US History

Presidents

George Washington [Independent]

1789 - 1797

John Adams [Federalist]

1797 - 1801

Thomas Jefferson [Democratic-Republican]

1801 - 1809

Revolution of 1800; power passed peacefully from Federalists to the DemReps

James Madison [Democratic-Republican]

1809 - 1817

James Monroe [Democratic-Republican]

1817 - 1825

John Quincy Adams [Democratic-Republican]

1825 - 1829

Andrew Jackson [Democratic]

1829 - 1837

Martin Van Buren [Democratic]

1837 - 1841

William Henry Harrison [Whig]

March 4, 1841 - April 4, 1841

John Tyler [Whig/No Party]

April 4, 1841 - 1845

James K. Polk [Democrat]

1845 - 1849

Zachary Taylor [Whig]

1849 - 1850

Millard Fillmore [Whig]

1850 - 1853

Franklin Pierce [Democrat]

1853 - 1857

James Buchanan [Democrat]

1857 - 1861

Abraham Lincoln [Republican]

1861 - 1865

Andrew Johnson [Democrat]

1865 - 1869

Ulysses S. Grant [Republican]

1869 - 1877

Rutherford Hayes [Republican]

1877 - 1881

James Garfield [Republican]

March 4, 1881 - september 19, 1881

Chester A. Arthur [Republican]

September 19, 1881 - 1885

Grover Cleveland [Democrat]

1885 - 1889

Benjamin Harrison [Republican]

1889 - 1893

Grover Cleveland [Democrat]

1893 - 1897

William McKinley [Republican]

1897 - 1901

Theodore Roosevelt [Republican]

1901 - 1909

William Howard Taft [Republican]

1909 - 1913

Woodrow Wilson [Progressive]

1913 - 1921

-2nd term platform: "He kept us out of war"

William Harding [Republican]

1920 - 1924

-Ran on a platform that promised return to "normalcy"; quieter time before WWI and Progressive policies
-Americans found comfort in his simple appeal
-SUpported bb, limited gov involvement, and big protective tariffs
-Considered the least qualified man BUT did appoint two good men
1. Herbert Hoover: secretary of commerce
2. Andrew Mellon: secretary of treasury

Calvin Coolidge [Republican]

1924 - 1928

-Believed in limited government
-Failed to address economic and social issues and ignored the economic problems faced by farmers\
-Vetoed McNary-Haugen Bill (would have allowed the government to purchases crops to maintain prewar prices)

Herbert Hoover [Republican]

1928 - 1932

-Platform of individualism and the self-made man
-Promised a "chicken in every pot" and continued prosperity

Franklin D. Roosevelt [Democrat]

1933 - 1945

-Promised a New Deal for the American people, a repeal to Prohibition, aid to the unemployed, and a cut in government spending

Harry S. Truman [Democrat]

1945 - 1953

Dwight D. Eisenhower [Republican]

1953 - 1961

Goals:
1. Balancing budget
2. Retaining New Deal Programs

Accomplishments:
1. Raised minimum wage
2. Increased SS
3. Funded a public works program including the interstate highway system
4. Created Department of Health, Education and Welfare in the cabinet
5. National Defense Education Act

John F. Kennedy [Democrat]

1961 - 1963

Lyndon B. Johnson [Democrat]

1963 - 1969

Richard Nixon [Republican]

1969 - 1974

Gerald R. Ford [Republican]

1974 - 1977

Jimmy Carter [Democrat]

1977 - 1981

Ronald Reagan [Republican]

1981 - 1989

George H. W. Bush [Republican]

1989 - 1993

Bill Clinton [Democrat]

1993 - 2001

George W. Bush [Republican]

2001 - 2009

Barak Obama [Democrat]

2008 - 2016

-First African American President

Eras

Colonial America

1619 - 1763

Northern/ NE colonies
-Set up for religious freedom
-Economy of lumber, small farmer, fishing, and ship building
-Better health conditions
-More democracy

Middle Colonies
-Established for economic and religious reeasons
-Maryland for Catholica
-William Penn's PA for Quakers
-NY, NJ, and Delaware for trade and profit
-Economy based on small/medium farming and trading

Southern colonies:
-Economic reasons, except for GA as a buffer state (Spanish FL)
-VA funded by joint stock company for trade and profit
-VA depended on tobacco, Carolinas on rice
-Indentured servants
-Large farms/plantations
-Less healthy conditions

Salutory Neglect

1650 - 1763

-Ends with the end of the French and Indian War

Great Awakening

1700

-Power and role of religion declining in the colonies
-GA appealed to the emotions of the people
-Johnathan Edwards: described damnation but also that people could be saved
-George Whitefield traveled throughout the colonies, making the sermons more about the people
-Helped to democratize religion; people looked at authority differently and took a more active role in their religion and therefore community

Consumer and Industrious Revolution

1700

Consumer Revolution:
-Gentility and appearance increasingly important
-People start to buy more to have image

Industrious revolution
-People generally working Harder to get nicer things

Land Pressure

1700

-Early 1700s
-Immigration increasing, and only so much cleared land
-Early signs of our need for more land
-Price of land increases with demand

Rise of the merchant class

1700

-Establishing trade routes
-Shipping in the south, merchants; products more affordable
-Triangle Trade

Revolutionary Era

1763 - 1781

-King George changing ministers and doesn't have a consistent policy to deal with us

Articles of Confederation

1781 - 1789

Good:
-Brought RW to an end
-Northwest Ordinances
-Stipulated that slavery would be prohibited in the new territories added to the US

Bad:
-No national court system
-Congress cannot regulate interstate or foreign commerce, levy taxes, or raise an army
-No chief executive
-Need all 13 states to ratify
-No uniform currency

Invention

1800

-Cotton Gin
-Interchangeable parts
-Steam engine
-We are becoming more productive as a country and driven by commercialism

-Deere's steel plow
-McCormick's mechanical reaper
-Whitney's cotton gin

Napoleonic Wars

1802 - 1815

-US neutral but British and French impressing
-Jefferson needed to pass the Embargo Act 1807

Era of Good Feelings

1817 - 1825

-Domestic tranquility
-Lack of partisan bitterness
-Strong sense of nationalism after the war

Antebellum Period

1820 - 1840

-Leaders hoped to improve society through moral and religious persuasion
-Stemmed from the Second Great Awakening
-Emphasis on personal piety over schooling and theology
-Finney and reforms

Abolition:
-Dominant reform movement
-Weld, Sojourner Truth, Douglass, Lovejoy, Garrison

Temperance
-Destoryed family life and marital abuse

Mental Health
-Dorothea Dix

Education
-Horace Mann advocated public school system; NY had by 1850s

Women's Rights
-Sara/Angelina Grimke, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott

Age of Jackson (Era of the Common Man)

1829 - 1837

-Almost all white men can vote
-Political parties held nomination conventions
-Self-made man
-Believed political power should rest with the people
-Justified the spoil system

Manifest Destiny

1845 - 1853

-White would civilize the Indians and conquer anyone who stopped the process of democracy

Civil War Era

1861 - 1865

North:
-Large industiral economy
-Larger population
-More resources
-Stronger central gov
-Anaconda Plan: blockade ports to restrict supplies from Southerners, control Mississippi RIver to cut South in half
-Chose VA PLan instead: take control of Richmond

South:
-Superior military leadership
-Fighting a defensive war

Industrialization

1865 - 1900

-Acceleration during the Gilded Age
-"Second Industrialism Revolution"
-Bessemer process, abundance of natural resources
-Growing population and immigrant
-Large-scale factories and production centers
-Friendly attitude of the gov

-Robber Barons: Carnegie and Rockefeller

Reconstruction

1865 - 1876

The Gilded Age

1868 - 1892

-Republicans dominated the federal government with big business and farmers (Except for Cleveland)
-Democratic power came from white voters in the South and political machines in NY
-Politicians on both sides were conservative; both promoted limited gov involvement in the economy
-Major disagreement over the protective tariff: Republicans supported it, Democrats opposed it because it raised the price of consumer goods

Growth of capitalism

1870 - 1890

-Growth of the economy reinforce the belief that laissez faire capitalism was the best method
-Theories:
1. Social Darwinism (Summer): God had chosen the wealthy becasue they deserved it
2. Gospel of Wealth (Carnegie): wealthy had a responsibility to act as gaurdians of wealth
3. American Dream (Horatio Alger): rags to riches stories

-Laborers struggling: business becoming larger and profits growing but workers getting worse; labor union form
-Increased mechanization of labor
-Influx of immigrants
-Depressed wages

Urbanization

1870 - 1890

-Industrialization after the CW, people move to cities to find work
-Transportation sped the transformation of the cities (electric trolley car, cable cars, subways and elevated trains, steel bridges) and made it possible for people to commute from suburban residential areas

Forgotten Presidents

1878 - 1893

-Lackluster and ignored the problems created by the country's industrialization

Populism

1880 - 1896

Second Wave immigration

1880 - 1914

-Southern and eastern European
-Italy, Greece, POland, Croatia, Russia, Slovakia
-Poorer and less educated
-Different religion (Catholics, Jewish, etc)
-Crowded into poor ethnic neighborhoods in tenements

POLITICAL MACHINES
-Tammany Hall

Progressivism

1890 - 1920

Imperialism

1890 - 1920

Now that the frontier is closed, we need to continue to expand to ensure industrial growth

Harlem Renaissance

1910 - 1930

New Freedom

1913 - 1920

Red Scare #1

1919 - 1920

-Fear of communism spreading to the US after Bolshevik Revolution in Russia
-Thought that the gov needed to find the Bolsheviks in the country
-Broken by the fact that the gov was looking like a joke as they found nothing and economic preoccupations

Roaring Twenties

1920 - 1929

-Technological innovations and increase in productivity; scientific management, mass production, electricity
-Leads to higher wages which leads to a boom and consumerism
-Government supported the growth of bb and stock became the American way

-Mass consumerism and buying on CREDIT
-Automobile: increased suburbanization, breakdown of families, decline of RR industry, consumerism
-New forms of entertainment
-Leisure time!

-Loosening morals and emancipation of women

Culture Clash

1920 - 1929

-Prohibition
-Scopes Trial
-Nativism
-Ku Klux Klan
-Harlem Renaissance

The Forgotten Presidents

1920 - 1932

Great Depression

1929 - 1940
  1. Unequal distribution of income: wages of the working class raised very little, affected purchasing power
  2. Factory overproduction: prices drop significantly because more supply than demand
  3. Bad banking practices: bad loans, no regulation, no federal guarantee for deposits
  4. Agricultural problems: vicious production cycle, dust bowl
  5. Buying on margin/stock market speculation: no money to pay off loans
  6. Installment buyings: purchasing things they couldn't afford, had been too idealistic
  7. War debts: weakened European economies

Effects:
a. Gross national product declines with income
b. Unemployment
c. LIfe's saving gone
d. Hoovervilles
e. Grapes of Wrath
f. Attitudes, people would want to pay for everything on time and save more in the future

New Deal

1932 - 1935

First 100 Days

March 1933 - June 1933

Second New Deal

1935 - 1938

World War II

1940 - 1945

War in Europe

1941 - 1945

-Churchill convinced Roosevelt that they should fight Germany first and then focus on Japan

War in the Pacific

1942 - 1945

By 1942 the Japanese had extended their power over much of East and Southeast Asia

Cold War

1945 - 1990

Consumerism/Inflation

1946

-Lots of strikes for higher wages to keep up with inflation

Red Scare #2

1949 - 1954

-Loss of China in 1949, iron curtain, and stalemate in Korea convinced people that USSR was winning the war

Fair Deal

1949 - 1953

-Truman urged COngress to pass laws for federal aid to education, national health insurance, civil rights for AAs and funds for public housing
-BUT Congress rejected much of the FD proposals except for an increase in minimum wage and extension of SS benefits
-Opposition of conservative Democrats and Republicans and deepening problems created by the Cold War contributed to Truman's reforms being defeated

Suburbanization

1950 - 1960

-Veterans benefits enabled Americans to find suitable housing in tracts of land outside of the cities
-Began in planned communities: mass produced homes offered at low interest rates and modest prices, made move affordable
-"White flight" also made inner cities poorer and racially segregated

New Frontier

1960 - 1962

-Appealed to idealistic youth
-Proposals for federal aid to education, greater SS benefits, and protection for AA civil rights
-Didn't get much because of conservative Congress
-DID raise the minimum wage

Civil Rights Movement

1960 - 1970

Great Society

1962 - 1966

-War on poverty
-Congress cooperated

Events

Settlers of VA found the House of Burgesses

1619

-First representative government in America

Pilgrims establish Plymouth Colony

1620

Wanted to establish their own church in America

Mayflower Compact

1620

-MALES agreed to establish the powers of government
-Resulted in NE town meetings to discuss and address local problems

Massachusetts Bay Colony

1629

-Established by John Winthrop and Puritans
-Wanted to purify Church of England from Catholicism
0"City upon a hill" = model of goodness to the world

Founding of other NE colonies

1630 - 1640

-Religious dissent in the Massachusetts Bay colony (Roger Williams, Thomas Hooker, and Anne Hutchinson challenged Puritans and established colonies in RI and CT.
-Roger Williams' colony in RI was the only NE colony with religious tolerance

King Phillips War

1671 - 1675

-Indians attack NE colonies

Williams War

1690

-Against French for gains

Anne's War

1740 - 1749

-British and French

French and Indian War (Seven Years War)

1756 - 1763

-Established England as the dominant power in NA
-Albany Plan= attempt of Benjamin Franklin to form a defensive union for the coming war with France
-Failure to unionize

George's War

1760

-Washington leads party from VA to explore West and they run into French
-Beat the French and kept attacking

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763

In reality, the proclamation of 1763 was set to protect us from the Indians who were revolting (The French are gone and no longer give them gifts after F&I War)

Britain ends Salutary Neglect

1763

-George Greenville decides to tax the colonies
-Revenue would offset the administrative costs of overseeing the colonies and help repay the debt from the F7I War

Boston Massacre

1767

Declaration of Rights and Grievances

1774

Parliament has no authority over internal matters!

First Continental Congress

1774

-Meets in response to Intolerable Acts
-King George III orders arrests

Battles of Lexington and Concord

1775

-General Thomas Gage ordered to confiscate weapons in Concord

Olive Branch Petition

1775

-One last attempt at peace but the king dismissed the petition

Declaration of Independence

1776

-Jefferson and others
-Lockian
-All men are created equal, government is a social CONTRACT, outlined abuses by King George III

Battle of Saratoga

1777

-Convinced the French to give military and economic aid
-British change their strategy

Battle of Yorktown

1781

-Washington forces Cornwallis to surrender
-Last major battle of the war

Treaty of Paris

1783

-Britain recognized US Independence
-Mississippi is western border
-We have to compensate Loyalists (we don't)

Shay's Rebellion

1786

-Represents economic weakness of the Articles
-No army to put down the rebellion!

Constitutional Convention

1787

-Every state but RI
-Supposed to amend the Articles but end up recreating the government
-Decided on issues of representation, slavery, and trade

Representation
VA Plan: Madison proposed proportional representation (supported by large states)
NJ Plan: Patterson proposed every state gets one vote
Great Compromise: 2 houses!

Slavery
South: want slaves to count as representation but not for taxation
North: vv
3/5 Compromise

Trade
North: Wanted central gov to regulate interstate and foreign trade
South: Feared export tax
Commercial Compromise: Congress regulates interstate and foreign taxes on imports but not taxes on exports

Bill of Rights and Ratification of the Constitution

1788 - 1791

Invention of the Cotton Gin

1793

-Eli Whitney
-Revolutionized cotton industry
-Slavery becomes more important

Jay Treaty

1794

-Washington sends Jay to London to negotiate impressment deals
-British agree to withdraw from frontier post but did not address impressment
-DemReps opposed; saw as another example of us drawing closer to GB

Pinckney Treaty

1794

Spain granted us access to ports along the Mississippi RIver because they feared we were getting too close to the British
-Farmers don't have to pay taxes to Spain and goods got to market quicker

Whiskey Rebellion

1794

-PA farmers oppose excise tax
-Washington sends in troops to demonstrate the government's strength

XYZ Affair

1796 - 1800

-French impressment
-Adams sends delegates to French to negotiate
-X, Y, and Z demanded bribes before they would talk
-Demands were made public; forms American opinion about French and DemReps

Washington's Farewell Address

1796

-Don't get involved in foreign affairs
-Avoid permanent alliances
-Avoid factionalism and political parties

Louisiana Purchase

1804

-Western farmers lost the right to use French ports to ship their goods
-Jefferson intended to buy the port of New Orleans and Napoleon offered the whole Louisiana territory
-Paradoxical: buys the land even though he is a strict constitutionalist

Lewis and Clark expedition

1804

-To explore the geography, people, and resources of new territory
-opened up possibility of further exploration and development of the west

War of 1812

1812 - 1814

-Britain refused to end impressment
-British inciting NAs to attack
-War Hawks wanted Canada

-We were unprepared for war and did not gain anything we intended

Treaty of Ghent

1814

-Ended War of 1812
-Restored relations but said nothing about impressment

Hartford Convention

1814 - 1815

-Federalists rejected secession but proposed Constitution be amended to require 2/3 for declaration of war, that a president could only serve one term, and the candidates could not come from the same state as the last (Against southern dominance)
-Labeled as traitors

Battle of New Orleans

1815

-War had ended but Jackson defeated British, made him a war hero
-His victory raised opposition for the Federalists in the Hartford Convention

The American System

1816

-Proposed by Henry Clay
-Designed to unify the country and make it more economically independent

  1. Tariff of 1816: benefit East
  2. Second national Bank: all
  3. Internal improvements: help western and southern farmers ship their goods

Panic of 1819

1819

Farmers have to pay debts all at once, but banking practices are no longer corrupted, process

Mexico

1821 - 1836

-Mexico welcomes us after they gain independence from Spain
-Immigration getting too much so they decide to limit and enforce laws restricting slavery
-Texans revolted led by Sam Houston; claimed independence
-Santa Anna crushed at the Alamo ("Remember the Alamo")
-Texas later defeated at the Battle of San Jacinto
-Would remain the Lone Star for a decade; obstacle for admission was slavery

Monroe Doctrine

1823

-Western hemisphere off limits to European powers
-Arose from fears that Spain and France would send armies to reestablish their control over the colonies that had established their independence during the 1820s
-They can keep their colonies but couldn't establish new ones
-We would in turn stay out of European affairs

-British supported because wanted to protect its colonies
-Signaled we considered ourselves a major power

Election of 1824

1824

-Sectional differences in the Democratic party
-Jackson won popular vote but not a majority of electoral votes so fell to House of Representatives, Clay threw his support to Adams who ten appointed him secretary of state (Corrupt bargain)
-Ends Era of Good feeling
-Rise of the Whig party under Clay (opposed Jackson)

Eerie Canal

1825

-Allowed goods to be shipped from Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes
-Improved trade with Britain
(Industrialization)

The Liberator

1831

Nat Turner's Rebellion

1831

-Northerners critical, feared they would lose their jobs and compete with free blacks

Bank Crisis

1832
  • Clay persuaded Congress to renew the bank charter in 1832 rather than 1836, wanted to gain support -BUT Jackson vetoed the bill and claimed it only befitted the wealthy, backfires at Clay -"King Andrew" for veto but still popular with the people

Pet banks

1833

-Jackson kills National Bank by withdrawing federal funds and investing them in pet banks

Specie circular

1836

-To prevent speculation in western lands, all purchases of lands have to be in gold and silver

Panic 1837

1837

-Caused by specie circular and pet banks?

Depression

1837 - 1840

Trail of Tears

1838

-Due to Indian Removal Act

Oregon

1840 - 1844

-We had joint occupation with Britain but by 1844, started to believe it was our right to occupy it all
-54/40 or fight (Democratic slogan in election of 1844)

Log Cabin Campaign

1840

Panic of 1837 destroyed Van Buren's chance
-Whigs supported policies that promoted commercial and industrial growth; nominated Harrison and Tyler for VP
-Whigs showed Buren as an elitist who drank wine; Harrison appealed to people with hard cider and log cabins
-"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"= Harrison's war heroism at Tippecanoe

-First modern political campaign: used symbols, slogans, songs, and paraphernalia (buttons, hats, etc)

Immigration from Ireland and Germany

1840 - 1859

-Provided cheap labor for textile factories
(industrialization)

Know-Nothings formed

1840

-Against the immigration (nativist)

Election of 1844

1844

-Slavery and Texas/Oregon were key issues
-Polk (Democrat) supported western expansion, 54/40, annexation of Texas
-Clay (Whig) opposed Texas
-Birney (Liberty) opposed slavery

-Polk wins, validating westward expansion

Oregon Treaty

1845

-Set border at 49th parallel
-Improved relations with Britain

Annexation of Texas

1845

Wilmot Proviso

1846

-Tried to stop expansion of slavery into the Mexican territories
-Not passed in Senate

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1848

-Polk sends Taylor to defend disputed Texas borders with the Mexicans, they fire and because it was on "American soil", we declared war
-Ends in 1847 when Taylor seized Mexico city

-Would increase slavery debates, some Whigs thought it was just an excuse for slavery expansion

Election of 1848

1848

-Cass Democrat: Slavery popular sovereignty

-Taylor WHig: no stand on slavery
-Van Buren Free Soil: opposed slavery in new territories

-Van Buren split Democratic vote allowing Taylor to win
-Muffled slavery issue to 2 years

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848

-Ended War
-Mexico ceded CA and NM for $15 million
-Rio Grande is southern border of US
-US gov assumes Mexican debt to American citizens

Declaration of Sentiments

1848

-Women demanding suffrage and property rights
-Don't get

Gold Rush

1849

-Rapid settlement of CA and pressure to become a free state, pressure on slavery issue
-Compromise of 1850 made

Compromise of 1850

1850

Clay and Douglass: Compromise without compromise

-CA is a free state
-Popular sovereignty for western territories
-Buying and selling slaves banned in Washington DC
-Stricter fugitive slave laws (leads to underground railroad)

Uncle Tom's Cabin

1852

Election of 1856

1856

-Republican: Fremont
-Democratic: Buchanan
-Know-Nothing: FIllmore

-Buchanan wins; Fillmore and Fremont split votes

Republican Party formed

1856

Pottawatomie Massacre (Bleeding Kansas)

1856

-After the Kansas-Nebraska Act, John Brown and some abolitionists killed pro-slavery settlers, escalating the violence

John Brown's Harper Ferry Raid

1859

-Wanted to incite a slave revolt
-Highlighted fears of an unsafe country

Election of 1860

1860

-Highlighted sectional nation, set stage for Civil War

-Lincoln Republican: prevent slavery extension, SAVE UNION
-Douglas: Democratic North: popular sov
-Breckinridge Democratic South: unrestricted extension of slavery
-Bell Union: save the union

-Lincoln wins, South secedes

Secession

1860 - 1861

-SC first

First Battle of Bull Run

1861

-Northern troops retreat in chaos

Fall of Fort Sumter

1861

-Lincoln refuses to move troops from Fort Sumter
-Confederate forces begin shelling fort
-Troops surrendered
-Led to secession of Arkansas, NC, TN, and VA
-Lee resigns from Union Army to help Confederates

Battle of Antietam

1862

-Confederate loss
-Tured back the Confederate invasion and convinced foreign powers not to support the Confederacy

Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimac

1862

-South attempts to break blockade with first ironclad ship Merrimac
-North soon produced its own Monitor and won
-Made wooden ships obsolete, ended South's hope of breaking blockade, let North control Mississippi

Battle of Gettysburg

1863

-Failed Lee attempt to invade NOrth
-Turning point of the war: ended another possibility of invasion of the North

Transcontinental RR

1863 - 1869

-Federal funds
-Tied the country together
-Railroad building captured the imagination of the public, state/local communities invested in their development
-Scandals hurt investors
-Advanced settlement of the West and revolutionized its economy
-Settlers began to participate in a global market and their livelihood was tied to the shipping rates established by the RRs

Siege of Vicksburg

1863

-Grant forced the South to surrender at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River
-Gave North control of the whole river
-Deprived South of its primary mode of transportation in the West

Sherman's March to the Sea

1864

-March across the South, burning towns and crops
-Attempt to break the South's will to fight

Appomattox

1865

-Lee surrenders

The Granger Movement

1867

-Patrons of Husbandry formed to bring families together but soon began to focus on economic issues affecting farmers
-Tried to pass Granger laws to regulate freight and storage rates

Johnson impeachment?

1868

-Johnson violated Tenure of Office Act and fired Secretary of War STanton
-House voted to impeach Johnson, but Senate fell short of majority vote

Knights of Labor

1869

-Skilled and unskilled laborers
-AA and women included
-Sought 8 hour work days, worker cooperation, racial and gender equality
-Declined after Haymarket

Standard Oil Company

1870

-John D. Rockefeller: horizontal integration
-Enabled him to control the oil industry by eliminating competition

Credit Mobilier Scandal

1874

-Illegal manipulation of contracts in building the Union Pacific Railroad

Whiskey Ring Scandal

1874

-Federal officials defrauded the gov of millions of dollars in liquor taxes
-Grant not involved but still got a bad rep

Battle of Little Big Horn

1876

-Sioux wiped out Custer but within a year they were ultimately defeated

Election/Compromise of 1877

1877

Very interesting
-Hayes and Tilden run, dispute with electoral and popular votes
-To resolve the controversy, Democrats and Republicans worked out a compromise: Hayes would be the next president but he would order the Union troops out of the South and stop enforcing Reconstruction-era laws

Josiah Strong

1885

Our Country
-God selected the Anglo-Saxons to civilize everyone else

Haymarket Square (Chicago Riot)

1886

-Thousands of workers protest the treatment of workers at the McCormack Reaper plant
-Unknown protester threw a bomb that killed some police
-Gives unions a bad name

American Federation of Labor

1886

-Key issues included higher wages and better working conditions
-Became one of the more powerful unions
-Skilled workers only
-AA and women excluded

People's Party formed

1890

Wanted:
-Gov ownership of railroads and telephone companies
-Graduated income tax
-Immigration restrictions
-8 Hour work day
-Silver money (would cause inflation ergo loans worth less, but bad in the long run!)
-Direct election of senators
-Single-term limit for presidents

-Spoke from the heart not the mind
-Nominated James Weaver for president
-most support from West

Influence of Sea Power

1890

-Alfred T. Mahan
-Strong navy= US security and global status

Massacre at Wounded Knee

1890

-NA continued their resistance in the Ghost Dance Movement
-Campaign to suppress the movement led to the massacre and ended the NA wars

Nativism

1890

American Protective Association and Immigration Restriction League

Frontier closed!

1890

-Frederick Jackson Turner and "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"

Homestead Strike (PA strike)

1892

-Carnegie owned the Homestead Steel Plant which cut wages
-Carnegie calls in Pinkerton, fighting breaks out
-Strike and union broken
-Gov supports BB

Depression of 1893

1893

Started to dived labor an conservatives even more, hurt Cleveland's second term

Pullman Strike

1894

-George Pullman announce cut in wages
-Strike led by Eugene Debs
-Destroyed railway cars, etc; Cleveland able to call in troops because they were interfering with mail!
-Debs arrested

Cuban independence movement

1895

-Cubans revolt and we support their independence (protecting out sugar interests)

Booker T. Washington

1895

-Felt blacks should focus on economic self-suffciency before challenging whites on social issues
-"The Atlanta Compromise"

Election of 1896

1896

-Democrats divided by gold argument
-William Jennings Bryan: Populists supported
-McKinley (Republican): promised strong industrial economy, supported by the gold standard and a high protective tariff

Resuslts;
-Pop Party declines and merges with Democrats later on
-Bryan showed you could not just appeal to rural voters
-DID get direct election of senators and graduated income tax
-Victory of the urban-middle class America and business over agrarian interests

Yellow Journalism

1898

-Hearst and Pulitzer
-Exaggerated but aroused sympathy and support for the war

Philippines

February 1898 - 1901

-Anti-Imperialist arguments: Twain, Bryan, Carnegie opposed taking possession of the Philippines: violated democratic principles and would involve us in Asian affairs

-Imperialist Arguments: argued acquisition of Philippine Islands, Guam, and Hawaii was necessary to insure the US would become a major power, some said to spread Christianity
-McKinley even claimed he had divine guidance to

De Lome letter

February 1898

-Spanish minister criticizing McKinley

Remember the Maine

February, 1898

Spanish-American War

April, 1898

-Fought in the Caribbean and the Pacific
-Cuba: Rough Riders led by T. Roos
-Philippines: Roos ordered Dewey to sieze it and captured easily (without McKinley's permission)

Treaty of Paris

December 1898

-Spain recognized Cuba's independence
-US acquires PR in the Caribbean and Guam in the Pacific
-Spain sold the Philippines to the US for $20 million

Muckrakers

1900

-Tried to expose the abuses of society
-Riis: How the Other Half Lives
-Steffens: Shame of the Cities
-Tarbell: History of the Standard Oil Company
-Sinclair: The Jungle
-Norris: The Octopus

OPEN DOOR

1900

-Secretary of State John Hay

Anthracite Coal Strike

1902

Roosevelt intervenes to help miners!

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

1904

-Panama revolts against Columbia and we reorganize their government quickly (we have to get that canal!)
-Treaty gave us the right to build the canal

Roosevelt Corollary

1904

-The US has the right to intervene in LA countries
-We would collect the debts and pass them on to the European countries
-Would justify sending troops to Haiti, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, Honduras

Panama Canal begins

1904

-Made international shipping much easier

W.E.B. Du Bois and the Niagara Movement

1905

-The Souls of Black Folks: blacks should fight for economic and social issues; fight for rights and oppose Jim Crow laws
-Niagara movement: "mighty current" of change they wanted to create: call of opposition to racial segregation, disenfranchisement, and politics of accommodation and conciliation

Industrial Workers of the World

1905

-Violent strikes to gain control of factories and businesses as well as better wages
-Union destroyed during WWI

Dollar diplomacy

1909

-Taft's foreign policy: we would gain allies and stability in LA by investing American dollars
-Failed and Taft was forces in intervene in many LA countries to protect our interests

NAACP

1909

National Association of the Advancement of Colored People

Mexican Conflict

1910 - 1912

-We have lots on interest in Mexican oil; Mexican government overthrown; the replacement gov still protected out interests so we let them be
-But a general assassinated the new leader (Madero) and Wilson sends troops in
-The Mexican states unified against us
-Zapata and Poncho Villa were revolutionaries who we supported but we pulled back when it was evident they would not win- we deserted them when they needed help
-As revenge, Poncho Villa invaded New Mexico; Wilson wanted to declare war but decided it was not worth it

Election of 1912

1912

-T. Roos annoyed with Taft and runs in the Bull Moose Party against him
-Plus Wilson, they all claimed to be progressive
-Taft and Roos split the Rep vote ergo WIlson wins

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

-Sparked a chain of events that led to WWI

Proclamation of Neutrality

August 4, 1914

-Wilson issue, insisting we are nonpartisan in thought and action
-Difficulties of neutrality
1. Economic interest: British blockade German ports and thus we could only trade with British and French. We also gave loans to the Allies
2. Submarine Warfare
3. Ethnic Influences: immigrants supported their respective countries
4. British propaganda
5. German actions: they hoped to end the war before we entered
6. Zimmerman Telegam

New KKK

1915

-Represent a resistance to changes in America

Lusitania sinking

May 7, 1915

-Germans sink the British passenger ship and US citizens died

Sussex Pledge

1916

-Germans promised to sink no more ships without prior warning

Troops fighting

1917 - 1918

-Under John J. Perishing, commander of the American Expeditionary Force
-By the summer, the arrival of more than 1 mil US soldiers helped to break the stalemate on the western front
-Germans surrender
-Lots of lives lost, trench warfare was an old tactic for new technology

Zimmerman Telegram

1917

-Germans announce plans to renounce the Sussex Pledge
-Telegram to Mexico that proposed Mexico ally with Germany in return for the territories we took from them
-The British published the offer

Enter WWI

April 2, 1917

-Funded with Liberty Bonds
-War Industries Board (led by Bernard Baruch) coordinated production and distribution; public encouraged to save fuel

Fourteen Points

1918

-WIlson outlined his goals for a peace settlement
-Included arms reduction, end to secret treaties, free trade, freedom of the seas, self-deteremination for terrritotris of the Austo-Hungarian Empire, adjustments of colonial claims, and Leauge of nations

-League of Nations would provide an international forum where disputes would be resolves collectively
-BUT many opposed and WIlson couldn't get it ratified and had a stroke, ending his campaign
1. Reservationists opposed but would accept if gave COngress final authority (Lodge)
2. Irreconcilables: no participation (Republicans)

Germans surrender

1918

Huge human and economic cost

Treaty of Versailles

1919

-Big Four dominated the peace conference
-Wilson treated as a conquering hero
-Many of 14 points opposed
-Germany accepted full responsibility for the war and had to pay $33 billion in reparations

Palmer Raids

1919

-Raids to find the communists

Washington Naval Conference

1921

US was fearful of growing nations, espcially Japan, and felt we needed to protect ourselves. Had various treaties:
1. Five Power Naval Treaties: US, Britian, Japan, France, and Italy agree to limit the size of their navy
2. Four Power Treaty: US, Britain, Japan, and France agree to respect each other's territorial possessions in the Pacific
3. Nine POwer Treat; US, Britain, Japan, France, Italy, China, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Portugal agreed to respect territorial integrity of China and the Open Door policy

War with Germany over

1921

-Treaty of Versailles never ratified and we don't join the League of Nations

Teapot Dome Scandal

1923

-Reflected corruption and gaft in Harding's administration
-Albert Fall

Election of 1928

1928

-Coolidge did not seek reelection
-Hoover ran on a platform of rugged individualism and self-made man story
-Hoover promised a "chicken in every pot" and continued prosperity

Stock Market Crash

1929

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

1930

-Hoover wanted to work with business, thought the people were the state's jobs
-The RFC: federal funds provided to railroads, companies=trickle down/supply side theory

Brain Trust

1932

-Roosevelt surrounded himself with advisers and rejected the trickle-down theory
-Keynes: prime the pump during difficult times to create jobs and encourage investment; deficit spending

Fireside Chats

1932

-Designed to instill hope in the people and faith in the government
-Encouraging people to deposit money rather than withdrawing money

Bonus March

1932

-WWI veterans march for their bonuses
-Federal troops broke them up

Election of 1936

1936

-Roosevelt wins, creating a new political coalition (aDemoctats has always counted on Solid Southbut now they added AAs in northern cities, white ethnics, Midwest farmers, and workers in unions
-Would allow the Democratic Party to become the dominant party until the 1960s

Roosevelt Recession

1937 - 1938

-Blamed Democrats
-Trued cuts in SS, relief, and public works programs which caused recession

Justice Reorganization Act/Court Packing Bill

1937

FDR

Hilter takes part of Czech

1938

England and France allow him to take the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia where many German-speaking people lived but he took advantage...

Hitler takes all of Czech

March 1939

Germany invades Poland

September 1939

WWII begins in Europe

September 1939

France/England declare war on Germany; two days after invasion of Poland

Destroyers for Bases Agreement

1940

-Helped Britain defend agaionst the crippling attacks of the German submarines
-FDR secretly cicumvented the cash-and-carry principle but agreeing to give desptryers to Britina in exchange fort the right to build military bases on British islands in Carribean
-Represents full shift from nautrality

Increased government spending/taxes

1940 - 1944

-First taxes removed directly from people's paychecks
-To finance the war

The America First Commitee

1940

-Charles Lindbergh
-Isolationsist
-Represetned the feeling that domestic problems should outweigh foreign issues, especially during a depression

Japan joins Axis

1940

-Roosevelt prohibits sale of steel/scap to Japan

Hitler breaks pact with USSR

1941

-Hitler breaks his nonaggression pact with USSR and invades
-He fails to conquer them which drained his resources and now he had to fight a two-front war

Fair Employment Practices Commission

1941

-Banned discriminatino in hiring
-Twice as many AA had skilled jobs at the end of the war

Japan embargo

1941

-Roosevelt freezes Japanese assets in the US, cut off oil sales to japan, and closed Panama Canal to Japanese ships
-Refused to lift embargo until Japan withdrew from China and Frech Indochina but they refused

Hitler fires on American ships

1941

-Hitler clarly gets that we are not neutral and orders Germans to fire on American ships
-Roosevelt orders arming of all merchant ships and shooting on the sight of German subs
-We were fighting an unclared war against Germany

Atlantic Charter

1941

Roosvelt and Prime Minister Churchill signed this document which formulated a statement of common war aims kind of like the 14 points
-Self-determination for all poeple, free trade, freedom of the sea, a world organization to replace Leasue fo Nations, destruction of Nazi tyranny

Germany and Italy declare war on US

December 1941

Pearl Harbor

December 1941

-Japan decided suprise attack on American navy would cripple our forces long enough to givwe them dominance
-Roosevelt delcares war after attack on pearl Harbor

Manhattan Project

1942 - 1945

-Oppenheimer is director
-Roosevelt secretly directs US to develop its own nuclear weapon before the Germans
-Atomic bomb successfully tested at Alamogordo, NM
-Said to JapanL if you do not surrender we will drop the bomb

Battle of Midway

1942

-Established AMerican naval superiority in the Pacific (So did Coral Sea)
-Prevented invasion of Hawaii

Battle of the Coral Sea

1942

-US aircraft stop Japanese invasion of Austria

Invasion of North Africa and Sicily

1942 - 1944

-Americans under Eisenhower were involved in the fighting in North Africa and joined forces with the British to force the surrender of the German Afrika Corps
-From here, the British and Americans troops invaded Sicily and then the Italian mainland
-Rome finally liberated in 1944

Double V

1942

Stood for victory over fascism and victory for equality at home

Teheran Conference

1943

Leaders: Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt
Members: Big Three
1. GB and US agree to open a second front to liberate France in 1944
2. All three agree to creation of international peace organizations
3. Stalin agrees to enter the war against Japan after Germany is defeated

Casablanca Conference

1943

Leaders: Churchill/Roosevelt
Members: Big Three (US, GB, USSR)
1. Agree to launch an invasion of Italy
2. Agree to accept nothing less than the unconditional surrender of Germany

Battle of Guadalcanal

1943

-Under MacArthur, US defeats Japanese after seven months
-First campaign in the strategy of island hopping
-goal was to capture Japanese help islands and bypass others, those would serve as a springboard for an invasion of Japan and enable American aircraft to attack Japanese cities
-By 1944 we are able to reach Japan's major cities

Battle of Stalingrad

1943

-After a six month siege of Stalingrad, the Germans surrendered
-Turning point because Soviets struck Hitler's war machine and seized huge quantities of German military equipment and men

Zoot Suit RIots

1943

-Migration of AAs from rural to urban areas created tensions in working-class neighborhoods
-Race riots highlight the continuing unwillingness of people to compete with minorities for work
-Led to conflicts between whites and Mexican Americans

Invasion of Normandy (D-Day)

1944

-Eisenhower directed the Allies in the liberation of France
-D-Day invasino was the largest amphibious (sea to land) assault in history
-Paris liberated and Allies push eastward to Germany

Battle of Leyte Gulf

1944

-Japanese navy virtually destroyed
-Japanese unleash kamikaze pilots for the first time in desperation

Battle of the Bulge

1944

-Germans launch counterattack in Belgium
-Many Americans killed but continued to push into Germany

Election 1944

1944

-Roosevelt dropped Wallace as VP and replaced with Truman, many believe because it was thought Roosevelt would not survive and Truman would make a better president
-Roosevelt died 4 months after he was inaugurated

Yalta Conference

1945
  1. Germany to be divided into four zones of occupation
  2. Free elections would be held inthe liberated countris of Eastern Europe (occupied by USSR)
  3. Soviets would declare war against Japan 90 days after the defeat of Germany
  4. USSR would receive the territories they had lost to Japan in the 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War

-Controversial because many believed Stalin took advantage of an ill Roosevelt (Stalin had no intentions of holding free elections)

Bombing Nagasaki

1945

Bombing Hiroshima

1945

-Japan refused to surrender

Potsdam Conference

1945

Leaders: Clement Attlee, Stalin, and Truman
1. Agree to issue a warning to Japan to surrender
2. Agree to hold war crime trials for Nazi leaders
3. Truman demanded that Stalin allow free elections but Stalin refused (created postwar tensions)

Japan surrenders (V-J Day)

1945

Battle of Okinawa

1945

-American forces defeat Japanese and have a clear path to invade Japan

Germany Surrenders (V-E Day)

1945

"Iron Curtain" speech

1946

-Churchill
-Symbol of the fear of communist power and helped to convince many Americans that the US needed to get involved to prevent the spread of Communism

Eightieth Congress

1946

-Unhappy with inflation and strikes, Americans elected Republicans to Congress

Jackie Robinson

1947

Kennan

1947

-Recommends the US adopt a policy of containment to stop the spread of communism
-"Foreign Affairs"

Marshall Plan

1947

-Aid to Western countries, idea was that Europe would spend money to recover and help the American economy by buying American goods
-If they are recovered, Communism is less appealing

Truman Doctrine

1947

-We pledged to assist all free peoples who were fighting Communists or armed revolutionaries
-Wanted to protect them from becoming communist
-Gained bipartisan support
-Greece and Turkey received aid
-If you help their economy, Communism will seem less attractive

Israel/Arabs

1948

-After WWII, Palestine divided into Israel and a new Palestinian state for the Arabs
-In 1948, we recognized the independence of those nations
-Arab nations refused to recognize Israel's independence and fought to prevent it
-Ever since then, we have walked a tightrope between support for Israel and friendly ties with oil-rich Arabs

Alger Hiss

1948

-Prominent official, denied charges that he was a communist and had given secrets to them YET convicted of perjury and imprisoned
-Reinforced belief among many that communists had spies at the highest level of government

Berlin Arilift

1948 - 1949

-First major Cold War crisis
-USSR cut off Western access to Berlin
-Truman drops aid to West Berlin until USSR lifts blockade

Election of 1948

1948

-Republicans positive they would win the election with Dewey because Truman had alienated the Southern wind of the Democratic Party SO they ran a conservative campaign
-BUT Truman ran a vigorous campaign against the "do-nothing" Republican congress and won

NATO

1949

-An attack on one country would be considered an attack on all the member countries
-US, Canada, and 10 other Western nations
-Germany became a member in 1955 causing USSR to make their own pact (Warsaw Pact)

People's Republic of China

1949

-Mao Tse-tung defeated the Nationalist forces and captured Beijing
-We refuse to recognize the People's Republic and continue to aid the Nationalists until 1979 (Nixon)

Soviet Atomic Bomb

1949

-Soviets test their first atomic bomb
-Ended our nuclear monopoly

McCarthyism

1950 - 1954

NK invades SK

1950

-APply the policy of containment to Korea
-Initially went poorly, NK pushed the SK and American forces to the tip of the peninsula
-BUT MacArthur devises a surprise amphibious attack at Inchon
-He ignored the warning about the Chinese and was overwhelmed
-MacArthur is fired when he is criticizing the government policies

Rosenbergs

1951

Stalemate/End

1951 - 1953

-38th parallel established as the line between the opposing forces (same boundary that existed before the war)
-Stalemate enabled Republicans to reinforce the image that Democrats were soft on Communism

Loyalty Review Board

1951

-To investigate the background of federal employees and remove any worker with connections to communist organizations

Massive retaliation

1952

-Eisenhower wants to roll back Communism, not just contain
-Massive retaliation

CIA

1953

-Formed to prevent Communists from taking power in strategic countries

Ho Chi Mihn defeats French

1954

-Eisenhower had provided aid to the French but refused to commit troops to an Asian conflict

Geneva Convention

1954

Divided Vietnam

Montgomery Bus Boycott

1955 - 1956

-Starts with Rosa Parks
-Success!

Open Skies/Spirit of Geneva

1955

-Eisenhower met with the Soviets at Geneva and called for "open skies" over each other's territories to eliminate the fear of a surprise attack
-Soviets refused but spirit of Geneva did reduce tension between the two countries

US provides aid to Vietnam

1955 - 1961

-To build a stable government
-Domino theory

Suez Crisis

1956

-Egyptian president Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal (mostly French and British owned) and use the revenue to build a damn on the Nile
-GB, France, and Israel joint attack Egypt without our approval to regain control of the canal
-We were fearful the Soviets would enter to support Egypt
-We pressured them and they ultimately withdrew, we became the leading Western influence in the area

The Organization Man

1956

-WIlliam Whyte
-Criticized American business for its lack of innovation

Uprising in Hungary

1956

-Led to the overthrow of the gov. and the demand that Soviet troops leave the country
-Khrushchev sent taks into the country and the Hungarian revolt was crushed
-Eisenhower sympathized with hUngarians but wanted to avoid another war
-Ended the hope of liberating the countries behind the iron curtain

Khrushchev

1956

-New Soviet leader
-Called for a peaceful coexistence between the two countries
-APpeared on television, tensions seemed to be diminishing

Sputnik/Space Race

1957

-Soviets launch satellite first, we fear we are losing our technological superiority
-Race to beat the Soviets

Eisenhower Doctrine

1957

-Promised US military assistance to any ME nation that requested aid to fight communism

U-2 Incident

1960

-USSR shot down a spy plane, Eisenhower denied it was a spy plane but later admitted it but did not apologize
-Khrushchev cancelled the summit and CW tensions increase

Bay of Pigs

1961

-Fidel Castro overpowers Cuban exiles
-We don't use airpower because supposed to be a secret
-Embarrassment

Acts and Legislation

Navigation Acts

1650

-Stemmed from mercantilism
-Grew ship building industry
-Military offered protection
-BUT colonial manufacturing was limited
-Not enforced very much

Proclamation of 1763

1763

-Prohibited colonists from settling west of the Appalachian mountains to prevent NA violence
-Infuriated colonists, they wanted that open land!

Sugar Tax

1764

Stamp Act

1765

-Could not boycott
-Repealed and with Declaratory Act

Townshend Act

1767

-British troops sent to colonies to enforce, resulting in the Boston Massacre

Tea Act and Boston Tea Party

1773

-Cheaper tea from Britain, colonists thought they were being manipulated
-British punish the colonists with the Coercive or Intolerable Acts

Coercive/Intolerable Acts

1774

-Boston Harbor closed
-Colonial charter of Mass annulled
-Quartering Act

-First Continental Congress meets to protest British action and wrote Declaration of Rights and Grievances
-King George III orders arrest of colonial leaders

Northwest Ordinances

1785 - 1787

Regulated the sale of western land and created a plan for governing western lands between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River (slavery would be prohibited in new territories)

Hamilton's Financial Plan

1792

-National Bank (Jefferson thought unconstitutional)
-Protective tariff (Jefferson wanted free trade)
-Assume state debts (angered South because had already paid)
-Excise tax on whiskey

-Agreed to move the capital to DC to appease Southerners

Proclamation of Neutrality

1793

-During the French Revolution, Americans were divided on whether or not to help the French
-Washington thought we were too weak
-Jefferson resignes

Alien and Sedition Acts

1798

-Federalists enact to silence DemRep opposition and prevent French revolutionaries from entering the US
-Empowered the government to deport or imprison aliens or foreigners who the gov saw as a threat or imprison/fine people who criticized the government

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

1798

-Protested Alien and Sedition Acts because violated First Amendment
-Written by Jefferson and Madison
-Argued states had the right to declare laws null and void

Judiciary Act

1801

-Enlarged the federal court system
-Allowed John Adams to make a number of last minute appointments called "midnight judges"

Embargo Act

1807 - 1809

-Due to French and British impressment
-Forbade American merchant ships from sialing to foregin ports
-Hurt economy; exports fell
-Whoever bites first, we will stop embargo with
-We declare war on Britain as they are sending ships to end embargo!!

Tariff of 1816

1816

-First protective tariff in the US to protect industry rather than raise revenue

Second National Bank

1816

-Would stabilize the currency and provide easy credit to help economy run smoothly

Missouri Compromise

1820

-Missouri as a slave state
-Maine as a free state
-Slavery prohibited north of 36/30 parallel

-Temporary solution
-Damaged unity feeling
-"Fireball in the night"

Tariff of 1828

1828

-Increased duties as much as 50%
-Calhoun declares states have right to nullify (compact)
-Jackson rejected

Indian Removal Act

1830

-Removal of NA east of the mIssissippi

Tariff of 1832

1832

-SC voted to nullify the laws
-Congress voted to lower the tariff
-Jackson threatens to send troops to SC and hang Calhoun
-Congressional action prevents a crisis

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854

-Proposed by Stephen Douglas
-Created territories of Kansas and Nebraska north of the 36-30 line
-Southerners want them to be for slavery...

  1. Missouri Compromise is repealed
  2. Slavery decided by popular sovereignty

-Leads to violence
-Formation of the Republican Party against it
-Split the Democratic Party (nortern Dems against repeal of MC)

-Whig Party destroyed

Morrill Tariff

1861

-Raised tariff rates to protect northern manufacturers

Morrill Land Grant Act

1862

Stimulated the growth of higher education by giving land to the states for the building of new agricultural colleges

Homestead Act

1862

-Promoted settlement of the far West

Emancipation Proclamation

1863

-Freed slaves in the seceded states only
-Added foreign sympathy for the North
-No immediate effect on saves in the South but made slavery the war's central issue and rekindled support for the war effort in the North

Wade-Davis Bill

1864

-Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan was to allow 10% of state voters to take an oath, offer a full pardon to all southerners
-Radicals opposed and wanted this stricter law: 50% of state's white, male population has to take the oath
-Lincoln refused to sign it and vetoed it after Congress adjourned

Freedman's Bureau

1865

Amendment 13

1865

-Slavery ends

Civil Rights Act 1866

1866

-Passed to combat the black codes
-Granted freemen all the rights and benefits of US citizens and noted that federal troops would enforce
-Helped enforce 13th Amendment
-Johnson vetos but Congress overrides

Tenure of Office Act

1867

-Prohibited the president from firing or removing a federal official without the Senate's approval
-Over Johnson's veto of course

Amendment 14

1868

-Citizenship regardless of race
-Riots in Memphis and New Orleans pushed Congres to send the amendment to states for ratification

-South divided into 5 military districts; each had to ratify the 14th Amendment and guarantee the right to vote for all males regardless of race

Amendment 15

1869

Voting rights regardless of race, color, or previous servitude

Civil Rights Act 1875

1875

-Last civil rights reform during reconstruction
-Called for full equality in public accommodations for all races and prohibited the exclusion of AA from juries
-Poorly enforced, northern whites growing tired of reconstruction and Democrats don't support
-Declared unconstitutional in 1883

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

-In response to the "yellow peril"
-Directed at the new immigrants and the fear they would not assimilate and that they threatened the purity of the Anglo-Saxon race

Dawes-Severalty Act

1887

-NA could gain citizenship and receive 160 acres of land if they gave up claims to their tribal lands and stay on the land the gov gave them for 25 years
-POlicy failed because many NA had little interest in farming and the best lands had been sold to speculators of the RR and mining companies

-Reflects how many Americans assumed assimilation was the only way to have NA achieve success

Jim Crow laws

1890

-Segregation of public facilities
-Southern states made it difficult for AAs to vote with tough literacy tests, poll tax, and the grandfather clause (exempted white from the literary test)

Teller Amendment

April 1898 - 1901

-Granted Cuba its independence one SPain was defeated

Platt Amendment

1901

-We leave after Teller Amendment over
-Platt Amendment says we can maintain a permanent military base in Cuba and we can intervene

Hepburn Act

1906

-Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to control RR rates

Pure Food and Drug Act

1906

Meat Inspection Act

1906

Payne Aldrich Tariff

1909

-Raised rates on many products
-Taft supported which angered progressives

Federal Reserve Act

1913

Established 12 regional banks and provided for greater gov control of the economy

Underwood Tariff

1913

-Lowered protective tariffs

Amendment 17

1913

Directly elected senators

Federal Trade Commission

1914

-Regulated business by investigating unfair practices

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

1914

Espionage Act

1917

Fines and imprisonments of up 20 years for anyone who tried to obstruct the draft

Committee on Public Info

1917

-Set up to influence US public opinion on WWI participation
-Headed by George Creel
-Depicted the Germans as monsters; created distrust within society for immigrants and German culture

Lever Act

1917

-Regulated food production and consumption
-Goal to increase production and decrease consumption
-Daylight savings time to give farmers more work hours of sunlight

Sedition Act

1918

-Prohibited criticism of the war, Constitution, or government

National War Labor Board

1918

-Headed by Taft
-To mediate disputes between labor and management

Amendment 18

1919

Prohibition/Volstead Act

Assumption that liquor caused poverty, abuse, and broken families
-Targeted immigrants
-Speakeasies and Al Capone (gangs/mobs)
-Spans crime, unenforceable

19th Amendment

1919

Women's Suffrage

Gentlemen's Agreement

1921

Restricted immigration from Japan

Chinese Exclusion Act

1921

Emergency Quota Act

1921

-Limited the number of immigrants from 1910 census

National Origins Act

1924

-Shifted the census date to 1890

Kellogg-Briand Pact

1928

Outlawed the was as an instrument of foreign policy but there was no provision for enforcement if any country violated

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

1930

-Highest import tax ever!
-Horrible, just weakened Europe more

CCC

1933

Civilian Conservation Corps
-Relief for the unemployed
-Provided young people with jobs in conservation

Emergency Banking Act

1933

-Reform of banking
-Established FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)
-Insuring bank deposits and government-provided loans to banks

NIRA

1933

National Industrial Recovery Act
-Encourage industry to establish voluntary codes to regulate prices and production guidelines
-Recognized the rights of unions to organize

PWA

1933

Public Works Administration
-Put people to work on buildings, bridges, dams, and highways

AAA

1933

Agricultural Adjustment Administration
-Recovery f agriculture
-Paid farmers to destroy crops to limit production and raise prices

Federal Emergency Relief Act

1933

-Harry Hopkins
-Government provided funds to states to aid in unemployment relief and to subsidize public works

Amendment 21

1933

Repealed prohibition

Indian Reorganization Act

1934

-New Deal programs did not benefit NAs

Wagner Act

1935

AKA: National Labor Relations Act
-Confirmed the right of labor to organize and join unions

Congress isolationsism

1935 - 1937

-FDR was an internationalist but an isolationist Congress prevented him from pursuing a more active foreign policy. Congress passed a series of neutrality laws;
1. No arms should be shipped to nations at war
2. No US citizens should travel on ships belonging to belligerent nations
3. No loans of credit should be extended to belligerents

Emergency Relief Appropriations Act

1935

-Provided large-scale public works programs for the jobless
-Includes WPA

Nautrality Act of 1939

1939

-Allowed US to ship arms and munitions to countries at war, as long as they used their own ships to carry the arms and paid cash
-Helped US sell minitary equiptment to England and Frane becasue the British still controlled the seas

Selective Service Act of 1940

1940

-First peacetime draft in US
-Isolationists strongly opposed but public opinon was moving away from neutrality policies anyway

Lend-Lease Act

1941

-President authorized to lend/lease arms to any country he deemed vital to the defense of the US
-Considered an ecnomic declaratin of war gaianst Germany becasue we committed out resources to GB
-We would use to give aid to Britian and leter the USSR

Executive Order 9066

1942

Relocation and internemtn of American citizens in areas the military deemed sensitive
-Japanese internmetn
-No apology until 1988
-At first included Italy iuntil they switched sides in 1943

GI Bill

1945

-Millions of soldiers returning home that need jobs
-Bill gave veterans entitled to free hospital care, educational loans to attend college, and low-interest loans to buy homes, farms, or start a business
-Contributed tot he postwar economic boom of the 1950s

Taft-Hartley Act

1947

-Congress enacted over Truman's veto to limit the powers of labor unions
-Limited labor practices like boycotts, sympathy strikes, and closed shops
-Gave the president the right to call for a cooling-off period for workers in industries that involved national security
-Union leaders have to swear they're not communists

McCarran Internal Security Act

1950

-Required all communists or communist front organizations to register with the attorney general and prohibited the employment of communists in defense organizations

McCarran Walters Act

1952

-Limited immigrants from eastern and southern Europe and empowered the attorney general to deport any aliens considered to be subversive
-Passed over Truman's veto

Civil Rights Act 1957

1957

-Provided a permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigate any illegal activities that prevented AAs from voting

National Defense Education Act

1958

-Money for education in response to the USSR's success in placing the first satellite in orbit
-Provided financial aid for college students and states to improve instruction in science, math, and english

Civil Rights Act 1960

1960

-Made the abuses in CRA 1957 a crime
-First civil rights acts passed since Reconstruction; weak but paved the way for 60s...

Economic Opportunity Act

1964

Appalachian Development Act

1965

HUD and DOT

1965

-Weaver and Boyd
-Department of Housing and Urban Development
-Department of Transportation

Medicare/Medicaid

1965

immigration Act 1965

1965

-Eliminated the national quota system established in 1920
-Increased the number of immigrants from Asia and Latin America

Elementary and Secondary Education Act

1965

Court Cases

Marbury v. Madison

1801

-Jefferson instructed Madison not to honor the midnight appointments
-Marbury sued for his commission
-Marshall ruled that the basis for Marbury's suit was unconstitutional and he could not be given his appointment
-Judicial review: the power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
-Made the judicial branch equal to the other branches

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

1819

-Court ruled that state courts couldn't alter or invalidate a private contract

McColloch v. Maryland

1819

-Government possessed the power to create a national bank
-State did not have the power to tax federal institutions
-Federal law trumped state laws

Gibbons v. Ogden

1821

-Court has authority to regulate interstate commerce

Worchester v. Georgia

1830

-Marshall rules Indians have the right to stay on their land but Jackson ignores; treaty signed with the NA to give up their land (loophole)

Dred Scott Decision

1857

-Slaves are property, not citizens, therefore have no legal rights
-Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional because excluded slavery and Congress can not deprive property rights

Ex parte Milligan

1866

Prisoners from war had not been given a fair trial and Lincoln had to release them

Munn v. Illinois #1

1877

-States can set max RR rates for the good of the public

Civil RIghts Act 1875 unconstitutional

1883

Munn v. Illinois #2

1886

-CONGRESS can set max RR rates

Plessy v. Ferduson

1896

-Black man sued a railroad company for not letting him sit in a section restricted to whites
-Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional and did not violate the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment
-Legalized segregation

Prosecution of the Northern Securities RR Company

1902

-Part of Roosevelt's Square Deal

Schenck v. United States

1919

-Upheld the Espionage Act

Sacco-Vanzetti Case

1920 - 1927

Scopes Trial

1925

-violated a state law prohibiting teaching of evolution
-Found guilty but later overturned
-Issue of religion in education still unresolved

"Sick chicken case"

1935

-Schechter Poultry Corp argued that industry codes established under this law gave legislative powers to the president
-NIRA declared unconstitutional because it gave the president too much power and the federal gov did not have the power to control intrastate commerce

AAA unconstitutional

1936

-Congress would not create a special tax that would benefit one sector of the economy in order to pay for the enforcement of the law
-AAA violated constitution because states are responsible for agriculture

Korematsu v. US

1944

Internment camps legal becasue of the military necessity of the war

Brown v. Board of Education

1954

-Integrated public schools
-Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson: Separate but equal is unconstitutional
-Segregation in schools would end with "all deliberate speed"