AP Euro Review Timeline

Women's History

A focus on the treatment and advances of women in Europe from the Renaissance up to modern times.

The Book of the City Ladies

1405

Christine de Pizan wrote biographies of famous European women, but was one of the first writers to focus on the importance of these women as more than just a companion to their husbands.

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

Women before and around this time who did not wish to marry usually entered a convent, in which after the days chores, they could study different fields of interest, especially the humanities.

However, Martin Luther came in and advocated that women could take a role in Christianity by embodying all the values of a proper Christian, by providing a proper example for others, and therefore should not actively play a role in religion, as they belonged taking care of the home. Calvin agreed.

Anabaptism

1525

Anabaptism was unique in the sense that it allowed women to preach in church, something most other forms of Christianity were strongly against.

The Courtier

1528

Baldassare Castiglione described the model court lady, describing her as well-educated, charming, witty, graceful, and a good hostess. Of course, she was to remain subservient to her husband and not detract attention from him at court events and parties.

Witch-hunts

1580 - 1630

These times were the peak of the witch trials, although they had gone on for centuries before that, and went on many decades after. Women were persecuted for being witches, being thought to hold magic powers that they would use against men and the villages they lived in. Some were accused of eating babies. Really weird, prejudiced, irrational stuff.

Salons

1600 - 1700

The Enlightenment saw the rise of salons, in which women played a role in hosting and participating in gatherings of the brightest intellectuals of the day to discuss the most current ideas on politics, science, and many other fields. Women such as Madame Geoffrin were especially famous for their great salons with famous guests such as Voltaire.

Family Life

1700 - 1800

For the most part, women married in their later twenties, having moved out of the house to search for jobs as maids, childsitters, and wet nurses. They began being less reliant on their families.

France Grants Suffrage

1745

March on Versailles

October 5, 1789

Women marched hours to Versailles, demanding that bread prices lower, outraged with the royal family. Here they demonstrated their usefulness to the cause of the Revolution.

Declaration of the Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen

1791

Argued that if French men were to gain rights, then the French women should earn those same rights and stand equal to men, if only in that respect.

A Vindication of the Rights of Women

1792

Written by Mary Wollstonecraft, it argued for a society to be working at it's full potential, half of the population (i.e. women) must be granted the opportunity to do so. Stressed that women were not inferior to men, rather they just lacked education.

Family Life

1800 - 1900

Women and men were kept under separate spheres. It was almost impossible for women to find good jobs, and unheard of for them to move up the career ladder into important positions. They were still expected to stay home and run the family, in which they were to rear the children and institute high moral standards. More women started to look into attaining suffrage and property rights.

Napoelonic Code

1804 - 1881

Put women completely under the control of their husbands in an old-fashioned, patriarchal system. Women could no longer manage property, and were stripped of their divorce rights.

Britain Legalizes Divorce

1857

France Legalizes Divorce

1884

World War I

1914 - 1919

With men out fighting in the front lines, millions of women fill factories, offices, and businesses to try to keep their countries going and running smoothly. They're part of the war effort.

Soviet Union

1917 - 1953

In the most communistic phase of the Soviet Union, women were told that they were very similar in all rights to men. Indeed, women were encouraged to explore their sexual interests and work outside the home. Divorce and abortions were readily accessible to women, and they had the same educational opportunities as men.

Germany Grants Suffrage

1918

Britain Grants Suffrage

1918

British women over 30 years old can now vote. Most colonies of Britain legalized it before Britain itself.

Spain Grants Suffrage

1931

World War II

1939 - 1945

Women not only kept the home together, but also went right back to the factories, even organizing extra help for the war effort, such as victory gardens and attempts to collect supplies for the troops.

Modern Times

1945 - 2013

Women continued fighting for rights, liberalizing divorce laws, and looking for more access to divorce, birth control, child-care, and abortion. Women began to have children later, attend school more seriously, and make gains in the workforce. Now they continue to work to close any discrepancies in wages and executive positions.

Italy Grants Suffrage

1945

Workers' History

A focus on the treatment and advances of workers in Europe from the Renaissance up to modern times.

Guilds

1300 - 1500

Most workers belonged to guilds which regulated the products they made and the prices at which they could be sold. Workers had very little chance of becoming a master craftmaker.

Rise of Capitalism

1400

The new system of trade and merchants led to the rise of middle-classes, which is an essential feature of capitalism.

Artists of the Renaissance

1450 - 1600

Artists were appreciated for their natural talent and skill, and, by finding a patron to cover their living and work costs as an artist, they could focus on their work

Putting-Out System

1500

The putting-out system allowed "big business" to create product without pesky guild regulations. Cottages and small households would receive cotton and looms to provide their employer with bunches of cloth.

Enclosure Movement

1700 - 1815

Agricultural revolution tied with the closing off of lands forced many poor rural workers who depended on public lands to leave to work in the cities, which led to the Industrial Revolution.

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1835

Led to massive flooding of workers in the cities, and a new, urban class of workers: The Proletariat. Regulations were widely nonexistent throughout its beginnings, so workers worked in miserable environments for long hours and not so great pay

Textile and Railroad

1770 - 1850

The development of the steam engine in 1769 led to the possibility of having huge machines to speed up industry and transportation, bringing forth the industrialization of the textile industry and the begging of railroads. This employed dozens of hundreds of thousands of British people, and eventually of other countries as manufacturing spread.

The Wealth of Nations

1776

Adam Smith argued that the best way for everyone to prosper from business, worker, owner, and consumer alike, was to allow businesses to self-regulate without any government intervention.

Combination Act of 1799

1799

Outlawed unions and striking, led to huge outcry from the British workers.

Luddites

1811 - 1817

English workers went around destroying the new machinery in factories which were supposed to help speed up production and were removing jobs from the market. Parliament reacts by making the destruction of machines a capital offense.

Iron Law of Wages

1817

David Ricardo, labor is like a good and is therefore affected by supply and demand. Due to the boom of people in Europe now, prices would always stay low.

Combination Acts Repealed

1824

French Revolution of 1830

1830

Workers want to maintain a republic set up in France, but the middle-class wants a constitutional monarchy. The workers lose, and Louis Philippe takes the throne.

Reform Bill of 1832

1832

Created new sections in town for factory workers so that living conditions would be less wretched and cramped.

Factory Act of 1833

1833

Prevented children from working for unsafe amounts of times in the factories.

Chartist Movement

1838

Working class men demanded male suffrage for all, equal electoral divisions, and the removal of property ownership as a criteria for being in the House of Commons.

Mines Act of 1842

1842

Women and children are no longer allowed to work in mines due to the mines' poor condition.

Communist Manifesto

1848

Marx and Engels write about how history's progress has only ever been through the poor struggling against the rich. Stated that revolution is inevitable in a situation where poor workers are being exploited. Very appealing idea to those who were starving in the cities.

Craft Unions

1851

New model unions started to win rights for its members, who were all workers of a specific trade, by collective bargaining and srikes.

Reform Bill of 1867

1867

Extended suffrage to almost all British male urban workers.

Full Union Status

1875

The British Unions get full legal status, allowing them to operate as best as they can to serve their members under the protection of the law. People can now safely strike.

Social Welfare

1880 - 1904

Bismarck created the first social welfare system in the attempts to quell socialist feelings and desires. Many countries followed suit in later decades, hoping to prevent the exact same thing as Bismarck. William II continued adding to these reforms after Bismarck was fired.