APUSH

Presidents

Revolutionary Era

1763

1763—Proclamation of 1763—Colonists can’t move west of Appalachian
1764—Sugar Act — duties on sugar, textiles, coffee, wine
1764— Currency Act — colonists can’t make paper money — how to trade?
176 5— Stamp Act — all legal documents - $ goes back to England — a first
1765— Quartering Act — colonists house and feed British troops
1765— Virginia Resolutions — Patrick Henry — only Virginia can tax
1767— Towshend Acts — more taxes
1770— Boston Massacre — 5 killed after harassment — propaganda wins
1772— Gaspee ship attacked and burned — culprits threatened back to Engl
1773— Boston Tea Party — Sons of Liberty mad Tea Act not enforced
1774— Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts — punish Boston
1774— First Continental Congress — colonial militia
1775— Concord and Lexington — fight starts after Brits try to get weapons
1776— Declaration of Independence — 12 of 13 endorse, 55 sign “hang apart”

Critical Period

1776

--right after Rev. War
--wide array of foreign & domestic problems

George Washington

1789 - 1797

--No party

John Adams

1797 - 1801

--Federalist

Jacksonian Democracy

1800

Thomas Jefferson

1801 - 1809

--Democratic-Republican

James Madison

1809 - 1817

--Democratic-Republican

James Monroe

1817 - 1825

--Democratic-Republican

John Quincy Adams

1825 - 1829

--Democratic-Republican

Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

--Democrat

Martin Van Buren

1837 - 1841

--Democrat

William H. Harrison

March 4, 1841 - April 4, 1841

--Whig

John Tyler

April 4, 1841 - 1845

--Whig
--favored states rights
--critical of American system and economic nationalism
--vetoed creation of 3rd nat. bank
--supported cheap land pruchasing in West and Western expansionist goals
--wanted Texas in union

James K. Polk

1845 - 1849

--Democrat
--left to deal with reactions of Mexico to Taylor's policies
--"54 40 or fight"

Zachary Taylor

1849 - 1853

--Whig
--Mexican War hero

Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1853

--Whig
--sectional compromise

Franklin Pierce

1853 - 1857

--Democrat
--expansionist
--supported new markets in China
--wanted to free Cuba from Spanish control
--promoted Kansas-Nebraska Act

James Buchanan

1857 - 1861

--Democrat
--popular sovereignty in territories

Abraham LIncoln

1861 - 1865

--Republican

Civil War

1861

Andrew Johnson

1865 - 1869

--Democrat

Reconstruction

1865

A. Theory – failed because North cared about helping Republican Party and free slaves quickly
B. Fails because most Northerners stop caring
C. Fails -US beliefs in personal property, self-govt, state control conflict with Reconstruction
D. Opinions – North wronged South through Reconstruction – just as bad as Civil War
1. or…Noble attempt to give equal rights to slaves – blacks received unprecedented freedoms initially

Tenure of Office Act

1867

--prohibited prez. from dismissing any cabinet member or other federal officeholder whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the senate agreed to the dismissal
--Johnsons's violation of this act caused the impeachment crisis

Ulysses S. Grant

1869 - 1877

--Republican
--corrupt administration
--Civil War hero

Rutherford B. Hayes

1877 - 1881

--Republican
--Compromise of 1877
--"caretaker" president

Gilded Age

1877

James A. Garfield

March 4, 1881 - September 19, 1881

--Republican

Chester A. Arthur

September 19, 1881 - 1885

--Republican

Grover Cleveland

1885 - 1889

--Democrat

Benjamin Harrison

1889 - 1893

--Republican

Grover Cleveland

1893 - 1897

--Democrat

William McKinley

1893 - 1901

--Republican

Teddy Roosevelt

1901 - 1909

--Republican

William Howard Taft

1909 - 1913

--Republican

Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921

--Democrat

Warren G. Harding

1921 - 1923

--Republican

Calvin Coolidge

1923 - 1929

--Republican

Herbert Hoover

1929 - 1933

--Republican

Franklin D. Roosevelt

1933 - 1945

--Democrat

Harry S. Truman

1945 - 1953

--Democrat

Dwight D. Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

--Republican

John F. Kennedy

1961 - 1963

--Democrat

Lyndon B. Johnson

1963 - 1969

--Democrat

Richard Nixon

1969 - 1974

--Republican

Gerald Ford

1974 - 1977

--Republican

Jimmy Carter

1977 - 1981

--Democrat

Ronald Reagan

1981 - 1989

--Republican

George H.W. Bush

1989 - 1993

--Republican

Bill Clinton

1993 - 2001

--Democrat

George W. Bush

2001 - 2009

--Republican

Political

Amendments listed by date passed in Congress

St. Augustine, FA est.

1565

--Spanish
--first permanent New World settlement

Roanoke failure

1584 - 1607

--est. by Sir Walter Raleigh
--1st English colony
--failed

Jamestown, VA est.

1607

--1st permanent English settlement
--founded by John Smith

Santa Fe, NM est.

1609

--Spanish

Quebec, Canada est.

1609

--1st permanent French settlement
--founded by De Champlain

House of Burgesses est.

1619

--Virginia
--1st legislative body in colonial America
--later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses

Mayflower Compact

1620

--1st agreement for self government in America
--Pilgrims originally wanted to go to Virginia, but couldn't b/c of weather
…….also wanted to steer away from existing colonies & avoid religious persecution
--eventually ended up at Plymouth
--Lord of the Fliesesque situation
…….signed Mayflower Compact before leaving ship to avoid problems

New Netherland est.

1626

--founded by Netherlands

Puritan Migration

1630 - 1649

--from England to America
--population of Massachusetts Bay grew 10x its earlier size

Pequot War

1634 - 1638

--Narrangansett & Mohegan tribes and English colonies (Massachusetts Bay & Plymouth) VS. Pequot tribe
--Pequots massacred
--Narrangansett & Mohegans disillusioned by English war style

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

1639

--first written constitution in American history written by Hartford settlers
--est. representative gov. consisting of legislature elected by popular vote
--governor chosen by legislature

New England Confederation est.

1643

--formed to provide for the defense of the 4 New England colonies
--acted as a court in disputes between colonies

New Amsterdam becomes New York

1664

--Duke of York sent army & won over New Amsterdam
--renamed New York

Third Anglo-Dutch War

1672 - 1674

--between England and Dutch republic
--New Netherland
--ended by Treaty of Westminster

Dutch recapture New York

1673

Treaty of Westminster

1674

--ended the 3rd Anglo-Dutch War
--between Netherlands and England
--returned New Netherland to England
--renewed Treaty of Breda of 1667

King Phillip's War

1675 - 1676

--Wampanoag tribe VS. English Colonists & Native American allies
--English win
--Turning point:
…….few Native Americans remained in New England afterwards
…….colonists began to enlarge settlements
--aka Metacomet War

Bacon's Rebellion

1676

--Nathaniel Bacon + other western VA settlers
--angry at VA governor (Berkley) for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after Doegs attacked the western settlemtns
--Bacon leads militia
--Kills Indians, marched to & burned down Jamestown

Pennsylvania est.

1681

--est. by William Penn
--land grant from King Chales II
--colony for Quakers (allowed religious freedom)

Dominion of New England

1686 - 1692

--GB combined Massachusetts, RI, New Hampshire & Connecticut colonies into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros)
--colonists revolted & drove out Andros, ending the Dominion

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

--King James II's policies outraged people of England
…….converted to Catholicism
…….repressive trials aka "Bloody Assizes"
…….maintaining standing army
--Parliament asked James II to resign and invited King William of the Netherlands to take over
--King James II left peacefully
--King William II & Queen Mary II took throne without any war or bloodshed
…….hence, the revolution was termed "glorious"

Queen Anne's War

1702 - 1713

--Britain + Netherlands VS. France & Spain
--rose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War
--part of War of the Spanish Succession
--GB won
…….gained territory in Canada
--ended with Peace of Utrecht

Peace of Utrecht

1713

--ended Queen Anne's War
--undermined France's power in N. America by giving Britain:
…….Hudson Bay
…….Newfoundland
…….Nova Scotia

King George's War

1744 - 1748

--France VS. Britain
--land squabble
--France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne's War)
--ended with treaty
…….restored status quo (so GB kept Novia Scotia)

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

--part of 7 Years' War in Europe
--BRITAIN + Iroquois VS. FRANCE + Algonquins (who feared GB expansion into Ohio Valley), Mohawks and Spain
--control over Ohio Valley & Canada
--GB won
…….gained control of all remaining French posessions in Canada + India
…….traded Louisiana for Florida from Spain

Proclamation Line of 1763

1763

--along Appalachian Mountains
--conflict between GB & colonists
--colonists believe their independence is being limited
--GB trying to maintain relations with Natives

Stamp Act Congress

October 7, 1765 - October 24, 1765

--gathering of 27 delegates from 9 colonies
--listed declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies

First Contintental Congress

1774

--Philadelphia
--redress colonial grievances over Intolerable Acts
--12/13 colonies (Georgia not there) sent delegates
--Declaration of Rights and Grievances
--organized economic boycott of GB

Intolerable Acts

1774

--aka Coercive Acts
--restricted town meetings
--British Officials couldn't be tried in provincial courts for capital crimes
--closed Bostonian ports
--annulled Massachusetts charter
--Quebec Act: extended Canadian borders to cut off the western colonies of CN, MA and VA

Lexington and Concord

April 19, 1775

--Massachusetts
--battalion of British troops under LieutenantColonel Smith sent from Boston to seize arms and munitions collected by colonists at Concord
--At Lexington, Concord, and way back to Boston, they were opposed by local colonist militia units that considerably outnumbered them
"Shot heard 'round the world"

Second Continental Congress

May 10, 1775 - March 2, 1789

--Philadelphia 3 weeks after Lexington and Concord
--Delegates from all colonies except Georgia
--Continental Army created
…….Washington appointed commander in chief
--Silas Deane sent to France as ambassador
--Declaration of Independence
--Articles of Confederation

Olive Branch Petition

July 8, 1775

--colonists' final offer of peace for Britain
.......agreed to be loyal if it addressed their grievances
--rejected by Parliament
.......passed American Prohibitory Act of 1775, which forbid all further trade with the colonies

Common Sense

1776

--by Thomas Paine
--Why don't we declare Independence?

Battles of Saratoga

September 19, 1777

--persuaded French to help colonists

Battle of Yorktown

October 19, 1781

--trapped Cornwallis in Chesapeake Bay
--Cornwallis surrendered=> Americans win war

Treaty of Paris 1783

1783

--Franklin, Adams, Jay
--GB recognizes US
--colonies receive all territories east of Mississippi from Canada to Sp. Florida
--more favorable rights
--FR bankrupt (FR Revolution)

Federalist Papers

1787

Hamilton, Madison, Jay

Constitutional Convention

1787

--55 delegates meet in Philadelphia...Washington...Presid.
A. Virginia Plan – large state plan – representation based on population
B. New Jersey Plan – small state plan – every state receives equal rep
1. Great Compromise – House + Senate
2. Slaves = 3/5 of the population for House rep counting purposes
C. Bill of Rights – citizens rights to prevent oppressive gov’t - 1791
D. Hesitancy to ratify – Anti-Federalists believe states should have more power – Federalists believe strong executive necessary
1. Federalist Papers convince New York/Virginia – Rhode Island last

Northwest Ordinance

1787

--created single northwest territory to be divided
--created guidelines for statehood
.......minimum of 60,000 population
--guaranteed in new state:
.......freedom of religion
.......right to trial by jury
.......prohibition of slavery in new state

Judiciary Act of 1789

1789

--created Supreme Court, federal, and district courts

Bill of Rights

Dec 15, 1791

--citizens' rights to prevent oppressive gov't

  1. Freedom of speech, press, religion, right to assemble

  2. Right to bear arms

  3. Right to privacy

  4. No unreasonable searches/seizures

  5. Right to due process of law

  6. Right to a speedy trial

  7. Right to trial by jury

  8. No cruel/unusual punishment

  9. Guarantees unlisted rights

  10. Unlisted powers reserved to states

Amendment 11

03/04/1794

--Protects states from being sued by someone from another state

Alien & Sedition Acts

1798

--Adams' administration
--Naturalization Act, Alien Act, Sedition Act, Alien Enemies Act
--Quasi-War with France
--heightened public criticism of foreign policy
--hurt Adams' chances of releection

Quasi War

1798 - 1800

--undeclared war
--fought entirely at sea
--XYZ affair
--Congress cut off all trade w/ France
--Navy created
--allied with Britain
--France eventually backs down

Louisiana Purchase

January 18, 1803

--Napolean
--Jefferson expands presedential power
--expedition to explore Mississippi River and beyond in search of Pacific route

War of 1812

May 18, 1803 - 12/24/1814

--US vs. Britain
--US declared war because of:
…….Trade restrictions
…….impressment
…….British support of Native American tribes against American expansion
…….humiliation of American honor

Amendment 12

12/09/1803

--Changed presidential election procedures (electors now cast separate ballots for president and vice president)

Fletcher v. Peck

1810

--ruled that states can repeal a corrupt law, but cannot void contracts made under this law
--1st time court struck down a state law

Hartford Convention

dec 15, 1814 - jan 5, 1815

--New England gathering of Federalists
--discussed grievances and sought redress for their wrongs
--desired amendments to Constitution to restore Federalists, but ultimately, the desires of the convention would be the end of the Federalist party

Rush-Bagot Agreement

April 28, 1817

--Treaty between US and Britain
--demilitarization of Great Lakes & Lake Champlain
--indicated improving relations between US and GB following War of 1812
--negotiated by Secretary of State Richard Rush and FB Minister to Washington Sir Charles Bagot

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819

--in favor of the doctrine of IMPLIED POWERS: the federal gov.t may use any means not forbidden by the Constitution, rather than what the Constitution explicitly allows
--loose interpretation

Adams-Onis Treaty

1819

--aka Transcontinental Treaty
--purchased Florida from Spain
--est. western boundary for US
--prevented Seminoles from invading Georgia

Dartmouth v. Woodward

1819

--settled the nature of public vs. private charters
--New Hampshire legislature attempted to force college to become public

Missouri Compromise

1820

--between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions
--prohibited slavery in Louisiana Territory north of 36th parallel except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri
--Senate representation

Sectionalism

1820

Monroe Doctrine

1823

--told Euro nations to back off in Latin America

Wilmot Proviso

August 8, 1846

--rider on a $2 mill appropriations bill intended for the final negotiations to resolve the MexAmerican War
--intended to prevent introduction of slavery in any territory acquired from MX

Free Soil Party

1847 - 1848

--no slavery in territories
--"Free soil,f ree speech, free labor, and free men."

Compromise of 1850

1850

--CA admitted
--popular soveriegnty
--DC no slaves
--tougher Fugitive slave act

Know-Nothing Party

1854 - 1855

--objectives:
.......to extend period of naturalization
.......undercut immigrant voting strengths
.......keep aliens in their place
--NATIVISM
--aka American Party

Wade-Davis Bill

1864

--50% voters of a state to take loyalty oath
--Lincoln pocketvetoed

Amendment 13

01/31/1865

--Abolished slavery

Civil Rights Act of 1866

1866

--All African Americans=US citizens
--attempted to provide legal shield against operation of souther states' black codes

Amendment 14

06/13/1866

--Broadly defines citizenship (overturns Dred Scott case)
--Equal protection under the law to all people

Amendment 15

02/26/1869

--Black suffrage

Greenback-Labor Party

1874 - 1884

--anti-monopoly
--opposed shift from paper money back to a bullion coin-based monetary system
.......believed that privately owned banks and coprs would then reacquire power of products and labor

Compromise of 1877

1877

--due to an imbalance in the # of popular votes...
--Hayes become president on the condition that he would
.......immediately end fed. support for the Republicans in the South
.......support the building of a Southern Transcontinental RR
--Hayes fulfilled his part of the bargain

Marbury v. Madison

1903

--Judicial review (Supreme Court can say laws are unconstitutional)
--William Marbury sued for his commision as judge because he had been promised a job by Adams but refused by Jefferson
--ruling: Marshall claims that Supreme Court cannot rule on the case and ruled earlier Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional

Amendment 16

07/02/1909

--Congress has power to collect income taxes

Amendment 17

05/13/1912

--Replaced selection of US Senators by slate legislatures with direct election

Schenk v. US

1919

--in cases of "clear and present danger", certain speech is not protected by 1st Amendment

Amendment 19

07/04/1919

--Women's suffrage

Amendment 20

03/02/1932

--Shortens the lame-duck period (when federal offices begin and end)

Amendment 22

03/21/1947

--Limited number of presidential terms to two (Passed because of FDR, who served a record four terms)

Amendment 23

07/16/1960

--Allowed those in Washington D.C. to participate in presidential elections.

Amendment 24

01/23/1964

--Prohibited poll taxes

Amendment 25

07/06/1965

--Clarifies that the vice president succeeds the president
--Provisions for "Acting President" (if prez is unable to perform at the moment but will be in near future, vice prez will assume presidential role during recovery)

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

--police must advise criminal suspects of their rights
--(Miranda rights)

Amendment 26

03/23/1971

--Voting age is 18

Amendment 27

09/25/1989

--Congressional pay raises can't go in effect until after the next congressional election

Social

Plymouth, MA est.

1620

--founded by Separatists
…….religious incentive
--settled in Massachussetts
--led by William Bradford

Rhode Island est.

1636

--founded by Roger Williams, joined by Anne Hutchinson & followers
--1st for religious tolerance

Mayland Toleration Act

1659

--Guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians

Salem Witch Trials

February 1, 1692 - May 1, 1693

--Salem, Massachusetts
--series of hearings before local magistrates followed by country court of trials
--prosecuted people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and middlesex counties

1st Great Awakening

1739 - 1744

--Puritanism declined in 1930s
--people upset about decline in religious piety
--sudden outbreak of religious fervor
--helped unite colonies

Stono Rebellion

September 9, 1739

--largest slave uprising in colonies prior to American Revolution

Quartering Act

1765

--required certain colonies provide food and quarters to British troops

Declatory Act of 1766

1766

--Parliament repealed Stamp Act
--reaffirmed Parliament's right to "bind" the colonies

Boston Massacre

1770

--group of British soldiers fired into angry mob of Bostonians, killing 5
--exaggerated & spread as propaganda throughout colonies

Boston Tea Party

December 16, 1773

--band of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded ships and dumped tea into the sea
--protesting Tea Act

2nd Great Awakening

1790 - 1830

--attempt to return to conservative religious practice
1. Effects – more converted, some churches destroyed, others created
a. Methodists/Baptists – poor attracted/non-traditional
2. Camp Meetings – traveling preachers, thousands gather, get “saved”

Utopian Movements

1820 - 1860

--Over 40 attempted/failed
......uncommon sexual practices + lazy people
...........people end up desiring independence and market economy/free enterprise
--Oneida: free love, male birth control
--Shakers: religious group, eugenic selection of parents

Trail of Tears

1831 - 1833

Bleeding Kansas

1854

--bitter contest for control of territorial govt. in Kansas
--border war erupted between pro and antislavery forces

Civil Rights Act of 1875

1875

--guaranteed that everyone was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations"

Radio invented

1906

--R.A. Fressenden

Amendment 18

12/18/1917 - 02/20/1933

--Prohibition of alcohol

Amendment 21

02/20/1933

--Repeals prohibition (Amendment 18)

Roe v. Wade

1973

--women may get an abortion during the 1st trimester of pregnancy

Bakke v. Regents of the U. of California

1978

--ruled that use of racial quotas couldn't be used, but race could be one fact among many; affirmative action

Economic

Navigation Acts passed

1650 - 1696

--1650, 1660, 1663 and 1696
--British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition
--colonies could only import goods if they were:
…….shipped on British-owned vessels
…….at least 3/4 of crew were British

English Bill of Rights

1689

--listed certain rights of British people
--limited king's powers to taxing
--prohibited maintenance of standing army during peacetime

Molasses Act

1733

--tax on nonGB molasses, rum, & sugar
--angered New England colonies
…….imported a lot of molasses from Caribbean as part of Triangular Trade
--difficulties in enforcement (smuggling)

Sugar Act

1764 - 1766

--1st law passed by Parliament raising tax revenues in colonies for the crown
--increased duty on foreign sugar imported from West Indies
--pay for Fr & Indian War
--colonists protest=>repealed

Stamp Act

March 22, 1765 - 1766

--first internal tax on colonies
--required stamps on all legal documents
--the resulting riots and decline in British imports caused by non-importation movement convinced Parliament to repeal

Virginia Resolves

May 30, 1765

--Patrick Henry's speech
--condemned British gov. for its taxes & other policies
--proposed 7 "resolves" to show VA's resistence to the British policies
…….5 of which were adopted by VA legislature
--8 other colonies followed suit and adopted similar resolves by end of 1765

Townshend Acts of 1767

1767

--tax on lead, paint, paper, glass and tea
--to pay for:
…….the salaries of royal governors, judges, and other imperial officers
…….American military expenses

Tea Act of 1773

1773

--provided financial relief for the East India Company by cancelling the import duty on its tea
…….decreased price of tea for colonists
--colonists still rejected

Shay's Rebellion

1787

--debtors can't pay=>rebel
--proved to wealthy that something must be done
--catalyst for Constitutional Convention
.......Post-war depression made life worse
.......Jefferson: "A little rebellion every now and then is a good thing"

1st National Bank

1791 - 1811

--Hamilton's federalism VS. Jefferson wanted states to control $
--Hamilton wins

Cotton gin invented

1793

--Eli Whitney
--increased slavery

Jay's Treaty

1794

--negotiated by John Jay
--est. friendly commercial relationship w/ Britain
--rejected by American public because of lack of compensation for
…….wartime damages
…….impressment
…….Indian wars caused by British occupation of western posts

Whiskey Rebellion

1794

--Hamilton's plan included tax on whiskey (1791)
--Farmers protest
.......b/c they used their leftover grain & corn in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange
--proves executives tough~sent in thousands to put down riot

Iron plow invented

1797

--Charles Newbold

Steamboat invented

1807

--Robert Fulton

American System plan

1815

--Henry Clay
--federal gov't pays for roads, canals, business
.......protects American business via high tariffs (25%)
.......=>buy US goods vs. better/cheaper Euro goods

Panic of 1819

1819

--1st major financial crisis in the US
--end of Era of Good Feelings
--result of international conflicts (i.e. Embargo Act, War of 1812)

Gibbons v. Ogden

1824

--power to regulate interstate commerce is granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution

Locomotive invented

1830

--George Stevenson

Reaper invented

1834

--Cyrus McCormick

Panic of 1837

1837 - 1840

--followed Specie Circular
--Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, bankrupt businesses, etc.
--shortlived and reduced pressure on the economy
--prevented Van Buren from relection
.......didn't try to help economy b/c he felt it wasn't his responsibility

Telegraph invented

1844

--Samuel Morse

Modern Steel Plow invented

1868

--James Oliver

Panic of 1873

1873

--rendered thousands of northern laborers both jobless and homeless
--overspeculation by financiers and overbuilding by industry + RRs led to widespread business failures and depression

Telephone invented

1876

--Alexander Graham Bell

Great Railroad Strike

1877

--RR workers went on strike in response to wage cuts
--Hayes sent in troops to put strikers down

Bland-Allison Act

1878

--mint $2-4 mil silver coins a month to expand money in circulation

Knights of Labor

1879 - 1889

--accepted pretty much anyone
--goals too broad=>demise
--also blamed for Haymarket riots and others
--led by Terence Powderly

Haymarket Riots

1886

--a rally that => violence when a person in the crowd threw a bomb and killed a police officer
--leaders of rally held responsible
.......tried and 4 given death sentence

Interstate Commerce Act

1887

--established ICC to monitor trade

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

--broke up trusts & designed to keep trusts from forming
--any monopoly that fixd prices that restricted trade also out
--unfortunately, failed to define "trust" well enough to be effective

Progressive Era

1890

Automobile developed

1895

--Henry Ford & others