Revolutionary Era


1763—Proclamation of 1763—Colonists can’t move west of Appalachian
1764—Sugar Act — duties on sugar, textiles, coffee, wine
1764— Currency Act — colonists can’t make paper money — how to trade?
176 5— Stamp Act — all legal documents - $ goes back to England — a first
1765— Quartering Act — colonists house and feed British troops
1765— Virginia Resolutions — Patrick Henry — only Virginia can tax
1767— Towshend Acts — more taxes
1770— Boston Massacre — 5 killed after harassment — propaganda wins
1772— Gaspee ship attacked and burned — culprits threatened back to Engl
1773— Boston Tea Party — Sons of Liberty mad Tea Act not enforced
1774— Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts — punish Boston
1774— First Continental Congress — colonial militia
1775— Concord and Lexington — fight starts after Brits try to get weapons
1776— Declaration of Independence — 12 of 13 endorse, 55 sign “hang apart”

Critical Period


--right after Rev. War
--wide array of foreign & domestic problems

George Washington

1789 - 1797

--No party

John Adams

1797 - 1801


Jacksonian Democracy


Thomas Jefferson

1801 - 1809


James Madison

1809 - 1817


James Monroe

1817 - 1825


John Quincy Adams

1825 - 1829


Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837


Martin Van Buren

1837 - 1841


William H. Harrison

March 4, 1841 - April 4, 1841


John Tyler

April 4, 1841 - 1845

--favored states rights
--critical of American system and economic nationalism
--vetoed creation of 3rd nat. bank
--supported cheap land pruchasing in West and Western expansionist goals
--wanted Texas in union

James K. Polk

1845 - 1849

--left to deal with reactions of Mexico to Taylor's policies
--"54 40 or fight"

Zachary Taylor

1849 - 1853

--Mexican War hero

Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1853

--sectional compromise

Franklin Pierce

1853 - 1857

--supported new markets in China
--wanted to free Cuba from Spanish control
--promoted Kansas-Nebraska Act

James Buchanan

1857 - 1861

--popular sovereignty in territories

Abraham LIncoln

1861 - 1865


Civil War


Andrew Johnson

1865 - 1869




A. Theory – failed because North cared about helping Republican Party and free slaves quickly
B. Fails because most Northerners stop caring
C. Fails -US beliefs in personal property, self-govt, state control conflict with Reconstruction
D. Opinions – North wronged South through Reconstruction – just as bad as Civil War
1. or…Noble attempt to give equal rights to slaves – blacks received unprecedented freedoms initially

Tenure of Office Act


--prohibited prez. from dismissing any cabinet member or other federal officeholder whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the senate agreed to the dismissal
--Johnsons's violation of this act caused the impeachment crisis

Ulysses S. Grant

1869 - 1877

--corrupt administration
--Civil War hero

Rutherford B. Hayes

1877 - 1881

--Compromise of 1877
--"caretaker" president

Gilded Age


James A. Garfield

March 4, 1881 - September 19, 1881


Chester A. Arthur

September 19, 1881 - 1885


Grover Cleveland

1885 - 1889


Benjamin Harrison

1889 - 1893


Grover Cleveland

1893 - 1897


William McKinley

1893 - 1901


Teddy Roosevelt

1901 - 1909


William Howard Taft

1909 - 1913


Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921


Warren G. Harding

1921 - 1923


Calvin Coolidge

1923 - 1929


Herbert Hoover

1929 - 1933


Franklin D. Roosevelt

1933 - 1945


Harry S. Truman

1945 - 1953


Dwight D. Eisenhower

1953 - 1961


John F. Kennedy

1961 - 1963


Lyndon B. Johnson

1963 - 1969


Richard Nixon

1969 - 1974


Gerald Ford

1974 - 1977


Jimmy Carter

1977 - 1981


Ronald Reagan

1981 - 1989


George H.W. Bush

1989 - 1993


Bill Clinton

1993 - 2001


George W. Bush

2001 - 2009



Amendments listed by date passed in Congress

St. Augustine, FA est.


--first permanent New World settlement

Roanoke failure

1584 - 1607

--est. by Sir Walter Raleigh
--1st English colony

Jamestown, VA est.


--1st permanent English settlement
--founded by John Smith

Santa Fe, NM est.



Quebec, Canada est.


--1st permanent French settlement
--founded by De Champlain

House of Burgesses est.


--1st legislative body in colonial America
--later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses

Mayflower Compact


--1st agreement for self government in America
--Pilgrims originally wanted to go to Virginia, but couldn't b/c of weather
…….also wanted to steer away from existing colonies & avoid religious persecution
--eventually ended up at Plymouth
--Lord of the Fliesesque situation
…….signed Mayflower Compact before leaving ship to avoid problems

New Netherland est.


--founded by Netherlands

Puritan Migration

1630 - 1649

--from England to America
--population of Massachusetts Bay grew 10x its earlier size

Pequot War

1634 - 1638

--Narrangansett & Mohegan tribes and English colonies (Massachusetts Bay & Plymouth) VS. Pequot tribe
--Pequots massacred
--Narrangansett & Mohegans disillusioned by English war style

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut


--first written constitution in American history written by Hartford settlers
--est. representative gov. consisting of legislature elected by popular vote
--governor chosen by legislature

New England Confederation est.


--formed to provide for the defense of the 4 New England colonies
--acted as a court in disputes between colonies

New Amsterdam becomes New York


--Duke of York sent army & won over New Amsterdam
--renamed New York

Third Anglo-Dutch War

1672 - 1674

--between England and Dutch republic
--New Netherland
--ended by Treaty of Westminster

Dutch recapture New York


Treaty of Westminster


--ended the 3rd Anglo-Dutch War
--between Netherlands and England
--returned New Netherland to England
--renewed Treaty of Breda of 1667

King Phillip's War

1675 - 1676

--Wampanoag tribe VS. English Colonists & Native American allies
--English win
--Turning point:
…….few Native Americans remained in New England afterwards
…….colonists began to enlarge settlements
--aka Metacomet War

Bacon's Rebellion


--Nathaniel Bacon + other western VA settlers
--angry at VA governor (Berkley) for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after Doegs attacked the western settlemtns
--Bacon leads militia
--Kills Indians, marched to & burned down Jamestown

Pennsylvania est.


--est. by William Penn
--land grant from King Chales II
--colony for Quakers (allowed religious freedom)

Dominion of New England

1686 - 1692

--GB combined Massachusetts, RI, New Hampshire & Connecticut colonies into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros)
--colonists revolted & drove out Andros, ending the Dominion

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

--King James II's policies outraged people of England
…….converted to Catholicism
…….repressive trials aka "Bloody Assizes"
…….maintaining standing army
--Parliament asked James II to resign and invited King William of the Netherlands to take over
--King James II left peacefully
--King William II & Queen Mary II took throne without any war or bloodshed
…….hence, the revolution was termed "glorious"

Queen Anne's War

1702 - 1713

--Britain + Netherlands VS. France & Spain
--rose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War
--part of War of the Spanish Succession
--GB won
…….gained territory in Canada
--ended with Peace of Utrecht

Peace of Utrecht


--ended Queen Anne's War
--undermined France's power in N. America by giving Britain:
…….Hudson Bay
…….Nova Scotia

King George's War

1744 - 1748

--France VS. Britain
--land squabble
--France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne's War)
--ended with treaty
…….restored status quo (so GB kept Novia Scotia)

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

--part of 7 Years' War in Europe
--BRITAIN + Iroquois VS. FRANCE + Algonquins (who feared GB expansion into Ohio Valley), Mohawks and Spain
--control over Ohio Valley & Canada
--GB won
…….gained control of all remaining French posessions in Canada + India
…….traded Louisiana for Florida from Spain

Proclamation Line of 1763


--along Appalachian Mountains
--conflict between GB & colonists
--colonists believe their independence is being limited
--GB trying to maintain relations with Natives

Stamp Act Congress

October 7, 1765 - October 24, 1765

--gathering of 27 delegates from 9 colonies
--listed declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies

First Contintental Congress


--redress colonial grievances over Intolerable Acts
--12/13 colonies (Georgia not there) sent delegates
--Declaration of Rights and Grievances
--organized economic boycott of GB

Intolerable Acts


--aka Coercive Acts
--restricted town meetings
--British Officials couldn't be tried in provincial courts for capital crimes
--closed Bostonian ports
--annulled Massachusetts charter
--Quebec Act: extended Canadian borders to cut off the western colonies of CN, MA and VA

Lexington and Concord

April 19, 1775

--battalion of British troops under LieutenantColonel Smith sent from Boston to seize arms and munitions collected by colonists at Concord
--At Lexington, Concord, and way back to Boston, they were opposed by local colonist militia units that considerably outnumbered them
"Shot heard 'round the world"

Second Continental Congress

May 10, 1775 - March 2, 1789

--Philadelphia 3 weeks after Lexington and Concord
--Delegates from all colonies except Georgia
--Continental Army created
…….Washington appointed commander in chief
--Silas Deane sent to France as ambassador
--Declaration of Independence
--Articles of Confederation

Olive Branch Petition

July 8, 1775

--colonists' final offer of peace for Britain
.......agreed to be loyal if it addressed their grievances
--rejected by Parliament
.......passed American Prohibitory Act of 1775, which forbid all further trade with the colonies

Common Sense


--by Thomas Paine
--Why don't we declare Independence?

Battles of Saratoga

September 19, 1777

--persuaded French to help colonists

Battle of Yorktown

October 19, 1781

--trapped Cornwallis in Chesapeake Bay
--Cornwallis surrendered=> Americans win war

Treaty of Paris 1783


--Franklin, Adams, Jay
--GB recognizes US
--colonies receive all territories east of Mississippi from Canada to Sp. Florida
--more favorable rights
--FR bankrupt (FR Revolution)

Federalist Papers


Hamilton, Madison, Jay

Constitutional Convention


--55 delegates meet in Philadelphia...Washington...Presid.
A. Virginia Plan – large state plan – representation based on population
B. New Jersey Plan – small state plan – every state receives equal rep
1. Great Compromise – House + Senate
2. Slaves = 3/5 of the population for House rep counting purposes
C. Bill of Rights – citizens rights to prevent oppressive gov’t - 1791
D. Hesitancy to ratify – Anti-Federalists believe states should have more power – Federalists believe strong executive necessary
1. Federalist Papers convince New York/Virginia – Rhode Island last

Northwest Ordinance


--created single northwest territory to be divided
--created guidelines for statehood
.......minimum of 60,000 population
--guaranteed in new state:
.......freedom of religion
.......right to trial by jury
.......prohibition of slavery in new state

Judiciary Act of 1789


--created Supreme Court, federal, and district courts

Bill of Rights

Dec 15, 1791

--citizens' rights to prevent oppressive gov't

  1. Freedom of speech, press, religion, right to assemble

  2. Right to bear arms

  3. Right to privacy

  4. No unreasonable searches/seizures

  5. Right to due process of law

  6. Right to a speedy trial

  7. Right to trial by jury

  8. No cruel/unusual punishment

  9. Guarantees unlisted rights

  10. Unlisted powers reserved to states

Amendment 11


--Protects states from being sued by someone from another state

Alien & Sedition Acts


--Adams' administration
--Naturalization Act, Alien Act, Sedition Act, Alien Enemies Act
--Quasi-War with France
--heightened public criticism of foreign policy
--hurt Adams' chances of releection

Quasi War

1798 - 1800

--undeclared war
--fought entirely at sea
--XYZ affair
--Congress cut off all trade w/ France
--Navy created
--allied with Britain
--France eventually backs down

Louisiana Purchase

January 18, 1803

--Jefferson expands presedential power
--expedition to explore Mississippi River and beyond in search of Pacific route

War of 1812

May 18, 1803 - 12/24/1814

--US vs. Britain
--US declared war because of:
…….Trade restrictions
…….British support of Native American tribes against American expansion
…….humiliation of American honor

Amendment 12


--Changed presidential election procedures (electors now cast separate ballots for president and vice president)

Fletcher v. Peck


--ruled that states can repeal a corrupt law, but cannot void contracts made under this law
--1st time court struck down a state law

Hartford Convention

dec 15, 1814 - jan 5, 1815

--New England gathering of Federalists
--discussed grievances and sought redress for their wrongs
--desired amendments to Constitution to restore Federalists, but ultimately, the desires of the convention would be the end of the Federalist party

Rush-Bagot Agreement

April 28, 1817

--Treaty between US and Britain
--demilitarization of Great Lakes & Lake Champlain
--indicated improving relations between US and GB following War of 1812
--negotiated by Secretary of State Richard Rush and FB Minister to Washington Sir Charles Bagot

McCulloch v. Maryland


--in favor of the doctrine of IMPLIED POWERS: the federal gov.t may use any means not forbidden by the Constitution, rather than what the Constitution explicitly allows
--loose interpretation

Adams-Onis Treaty


--aka Transcontinental Treaty
--purchased Florida from Spain
--est. western boundary for US
--prevented Seminoles from invading Georgia

Dartmouth v. Woodward


--settled the nature of public vs. private charters
--New Hampshire legislature attempted to force college to become public

Missouri Compromise


--between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions
--prohibited slavery in Louisiana Territory north of 36th parallel except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri
--Senate representation



Monroe Doctrine


--told Euro nations to back off in Latin America

Wilmot Proviso

August 8, 1846

--rider on a $2 mill appropriations bill intended for the final negotiations to resolve the MexAmerican War
--intended to prevent introduction of slavery in any territory acquired from MX

Free Soil Party

1847 - 1848

--no slavery in territories
--"Free soil,f ree speech, free labor, and free men."

Compromise of 1850


--CA admitted
--popular soveriegnty
--DC no slaves
--tougher Fugitive slave act

Know-Nothing Party

1854 - 1855

.......to extend period of naturalization
.......undercut immigrant voting strengths
.......keep aliens in their place
--aka American Party

Wade-Davis Bill


--50% voters of a state to take loyalty oath
--Lincoln pocketvetoed

Amendment 13


--Abolished slavery

Civil Rights Act of 1866


--All African Americans=US citizens
--attempted to provide legal shield against operation of souther states' black codes

Amendment 14


--Broadly defines citizenship (overturns Dred Scott case)
--Equal protection under the law to all people

Amendment 15


--Black suffrage

Greenback-Labor Party

1874 - 1884

--opposed shift from paper money back to a bullion coin-based monetary system
.......believed that privately owned banks and coprs would then reacquire power of products and labor

Compromise of 1877


--due to an imbalance in the # of popular votes...
--Hayes become president on the condition that he would
.......immediately end fed. support for the Republicans in the South
.......support the building of a Southern Transcontinental RR
--Hayes fulfilled his part of the bargain

Marbury v. Madison


--Judicial review (Supreme Court can say laws are unconstitutional)
--William Marbury sued for his commision as judge because he had been promised a job by Adams but refused by Jefferson
--ruling: Marshall claims that Supreme Court cannot rule on the case and ruled earlier Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional

Amendment 16


--Congress has power to collect income taxes

Amendment 17


--Replaced selection of US Senators by slate legislatures with direct election

Schenk v. US


--in cases of "clear and present danger", certain speech is not protected by 1st Amendment

Amendment 19


--Women's suffrage

Amendment 20


--Shortens the lame-duck period (when federal offices begin and end)

Amendment 22


--Limited number of presidential terms to two (Passed because of FDR, who served a record four terms)

Amendment 23


--Allowed those in Washington D.C. to participate in presidential elections.

Amendment 24


--Prohibited poll taxes

Amendment 25


--Clarifies that the vice president succeeds the president
--Provisions for "Acting President" (if prez is unable to perform at the moment but will be in near future, vice prez will assume presidential role during recovery)

Miranda v. Arizona


--police must advise criminal suspects of their rights
--(Miranda rights)

Amendment 26


--Voting age is 18

Amendment 27


--Congressional pay raises can't go in effect until after the next congressional election


Plymouth, MA est.


--founded by Separatists
…….religious incentive
--settled in Massachussetts
--led by William Bradford

Rhode Island est.


--founded by Roger Williams, joined by Anne Hutchinson & followers
--1st for religious tolerance

Mayland Toleration Act


--Guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians

Salem Witch Trials

February 1, 1692 - May 1, 1693

--Salem, Massachusetts
--series of hearings before local magistrates followed by country court of trials
--prosecuted people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and middlesex counties

1st Great Awakening

1739 - 1744

--Puritanism declined in 1930s
--people upset about decline in religious piety
--sudden outbreak of religious fervor
--helped unite colonies

Stono Rebellion

September 9, 1739

--largest slave uprising in colonies prior to American Revolution

Quartering Act


--required certain colonies provide food and quarters to British troops

Declatory Act of 1766


--Parliament repealed Stamp Act
--reaffirmed Parliament's right to "bind" the colonies

Boston Massacre


--group of British soldiers fired into angry mob of Bostonians, killing 5
--exaggerated & spread as propaganda throughout colonies

Boston Tea Party

December 16, 1773

--band of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded ships and dumped tea into the sea
--protesting Tea Act

2nd Great Awakening

1790 - 1830

--attempt to return to conservative religious practice
1. Effects – more converted, some churches destroyed, others created
a. Methodists/Baptists – poor attracted/non-traditional
2. Camp Meetings – traveling preachers, thousands gather, get “saved”

Utopian Movements

1820 - 1860

--Over 40 attempted/failed
......uncommon sexual practices + lazy people
...........people end up desiring independence and market economy/free enterprise
--Oneida: free love, male birth control
--Shakers: religious group, eugenic selection of parents

Trail of Tears

1831 - 1833

Bleeding Kansas


--bitter contest for control of territorial govt. in Kansas
--border war erupted between pro and antislavery forces

Civil Rights Act of 1875


--guaranteed that everyone was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations"

Radio invented


--R.A. Fressenden

Amendment 18

12/18/1917 - 02/20/1933

--Prohibition of alcohol

Amendment 21


--Repeals prohibition (Amendment 18)

Roe v. Wade


--women may get an abortion during the 1st trimester of pregnancy

Bakke v. Regents of the U. of California


--ruled that use of racial quotas couldn't be used, but race could be one fact among many; affirmative action


Navigation Acts passed

1650 - 1696

--1650, 1660, 1663 and 1696
--British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition
--colonies could only import goods if they were:
…….shipped on British-owned vessels
…….at least 3/4 of crew were British

English Bill of Rights


--listed certain rights of British people
--limited king's powers to taxing
--prohibited maintenance of standing army during peacetime

Molasses Act


--tax on nonGB molasses, rum, & sugar
--angered New England colonies
…….imported a lot of molasses from Caribbean as part of Triangular Trade
--difficulties in enforcement (smuggling)

Sugar Act

1764 - 1766

--1st law passed by Parliament raising tax revenues in colonies for the crown
--increased duty on foreign sugar imported from West Indies
--pay for Fr & Indian War
--colonists protest=>repealed

Stamp Act

March 22, 1765 - 1766

--first internal tax on colonies
--required stamps on all legal documents
--the resulting riots and decline in British imports caused by non-importation movement convinced Parliament to repeal

Virginia Resolves

May 30, 1765

--Patrick Henry's speech
--condemned British gov. for its taxes & other policies
--proposed 7 "resolves" to show VA's resistence to the British policies
…….5 of which were adopted by VA legislature
--8 other colonies followed suit and adopted similar resolves by end of 1765

Townshend Acts of 1767


--tax on lead, paint, paper, glass and tea
--to pay for:
…….the salaries of royal governors, judges, and other imperial officers
…….American military expenses

Tea Act of 1773


--provided financial relief for the East India Company by cancelling the import duty on its tea
…….decreased price of tea for colonists
--colonists still rejected

Shay's Rebellion


--debtors can't pay=>rebel
--proved to wealthy that something must be done
--catalyst for Constitutional Convention
.......Post-war depression made life worse
.......Jefferson: "A little rebellion every now and then is a good thing"

1st National Bank

1791 - 1811

--Hamilton's federalism VS. Jefferson wanted states to control $
--Hamilton wins

Cotton gin invented


--Eli Whitney
--increased slavery

Jay's Treaty


--negotiated by John Jay
--est. friendly commercial relationship w/ Britain
--rejected by American public because of lack of compensation for
…….wartime damages
…….Indian wars caused by British occupation of western posts

Whiskey Rebellion


--Hamilton's plan included tax on whiskey (1791)
--Farmers protest
.......b/c they used their leftover grain & corn in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange
--proves executives tough~sent in thousands to put down riot

Iron plow invented


--Charles Newbold

Steamboat invented


--Robert Fulton

American System plan


--Henry Clay
--federal gov't pays for roads, canals, business
.......protects American business via high tariffs (25%)
.......=>buy US goods vs. better/cheaper Euro goods

Panic of 1819


--1st major financial crisis in the US
--end of Era of Good Feelings
--result of international conflicts (i.e. Embargo Act, War of 1812)

Gibbons v. Ogden


--power to regulate interstate commerce is granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution

Locomotive invented


--George Stevenson

Reaper invented


--Cyrus McCormick

Panic of 1837

1837 - 1840

--followed Specie Circular
--Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, bankrupt businesses, etc.
--shortlived and reduced pressure on the economy
--prevented Van Buren from relection
.......didn't try to help economy b/c he felt it wasn't his responsibility

Telegraph invented


--Samuel Morse

Modern Steel Plow invented


--James Oliver

Panic of 1873


--rendered thousands of northern laborers both jobless and homeless
--overspeculation by financiers and overbuilding by industry + RRs led to widespread business failures and depression

Telephone invented


--Alexander Graham Bell

Great Railroad Strike


--RR workers went on strike in response to wage cuts
--Hayes sent in troops to put strikers down

Bland-Allison Act


--mint $2-4 mil silver coins a month to expand money in circulation

Knights of Labor

1879 - 1889

--accepted pretty much anyone
--goals too broad=>demise
--also blamed for Haymarket riots and others
--led by Terence Powderly

Haymarket Riots


--a rally that => violence when a person in the crowd threw a bomb and killed a police officer
--leaders of rally held responsible
.......tried and 4 given death sentence

Interstate Commerce Act


--established ICC to monitor trade

Sherman Anti-Trust Act


--broke up trusts & designed to keep trusts from forming
--any monopoly that fixd prices that restricted trade also out
--unfortunately, failed to define "trust" well enough to be effective

Progressive Era


Automobile developed


--Henry Ford & others