State-building, expansion, and conflict

Periods 1-6

Period 1

8500 B.C.E. - 600 B.C.E.

Period 2

600 B.C.E. - 600 C.E.

Period 3

600 C.E. - 1450 C.E.

Period 4

1450 C.E. - 1750 C.E.

Period 5

1750 C.E. - 1900 C.E.

Period 6

1900 C.E. - Present


Warring States Period

481 B.C.E. - 221 B.C.E.

A time between the Zhou and the Qin where many powerful Chinese states attempted to conquer each other and become the new dynasty. The Qin were victorious.

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

A series of wars in Central Europe that were some of the longest and most destructive in modern history. It was largely fought as a religious war between the Protestants and the Catholics of the Holy Roman Empire. As a result of the war, many regions in Europe were desolated, disease-filled, and bankrupt.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The 13 colonies defeat their British founders and become The United States of America

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The angry the French people revolt against the French royalty. They would become a Constitutional Republic, until Napoleon Bonaparte took power in 1799.

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

Overthrow of dictator Porfirio Díaz; seizure of power by Institutional Revolutionary Party.

Xinhai Revolution

October 10, 1911 - February 12, 1912

Overthrow of the ruling Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China.

World War I

July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918

A major battle between the Triple Entente (United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy). It killed nearly 9 million people over 4 years.

February Revolution

March 8, 1917 - March 12, 1917

Russia overthrows Tsar Nicholas II.

October Revolution

November 7, 1917 - November 8, 1917

Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia and the establishment of the Soviet Union, sparking the Russian Civil War.

World War II

September 1, 1939 - September 2, 1945

The most destructive battle in human history. It was between the Allied powers (United States, Russia, and England) and the Axis powers (Italy, Japan, and Germany). It lasted 6 years and costed the lives of about 70 million combatants.

Guatemalan Revolution

July 4, 1944 - October 20, 1944

Overthrow of dictator Federico Ponce Vaides by liberal military officers and election of Juan José Arévalo.

Chinese Civil War

November 27, 1945 - October 1, 1949

The communists under chairman Mao Zedong expel the ruling Nationalist Party in the Chinese Civil War and establish the People's Republic of China. The Republic of China's control is reduced to Taiwan and its outlying islands.

The Cold War

1947 - 1991

It was the name given to the relationship that developed primarily between the USA and the USSR after World War Two. The Cold War dominated international affairs for decades and many major crises occurred - the Cuban Missile Crisis,Vietnam, Hungary and the Berlin Wall being just some. For many the growth in weapons of mass destruction was the most worrying issue. It caused the Space Race and major technological advances.

Indian Independence

July 18, 1947

India and Pakistan become two new separate nations as the United Kingdom grants India it's independence.

Cuban Revolution

July 26, 1953 - January 1, 1959

Led by Fidel Castro the government of General Fulgencio Batista was removed. By 1962 Cuba had been transformed into a declared socialist republic.


Indus Valley Civilization

3300 B.C.E. - 1300 B.C.E.

Very technologically advanced for their time, the Harappa and Mohenjo-daro people were able to build a successful urban society.

Egyptian Civilization

3150 B.C.E. - 31 B.C.E.

The Ancient Egyptian civilization produced the first government to rule an entire nation. The Pharaoh was the ruler of Ancient Egypt, both politically and religiously. The Pharaoh held the title 'Lord of the Two Lands', meaning that he ruled all of Upper and Lower Egypt.


3100 B.C.E. - 330 B.C.E.

Among the rivers the Sumerian people built the first cities along with irrigation canals which were separated by vast stretches of open desert or swamp where nomadic tribes roamed. Communication among the isolated cities was difficult and, at times, dangerous. Each Sumerian city became a city-state, independent of the others and protective of its independence. At times one city would try to conquer and unify the region, but such efforts were resisted and failed for centuries. As a result, the political history of Sumer is one of almost constant warfare.


Shang Dynasty

1766 B.C.E. - 1122 B.C.E.

The first historic dynasty in Chinese history.

Zhou Dynasty

1122 B.C.E. - 256 B.C.E.

In 771 BC, the Zhou capital was sacked by barbarian invaders, ending the effective Zhou rule over a wide area.

Macedonia (Greek Empire)

808 B.C.E. - 146 B.C.E.

At one point most powerful state in the world, also followed the democratic path that Rome did.

Roman Empire

573 B.C.E. - 476

Sowed the seeds for democracy.

Persian Empire

550 B.C.E - 641

The Achaemenids were the ruling dynasty of Cyrus the Great and his family over the Persian Empire, from 550-330 BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus's empire included Libya, Ethiopia, Thrace, Macedonia, Afghanistan, and the Punjab and everything in between.

Qin Dynasty

221 B.C.E. - 206 B.C.E.

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty to have complete control of China.

Han Dynasty

202 B.C.E. - 221

Brought an end to the chaos that raged throughout China after the fall of the Qin dynasty. The Han emperors ruled China for more than 400 years, except for a brief period between AD 9 and 23, when a powerful minister, Wang mang, seized the throne.

Byzantine Empire

330 - 1453

Was the Eastern half of the Roman empire that managed to survive. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe.

Ottoman Empire

1299 - October 30, 1918

Breaks up into Turkey, Armenia, Yemen, etc. after World War I

Spanish Empire

April 17, 1492 - 1833

Discovery of the Americas by Christopher Colombus as Spain spread the empire across the word. Later in 1520 Cortez conquered Mexico, which also lead the diffusion of Spanish culture around the world.

Qing Empire

1644 - 1911

The last imperial dynasty of China.

Political Structures


8500 B.C.E - 1649

People of royalty were given positions of power, by the 19th century, the idea of a Monarchy was all but gone. This was due to Revolutions in America, England, and France being the stepping stones for other countries.


1649 - Present

People were given the right to make decisions and have a say in what happens to them and their government.


1922 - 1991

From the 20's to the 90's, the rise of Communism spread to countries like Cuba, China, North Korea, Russia,
Vietnam, etc.