A focus on the treatment and advances of women in Europe from the Renaissance up to modern times.
Christine de Pizan wrote biographies of famous European women, but was one of the first writers to focus on the importance of these women as more than just a companion to their husbands.
Women before and around this time who did not wish to marry usually entered a convent, in which after the days chores, they could study different fields of interest, especially the humanities.
However, Martin Luther came in and advocated that women could take a role in Christianity by embodying all the values of a proper Christian, by providing a proper example for others, and therefore should not actively play a role in religion, as they belonged taking care of the home. Calvin agreed.
Anabaptism was unique in the sense that it allowed women to preach in church, something most other forms of Christianity were strongly against.
Baldassare Castiglione described the model court lady, describing her as well-educated, charming, witty, graceful, and a good hostess. Of course, she was to remain subservient to her husband and not detract attention from him at court events and parties.
These times were the peak of the witch trials, although they had gone on for centuries before that, and went on many decades after. Women were persecuted for being witches, being thought to hold magic powers that they would use against men and the villages they lived in. Some were accused of eating babies. Really weird, prejudiced, irrational stuff.
The Enlightenment saw the rise of salons, in which women played a role in hosting and participating in gatherings of the brightest intellectuals of the day to discuss the most current ideas on politics, science, and many other fields. Women such as Madame Geoffrin were especially famous for their great salons with famous guests such as Voltaire.
For the most part, women married in their later twenties, having moved out of the house to search for jobs as maids, childsitters, and wet nurses. They began being less reliant on their families.
Women marched hours to Versailles, demanding that bread prices lower, outraged with the royal family. Here they demonstrated their usefulness to the cause of the Revolution.
Argued that if French men were to gain rights, then the French women should earn those same rights and stand equal to men, if only in that respect.
Written by Mary Wollstonecraft, it argued for a society to be working at it's full potential, half of the population (i.e. women) must be granted the opportunity to do so. Stressed that women were not inferior to men, rather they just lacked education.
Women and men were kept under separate spheres. It was almost impossible for women to find good jobs, and unheard of for them to move up the career ladder into important positions. They were still expected to stay home and run the family, in which they were to rear the children and institute high moral standards. More women started to look into attaining suffrage and property rights.
Put women completely under the control of their husbands in an old-fashioned, patriarchal system. Women could no longer manage property, and were stripped of their divorce rights.
With men out fighting in the front lines, millions of women fill factories, offices, and businesses to try to keep their countries going and running smoothly. They're part of the war effort.
In the most communistic phase of the Soviet Union, women were told that they were very similar in all rights to men. Indeed, women were encouraged to explore their sexual interests and work outside the home. Divorce and abortions were readily accessible to women, and they had the same educational opportunities as men.
British women over 30 years old can now vote. Most colonies of Britain legalized it before Britain itself.
Women not only kept the home together, but also went right back to the factories, even organizing extra help for the war effort, such as victory gardens and attempts to collect supplies for the troops.
Women continued fighting for rights, liberalizing divorce laws, and looking for more access to divorce, birth control, child-care, and abortion. Women began to have children later, attend school more seriously, and make gains in the workforce. Now they continue to work to close any discrepancies in wages and executive positions.
A focus on the treatment and advances of workers in Europe from the Renaissance up to modern times.
Most workers belonged to guilds which regulated the products they made and the prices at which they could be sold. Workers had very little chance of becoming a master craftmaker.
The new system of trade and merchants led to the rise of middle-classes, which is an essential feature of capitalism.
Artists were appreciated for their natural talent and skill, and, by finding a patron to cover their living and work costs as an artist, they could focus on their work
The putting-out system allowed "big business" to create product without pesky guild regulations. Cottages and small households would receive cotton and looms to provide their employer with bunches of cloth.
Agricultural revolution tied with the closing off of lands forced many poor rural workers who depended on public lands to leave to work in the cities, which led to the Industrial Revolution.
Led to massive flooding of workers in the cities, and a new, urban class of workers: The Proletariat. Regulations were widely nonexistent throughout its beginnings, so workers worked in miserable environments for long hours and not so great pay
The development of the steam engine in 1769 led to the possibility of having huge machines to speed up industry and transportation, bringing forth the industrialization of the textile industry and the begging of railroads. This employed dozens of hundreds of thousands of British people, and eventually of other countries as manufacturing spread.
Adam Smith argued that the best way for everyone to prosper from business, worker, owner, and consumer alike, was to allow businesses to self-regulate without any government intervention.
Outlawed unions and striking, led to huge outcry from the British workers.
English workers went around destroying the new machinery in factories which were supposed to help speed up production and were removing jobs from the market. Parliament reacts by making the destruction of machines a capital offense.
David Ricardo, labor is like a good and is therefore affected by supply and demand. Due to the boom of people in Europe now, prices would always stay low.
Workers want to maintain a republic set up in France, but the middle-class wants a constitutional monarchy. The workers lose, and Louis Philippe takes the throne.
Created new sections in town for factory workers so that living conditions would be less wretched and cramped.
Prevented children from working for unsafe amounts of times in the factories.
Working class men demanded male suffrage for all, equal electoral divisions, and the removal of property ownership as a criteria for being in the House of Commons.
Women and children are no longer allowed to work in mines due to the mines' poor condition.
Marx and Engels write about how history's progress has only ever been through the poor struggling against the rich. Stated that revolution is inevitable in a situation where poor workers are being exploited. Very appealing idea to those who were starving in the cities.
New model unions started to win rights for its members, who were all workers of a specific trade, by collective bargaining and srikes.
Extended suffrage to almost all British male urban workers.
The British Unions get full legal status, allowing them to operate as best as they can to serve their members under the protection of the law. People can now safely strike.
Bismarck created the first social welfare system in the attempts to quell socialist feelings and desires. Many countries followed suit in later decades, hoping to prevent the exact same thing as Bismarck. William II continued adding to these reforms after Bismarck was fired.