APES Timeline


John Muir

1838 - 1839

He is said to be the "Father of the Nations Parks. He studied at the University of Wisconsin to study science. He got the federal Government to adopt a forest conservation policy 1892 he founded the sierra club, he was the first president.
John Muir is mostly responsible for the establishment of the Sequoia and Yosemite national park.

Walden by Thoreau


It is a book that inspired other people about the environment, he was the leading voice.

Homestead Act


Yellowstone national park founded


American Forestry Association Founded


Yosemite plus Sequoia Park founded


Sierra club


It started in May 28, 1892 in San Francisco. It is a National conservation organization. Oldest/largest influential environmental group dealing with conservation of the parks.

Lacey Act Founded


Lacey Act Founded= It is a fish and Wildlife service. It was unlawful to import, export, sell, achieve, or purchase fish or wildlife that have been taken, possessed, transported, or sold. They are protected by convention on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora. Illegally trading animals and plants. Trading has to go through a certain organization to be sure the animal is not endangered or would be a threat to a certain part of the county or world. It started as a federal law now its an international law, Some of the Lacey Act duties are to preserve distribution, introduction, and restoration, and restoration of game birds and other wild birds.

Golden Age of Conservation (Teddy Roosevelt)

1901 - 1909

After he was elected into presidency, since he had authority he decided to protect wildlife public lands by creating the U.S. Forest Service establishing 51 Federal Bird Reservation, four National game preserves, 150 National Forest, Five National Parks, and starting the 1906 American Antiquities Act proclaim, 18 National Monuments. Teddy Roosevelt protected around 230,000,000 acres of public land during his presidency.

First National Wildlife Refuge Established


First time the federal government set aside land for the Wildlife. It protects the brown pelicans and other birds on the island.

Audubon Society Founded


It protects the waterbird populations. MBTA was first threatened in 1918. Strongest law protecting wild birds in North America. The birds are threatened by water, air pollution, habitat destruction NSF the effects of toxic chemicals and pesticides. It protects birds and other wildlife to consume promote bird watching and create habitats for the birds.

Aldo Leopold


Gifford Pinchot

1905 - 1946

Chief of the USFS used photography to introduce the new field of photography. To explain, educate, and influenced the public to protect the forests.

US Forest Service Founded


It is apart of the Department of Agriculture. Gifford Pinchot was the first chief of the forest service managing public forest and grasslands.

Antiquities Act


US National Park Service founded


Civilian Conservation Corps founded


Taylor Grazing Act


signed by the president Roosevelt. Public land grazing. Ranchers can have livestock on public land

Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act


July 1, 1934 funds from the stamp act used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to by land got the national wildlife refuge system. Rapid decrease in the wild ducks and geese. Overshooting song the drought was the main cause of the decrease. The act would take some of the land that had dried up and bring the water flow back back. Hunters must be over 16 and have a duck stamp, its sold by the postal service. The stamp makes funds for continuing the water flow and restoring the habitat.

Fish plus Wildlife Service founded


Mission= to conserve, protect, enhance fish, wildlife, and plants. It protects the environmental health for people, fish, wildlife, and plants. It wants America to go conserve and enjoy being outside. Their responsibility is= migratory birds, endangered species, certain marine mammals, freshwater and anadromous fish. It started in 1871 to study the decrease of the nations food fishes and recommend ways to reserve the decline. Also managing the nations first wildlife refuges controlling predators, enforcing wildlife law, conservation dwindling populations of migratory birds.

Silent Spring published by Rachel Carson


It is a book about how pesticides are bad and there is not anything that was said that was good about pesticides. The book helped to expose the hazards of chemicals and it drew people to environmental issues.

Wilderness Act


1964 determining suitability and establishes restrictions on activities. Highest level of protected land in the U.S. Most places are protected by the Wilderness Act.

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act


Rivers are being degraded, it protects streams/rivers so they can run naturally without having any machine in the river to make it release water at certain times. There are three different levels wild, scenic, and recreational wild rivers and free dams.

National Environmental Policy Act


First law ever written that establishes the boards national framework for protecting the environment. They see what type of impact would the airport buildings, military complexes, highways, parkland purchases to see how they impact the environment.

First earth day


EPA Established


Clean Air Act first established (revised 63,65,70,77,90)


air pollution control. Legislation allows the development of federal and state regulations to limit emissions from both industrial and mobile sources.

OPEC and Oil Embargo


Organization of the petroleum exporting in other countries. Make countries connect by using the petroleum policy. The oil prices were a threat to the economy, the oil prices went up because U.S. decided to resupply the Israelites: military during war. Embargo banned petroleum exports to target nations.

Endangered Species Act


protect and recover danger ecosystem. It is also responsible for creating a list for endangered species act.

FIFRA-Federal, insecticide, fungicide, and Rodenticide Control Act


Federal, Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Control Act- Federal control of pesticides distribution; sale, and use. All pesticides must be registered by EPA and make sure they are properly labeled. Make sure its not causing any major harm to the environment.

Roland and Molina (UCI) announce that CFC's are depleting the ozone layer


CFC's were potentially destroying the ozone layer. U.S., Canada, Scandinavian countries still use CFCs. They could not ban them. If combined with chlorine it could destroy the ozone layer but it is a small chance of it happening. It could possibly melt the ice caps, rise sea levels, current weather, erupting, and decline of agriculture productivity.

Three Mile Island nuclear accident


Two pressured water reactors, released radio severe core meltdown it is considered the most dangerous nuclear accident. Various chemicals were used in the same plant, it made it unsafe for the people and environment. All the chemicals were released in the air, it made many people sick. The environmental protection agency started researching the radiational exposure, monitoring the air for toxins.

RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)


Control, hazardous waste, known as "cradle-to-Grave" Includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste.

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation act


It sets regulations for mining activities and taking over coal-mined land. They have to watch and make sure there are minimal disruption in the environment and the animals.

Clean Water Act


Regulates what goes into water through pipes and ditches that are homemade.

Love Canal, NY


It is an area that had 20,000 tons of toxic chemicals. Waste was being dumped into a canal that William T. Love had started but never finished. Hooker chemical and a plastic corporation purchased the land in 1942 and dumped chemical waste in the whole. Eventually the chemicals started coming up through the group and giving people all kinds of diseases.

Bhopal, India


It is considered as the worlds worst industrial disasters. The gas leak caused methyl, isocyanate to be exposed in the air. Area around the plant was used for hazardous chemicals to be dumped close to the water, the fish near the river were toxic.

Chernobyl (superfund)


Considered power plant accident in history water was not really effected by its forest turned reddish-brownish and died. It is called by the "Red Forest. Some animals in the area are toxic, they got radiation exposure.

Montreal Protocol


It tells developing countries what type of chemicals they need to use and teach them about the possibility of the ozone layer depleting.

Exxon Valdez


Oil spill in the ocean. Many animals died from the spill. It took the habitat 30 years to get back to normal.

Energy Policy Act


federal and business companies had to make a list of energy efficient ways to protect the environment.

Desert Protection Act


It conserves the deserts. The act abolished the Death Valley. The Native America's get apart of the land for cultural reasons. It gave the land back to them and the livestock that was on the land.

Kyoto Protocol

1997 - 2006

World Population hits 6 billion


IPCC Report on climate change

2007 - 2008

Gulf Oil Spills


BP station had a leak in the oil system and it caused a lot of chemicals going into the sea and into the air. It affected the environment because it killed many animals in the sea because it caused the chemicals to release into the environment.

Fukushima Nuclear Disaster


The cause of this was from the earth quake Japan had that day and the tsunami in Japan. It effected the environment because it released toxins in the environment and it got into the rice that was close by that people it. They could not eat the rice because it was toxic.