism = SUPER nationalistic- preached national unity- discouraged class consciousness
. Communism = International in character (not nationalistic)- called for class struggle of working class worldwide against bourgeoisie
. Fascism exalts war and is imperialistic
. Communism criticized war as a natural result of capitalism
. Fascism - violent anti-Semitism
. Communism- racism is not part of theory- many early leaders (Marx, Trotsky) were Jewish
- Mussolini and Hitler= Fascist
- Stalin= Communist
(P71-72)

1919- ism- The Red Scare

1919

fear of Bolshevism throughout Europe
Communists take over Berlin for a week in January

Frenchie Probs, GB probs

1920 - 1930

. French government is multiparty system- mostly right, conservative domination- support status quo, backed by army and church
. 1926: Raymond Poincare called back to office- Prime Minister Briand replaced- his government slashes spending and raises confidence in economy- deflationary policy and budget balances
. Artists attracted:
- Gertrude Stein- leader of group of American expatriates- writer- coins term "lost generation"- period of disillusionment looking at how the world is working- "A rose is a rose is a rose is a rose." "Some things just are what they are. They defy description."
- Josephine Baker: American expatriate- brings African eroticism to Paris- Chorus lines- uninhibited sexuality

GB
. wartime trend toward greater social equality continues
. 1928- "The Representation of the Peoples' Act"- women over 21 can vote (1918 it was only women over 30)
. concentrated wealth- top 1% own 2/3 of national wealth
. unemployment= biggest problem- 12%- sense of unease among workers
. 1926: General Strike to support minors who fear drop in wages- fails
. 1927: GB government outlaws sympathetic labor strikes
. movement towards social welfare state- unemployment benefits with housing and medical benefits
. rise of Labor Party- from working class demanding greater social equality- get power for 9 months 1923- led by Ramsay MacDonald- replaces Liberal party as main opposition to Conservatives- free trade no longer relevant- Conservatives get power back by accusing Labor party of being communist
. 1923: USSR recognized as communist
. 1924-1929: Conservatives under Stanley Baldwin rule Britain- they keep the social welfare stuff
. Irish question- Easter rebellion in 1916- afterwards, group called Sinn Fein- society promoting independence from England- prompt civil war between Irish Republican army and Black and Tan
. October 1921: London creates Irish free state from which Ulster will withdraw to become Northern Ireland, which is still part of British commonwealth
. 1922: Britain grants Southern, Catholic Ireland full autonomy after failing to suppress a Guerrilla War
. end protectorate in Egypt except for Suez Canal
. maintain Equality of British Dominions- Canada and Australia

Ruhr Crisis

1923

. Allies announce Germany has to pay almost $34,000,000,000 in reparations
. France occupies industrial Ruhr region of Germany to take reparations from them- Weimar government orders Ruhr residents to stop working and passively resist
. to pay reparations, Weimar republic prints a bunch of money- HUGE INFLATION- 9 marks per dollar in 1919 to 4.2 trilliion marks per dollar in 1923- people wallpaper houses with money instead of buying wallpaper- filling wheelbarrows to go buy a loaf of bread- social revolution- accumulated savings of middle class are worthless- resentment
. Beer Hall Putsch- Adolf Hitler and NAZI party emerge to fail attempt at overthrowing government- Hitler imprisoned- "Mein Kampf"- lays out plan to restore Germany to greatness
. Gustav Stresemann- assumes leadership in Germany- calls off occupation in Ruhr and promises to pay up if they consider Germany's ability to pay. Supported by social democrats. Restores Germany to European society.

Dawes Plan

1924

. United States passes Dawes Plan- German debt restructured: US loans money to Germany so that Germany can pay off Britain and France so that Britain and France can pay back their debt to US
BIG CIRCLE OF MONEY! YAAY!
. Revival in German economy

Lacarno Pact

1925

. Germany and other European nations sign Lacarno Pact: settle all disagreements peacefully
. time of "the Spirit of Lacarno" (Peace)
. Germany joins League of Nations
. OH happy day
. Germany promises Poland and France they won't attack
. German-Polish border unresolved

Kellogg Briand Pact

1928

. 62 nations sign agreement saying war is illegal accept for self defense
. Who is enforcing this?
. time of optimism

Great Depression

1929 - 1933

. caused by long term probs within United States economy by a weak international economy by overproduction of businesses, unstable banking and weak industries
. half of Americans living below poverty line- Europe doesn't need our food anymore
. 1929: Stock Market Crash- trigger
. 1931: Britain off Gold Standard
. Holly-Smoot Tariff- US panic- other countries retaliate- less trade
. 1930-33: US bankers recalling loans to Germany
. optimism dies
. decline of production everywhere except for Russia- mass unemployment- Germany's unemployment is 43%- GB unemployment is 18%- US unemployment is 25%
. How do we get out?
. 1932: FDR elected- New Deal- reform capitalism within economy- no longer laissez fair- JM Cainesian approach (gov puts a little money into economy to get stuff started by starting public projects)
YAAAY!
. Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden)- socialist- best response- "Welfare Socialism"= halfway between capitalism and communism
. GB follows orthodox economic theory- go off Gold Standard, reorganize industry, balance budget. Unemployed receive welfare benefits, but barely enough. By 1932 their economy is recovering. Don't totally recover until rearming for WWII.
. France- not as industrialized, so it hits later, adding class tension and a radical right-side like fascism. Popular Front- coalition between republicans, socialists, communists and radicals, led by Leon Blum to work against radical right groups. French New Deal: encourages unions and launches far-reaching social reform programs- fail at first, but slow progress. Some division because it looks like communism. Popular Front destroyed by Spanish Civil War in 1936. Division until rearmament.

WWII countdown

1931 - 1939

1931- 1932: Japan seizes Manchuria; Stimson (US Secretary of State) is like "We gotta do something."; Lytton Commission on Manchuria- League of Nations orders withdrawal- Japan retaliates by withdrawing from League of Nations instead
1933: Hitler comes to power
March 1935: Hitler announces he's rearming Germany; Russia and France sign 5 year military alliance; Hitler concentrates East; Russia and Czechoslovakia sign defense treaty; Errbody promises not to touch Ethopia and Solaci family who has ruled for 3,000 years... Ethopia has oil sooo... yeah. Italy invades. League of Nations is like "Yo. Withdraw." Italy is like "no thanks." League of Nations is like "Nobody trade with them."; League of Nations shot down in Mediterranean w/ British navy... Brits just leave.
1936: League of nations sputters and dies
March 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland- against Treaty of Versailles and Treaty of Lacardo; France is like "YO. Gimme mah buffer zone, beyotch!"; GB does NOTHING; Spain begins a trial ground for weapons after civil war (Picasso's Guernica); League of Nations declares Spain neutral
1937: Rome-Berlin Axis agreement = BFFs; Japan, Germany, Italy form an anti-comintern (Russian) pact
July 1937: Japan invades China; General Secretary of League of Nations is like "withdraw."; Soviet Union is like "Yo. China. You wanna buy some guns? I think you wanna buy some guns."; FDR's QUARANTINE SPEECH is like "K bye. Y'all suck."; Japan's naval academy exam essay: How do we get USA?
March 1938: Anschluss- Hitler is like "reunify ALL THE HRE!!"- takes Austria by going around Czechoslovakia; Russia wants to talk- GB (Chamberlain) is like "NO"
Sept 1938: Chamberlain invites France's guy and Hitler to Munich Conference... Hitler brings a date, Mussolini; Hitler just wants Czechoslovakia so he can have all the Germans be ohana (note that Russia and Czechoslovakia aren't there)- France and GB are like "aight. Fine. Take the freakin Sudetenland." Hitler is like "MINE is an EVIL LAUGH. Mwuahahaha. NowDIE! RAAAWWAAWAWR!" and takes ALL DA CZECHOSLOVAKIA!; Brits sign with Romania, Poland, Greece saying they'll go to war if any of those 3 are attacked
September 1, 1939: Hitler Blitzkreigs Poland
START OF WWII

WWII & Its Aftermath

1939 - 1946

. Battle of Midway- American victory against superior Japanese naval force
. Colonel Klaus von Stauffenberg- tried to assassinate Hiler by bringing a bomb in his briefcase to a meeting hoping his death would result in the forming of Germany into a fascist state paralleling Italy.
. Josip Broz- aka "Tito." Preserving communist in Yugoslavia. Helped lead a resistance movement that aided in Germany's military demise
. Battle of Stalingrad- great turning point in the war, marked the end of Nazi advances in the Soviet Union
. "Operation Overlord"- plan of D- Day by Eisenhower
. Kristallnacht= "Night of Broken Glass" when Nazi mobs wrecked Jewish temples throughout Germany
. Battle of the Bulge- Last German offensive. @ Beligum. Germans forced to retreat on all fronts
. Desert Fox= General Erwin Rommel who attacked the Suez Canal, the lifeline of GB
. 1935: Nuremburg Laws- stripped German Jews of rights as citizens
. Blitzkrieg= "lightning war" or Germany's use of arms and air support

Conferences

1941 - 1945

1941: Atlantic Charter Conference:
. GB, US, Allies
. no territorial gains by US or GB
. territorial adjustments in accord w/ wishes of the peoples concerned
. all people have right to self-determination
. lowered trade barriers
. global economic cooperation
. work for world w/o fear or want
. freedom of seas
. disarm aggressor nations

1943: Casa Blanca Conference:
. Northern Africa
. Churchill- GB, FDR- US, de Gaulle and Giraud- France
. unconditional surrender agreed upon by Allies
. Where Churchill convinced FDR we'd go up through Europe's soft underbelly

1943: Quebec Conference:
. US, GB, Canada
. begin planning invasion of France (Operation Overlord)
. increase bombing against Germany
. remove Italy from Axis powers and occupy

1943: Moscow Conference:
. Allies
. shorten war w/ Germany and Axis powers and cooperate

1943: Cairo Conference:
. AKA Eureka
. Allies and China
. continue deploying military force until Japan's unconditional surrender- take occupied lands and restore
. Korea= free

1943: Tehran Conference:
. Iran
. first meeting of the Big Three: Stalin- Soviet Union, FDR- US, Churchill- GB
. agree on soft underbelly
. in 1944 cross English channel and do a ground invasion of France
. 2 front war against Germans
. Iran= independent
. Turkey and Iran love
. Stalin promises to help defeat Japan after they get Hitler as long as the Soviet Union can control Eastern Europe after the war. Churchill and FDR want free governments there. FDR is quiet about it.
. United Nations set to replace League of Nations

1945: YALTA CONFERENCE:
. Stalin starts helping with Japan
. Stalin agrees to a declaration of liberated Europe with free elections
. agree April 1945 start United Nations (General Assembly AND Security Council with the 5 Allies from WWI; SecCo has more power than Gen)
. Germany divided to occupied zones
. Soviets get some islands and old territories from pre-war
. Korea ruled by international trusteeship of four powers (roots of Korean War)
. Poland's boundaries adjusted to give USSR some land
- after- FDR cerebral hemmorage- FDR dies- sad day

.1945 (July): POTSDAM CONFERENCE:
. Truman- US, Stalin- USSR, Churchill (at beginning, then elections) -> Clement Atlee (Labor Party)- GB
. someone whispers in Truman's ear that they have an atomic bomb- he calls Japan saying hell will rain down upon them
. demand Japanese surrender on July 26- disarmed and given access to raw materials to rebuild economy
. Germany 3Ds: Disarmed, Demilitarized and De- Nazified
. Allies would hold War Crime Trials (Nuremberg Trials)
. German resources used to repair damages inflicted on her neighbors
. Little Boy- Hiroshima; Fat Man- Nagasaki (both in August)
. Stalin decides not to let Eastern European countries have free elections

Cold War

1946 - 1989

Cold War: political hostility between countries including threats, propaganda, subversity, etc.

Causes:
1943- Tehran Conference: Russia promises help with Iran, but wants to liberate Eastern Europe. Then Stalin keeps Eastern Europe.
1945- Yalta Conference: US pushes for self- determination in Eastern Europe until Stalin says he'll leave them alone when their governments are favorable to the Soviet Union.
. Germany and Berlin divided into 4 zones- Soviets dominate their zone and don't allow reunification.
1945- Potsdam Conference- Russia refuses to give up his buffer zone.

1946- Churchill speaks at University of Missouri (invited to graduation by Truman): "From the Baltic in the North to the Adriatic in the South, an IRON CURTAIN has fallen..."
1947- Truman Doctrine: "to support free people who resisted attempted subjugation and armed minorities or outside pressures..."- advocating economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey- containment- MARSHALL PLAN: rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade- barriers, modernize industry, make Europe prosperous again
. Geneva Summit: Eisenhower, Prime Ministers of GB and France, Soviets- led to slightly more agreeable atmosphere betwen nations
. Geneva Accords: formally divided Vietnam into Communist North and Non- Communist South
. Warsaw Pact: alliances of Soviet Union and satellites including Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Hungary- created unified military command and mutal protection from attack
. German Federal Republic: aka West Germany, created when Germany divided by US, France, and GB
. German Democratic Republic: Soviet- created territory aka East Germany created as response to formation of West Germany
. 1961: Berlin Wall created by East Germans- prompted by prosperity of West Germans, which attracted many to migrate, causing much political embarrassment
1948: Prague Coup D'Etat: Czech Communist party (w/ Soviet help) assumed undisputed control over Czechoslovakia- 40 years of dictatorship- Premiere appointed by Moscow
1948- 1949: Berlin Blockade: Soviet Union blocked western Allies' railway, road, canal access to Allied controlled Berlin- US response: Operation Vittles: Truman flies supplies into Berlin- 4,700 tons of food and supplies for everyone regularly- Russia pouts and is like "weh. My evil plan didn't work." and wants to spark conflict w/ US (has bombs)- Berlin opened
1949: NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization): US, UK, France, Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Italy, Portugal + Greece and Turkey in 1952
. 1956: Wladislaw Gomulka emerged from Stalinist imprisonment to head Polish government
. 1958: Boris Pasternak's "Dr. Zhivago" wins Nobel Prize for literature, but work is censored by Soviet government and forbidden to receive award
. mutual defense pact
. HQ moved from Paris to the Hague in Belgium in 1966
. Nonproliferation Treaty: Marked end of Cold War, acknowledging mutual efforts of US and Soviet Union to promote a more peaceful relationship

Cold War Alliances

1947 - 1959

1947- RIO treaty- US, Brazil and 20 Latin American republics
1948- OAS (Organization of American States)
1950- Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance- USSR and China
US makes Strategic Air Command to demonstrate power of MASSIVE RETALIATION should the USSR make bad choices.
1950- Initial treaties with a formal military alliance between US and Japan
1951- ANZUS- Australia, New Zealand and US
1951- Philippine Treaty- US and Philippines
1954- SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization)- US, UK, France, Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippine Republic, Thailand
1959- CENTRO (Central Treaty Organization) with Middle East nations

Korean War

1950 - 1953

. Korea divided into 2 zones of occupation with Russia (communist; Premier Kim II- Sung) north of 38th parallel and US (democratic; President Syngman Rhee) south of 38th parallel- 1948, Korea divided into 2 countries, North and South Korea
June 25, 1950: Surprise invasion of South Korea by communist North Koreans assisted by USSR and communist China = NOT COOL
that afternoon: Emergency meeting of UN- order North Koreans back to North Korea. USSR's delegates to UN WALK OUT of the meeting = not a good sign
June 26: Truman orders General Douglas MacArthur (smoked a corn- cob pipe like a boss) to South Korea to help retreating South Koreans. NOT A WAR- a POLICE ACTION. Also rders US 7th Naval Fleet to Taiwan to protect it from communist China- STILL A PROBLEM TODAY
June 27: UN votes use force to stop North Koreans' invasion of South Korea- first vote for force by UN- General MacArthur becomes Commander of the UN forces
June 30: Struggle bus. At one point the UN forces were almost pushed out of South Korea into the sea, but they drove them back over the 38th parallel. MacArthur wanted to push all the way into China. Truman fires him. Congress wants him. They fuss.
STALEMATE- (Think M.A.S.H)
1953- Armistice signed at Panmunjom that reaffirmed divided Korea at the 38th parallel

Suez War

1956

Warsaw Pact

1956

Response to NATO

Hungarian Revolution

1956

Berlin Wall

1961 - 1989

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

. Cuba becomes communist and befriends Soviet Union
. US and USSR play chicken with bombs
. US invades and settles at Guantanamo and USSR backs off

Prague Springs

1963

Dubschev in Chzechoslovakia tries to make "socialism with a human face"- crushed by USSR

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

1963

US and USSR
France was still trying to figure stuff out.

Khrushchev Overthrown

1964

France Withdraws from NATO

1966

Six-Day War

1967

Tet Offensive in Vienna

1968

Prague Spring Revolt in Czechoslovakia

1968

Yom Kippur War

1972

Arab vs. Israeli

Nixon visits China and Moscow

1972

. ushers in a period of Detente- real politic
. SALT 1- US and USSR stop building their nukes

Helsinki Agreement

1975

. Finland
. high point of Detente
. Sign The Final Act- officially end WWII
. agree to preserve basic human rights

End of Detente

1979

. President Jimmy Carter elected- moral idealism- "human rights must be the soul of our foreign policy."
. puts conditions on the Soviet Union: let Jews immigrate, be nice, etc.
. SALT 2
. USSR invades Afghanistan
. 1980- US boycotts Moscow Olympics
. 1984- USSR boycotts San Diego Olympics
END OF DETENTE

Brezhnev dies

1982

Gorbachev tries Perestroika & Glasnost

1985 - 1990

glasnost= free speech and political liberty; means "openness;" opens society; more successful than perestroika; leads to liberalization of culture
perestroika= restructuring; adopting capitalist themes to save our central planned system (since Stalin); LIKE NEP; the people are so used to their system, they can't function individually-> FAIL

These little tastes of freedom make the people want more...
1986- ends censorship
1987- Gorbachev and Reagan sign INF treaty- get rid of all intermediate range nuclear missiles- MILESTONE
1990- Gorbachev and Bush cut 10% of US weapons and 25% of Soviet weapons

Soviet decline: the MAGIC YEAR

1989

1989= MAGICAL YEAR
March 1989- first free elections- a few non-communists elected- debate- sheds Brezhnev doctrine- reduces West tension by removing troops from Eastern Europe and Afghanistan
1989- Communists lose control of Eastern Europe (looks like in 1789 and 1848- people rise up for their freedom); allow reforms in those countries- Solidarity (started by Lech Walensa) in Poland is legal again- free elections- elect first non-communist leader... Lech Walensa. Pope John Paul II elected in 1979 is Polish- preaches love of Christ and country. Walensa loves him. DEMOCRATIC FEVER SPREADS- to Hungary in 1989 to East Germany- route out of East Germany through Hungary to Austria to West Germany- 350,000 of East Germany's 17 million are gone within one year. DOWN WITH THE POINTLESS WALL (Reagan's "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall"- written by a Chattanoogan)Nov 9- demonstrations in East Germany- 100,000 people walk with candles at Leipzig calling for the end. The Communist party promises elections...
1990- Velvet Revolution led by Havi... a satirical playwright- Czechoslovakia- student protests in Prague- like the Arab Spring- General Strike of all the things- government collapses- Havi becomes first president after first free election
1993- Czechoslovakia splits

1989- Bulgaria inspired by fall of Berlin Wall- Bulgarian Polit Bureau demands their leader resigns- purge of stalinists
. one by one they all change over...except for...
Romania: violent clashes b/c police state is evil- old dictator Nickolai and his wifey confront the crowds- shots ring out- they flee, but their forces capture him and overthrow and assassinate him- news footage in December- singing the Internationale- 1,000 people die
1990- Albania breaks away

German Reunification

1990

. liberal-conservative agreement
. Helmut Kohl?
. West Germany has to deal with wimpy East German economy.
. Soviet Union opposed the new Germany joining NATO. They have to suck it.

End of USSR

1991

Long term causes:
1) protecting and maintaining Eastern Europe was too expensive
2) calls for change and pressure in 1970-80s
3) 1970s energy crisis- oil= expensive
4) Soviet government full of Russians- ethnic tensions especially in Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia
5) lagging economy- people don't have food.. or choices..

1991- Communist hard liners are upset because they don't have as much power as they used to- attempt to overthrow Gorbachev- lots of countries want autonomy from the Soviet Union so Gorbachev gives a little autonomy, but tries to keep them within the Soviet Union- this scares the hard liners- Communist leaders meet with Gorbachev at his summer home in Crimea to try to convince him to be more hard line- claim a state of emergency- Gorbachev is like "I say NO."- hard liners are like "COUP!" and put him under house arrest- but the winds of change and freedom make the coup FAIL b/c the military refuses to crush the resistance.- Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia, helps Gorbachev out, blames communism for the coup and dissolves communist party- gives communist land to the state of Russia. Russia= independent republic and withdraw from Soviet Union

Dec 25, 1991- Soviet Union dissolved into 15 separate republics- "Commonwealth of Independent States"
. Russia assumes the Soviet Union seat in SecCo in UN

World Population: 5.6 billion

1994