Presidents and Eras

Presidents

George Washington [1789-1797]

1789 - 1797

Politcal Party:
None

1st Term:
Hamilton’s Economic Plan
Capitol placed on Potomac River
French Revolution begins

2nd Term:
Eli Whitney invents cotton gin—1793
Neutrality Proclamation
1793: Genet Affair
1794: Whiskey Rebellion and Indians defeated at Fallen Timbers
Jay Treaty, Pinckney Treaty
Farewell Address and 2 term precedent

John Adams [1797-1801]

1797 - 1801

Politcal Party:
Federalist

1st Term:
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
VA & KY Resolutions (nullification justified by founding fathers)
Undeclared War with France
Appointed Midnight Judges and John Marshall
Precedent: Peaceful transfer of power

Thomas Jefferson [1801-1809]

1801 - 1809

Politcal Party:
Democratic-Republican

1st Term:
Revolution of 1800
Louisiana Purchase of 1803
Lewis and Clark ’04 to ‘06
Barbary Pirates

2nd Term:
Neutrality attempts by Jefferson include
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
Embargo Act of 1809
1808: Slave trade ended

James Madison [1809-1817]

1809 - 1817

Political Party:
Democratic-Republican

1st Term:
Neutrality attempts continued
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
Tippecanoe / Tecumseh
War of 1812

2nd Term:
War of 1812 ends in December 1814 with
Treaty of Ghent
Era of Good Feelings

James Monroe [1817-1825]

1817 - 1825

Political Party:
Democratic-Republican

1st Term:
1818 Anglo-American Treaty
1819 Adams-Onis Treaty
Panic of 1819 and Henry Clay’s American System
Era of Good Feelings
1820 – Missouri Compromise

2nd Term:
Monroe Doctrine of 1823
Romantic movement
Market Revolution Economic Growth
Reform Movements driven by

John Quincy Adams [1825-1829]

1825 - 1829

Political Party:
Democratic-Republican

1st Term:
"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824
Tariff of 1828 (abominations)

Andrew Jackson (AKA Satan) [1829-1837]

1829 - 1837

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
“Spoils System” and “Kitchen Cabinet”
The Bank War of 1832
Railroads begin
Nat Turner’s Rebellion 1831
Nullification crisis 1832-3

2nd Term:
Events that lead to “Trail of Tears”
2nd Bank of US expires, Pet Banks—Panic of 1837
Texas rebellion

Martin Van Buren [1837-1841]

1837 - 1841

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
Panic of 1837
Independent Treasury
“Trail of Tears”

John Tyler [1841-1845]

1841 - 1845

Political Party:
Whig

1st Term:
Accidental prez
“His Accidency”
repeals Independent Treasury
Annexation of Texas

William H. Harrison [1841-dies in 1841]

1841

Political Party:
Whig

1st Term:
“Log Cabin Campaign”;
1840s: telegraph + railroads=transpo and comm. revolution

James K. Polk [1845-1849]

1845 - 1849

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
“54º40’ or fight!” annexation of Texas
Mexican War—Treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo, Oregon Treaty
Independent Treasury reinstated, Tariff Reduction
1846: Mormons to Utah
1848: Seneca Falls Convention, Gold found in Cali

Zachary Taylor [1849-1850]

1849 - 1850

Political Party:
Whig

1st Term:
Polk announces it, but Gold Rush '49
"Old Rough and Ready!"

Millard Fillmore [1850-1853]

1850 - 1853

Political Party:
Whig

1st Term:
Compromise of 1850
Japan opened to trade: Commodore Perry

Franklin Pierce [1853-1857]

1853 - 1857

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
Gadsden Purchase of 1854
Ostend Manifesto / Young America Movement
“Bleeding Kansas” and John Brown 
Sumner Caned in Senate

James Buchanan [1857-1861]

1857 - 1861

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
Scott v. Sanford (1857) and Panic of 1857
LeCompton Constitution fails
Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Freeport Doctrine
1859: John Brown raid to Harper’s Ferry
Dec. 20, 1860 South Carolina secedes

Abraham Lincoln [1861-1865]

1861 - 1865

Political Party:
Republican (1st Term) and National Union Party (2nd Term)

1st Term:
Civil War and Emancipation Proclamation
Morrill Tariff, Homestead Act, Pacific Railway Act, Banking Acts
Trent Incident, Draft Riots, so much death
10% Plan
Great speeches, smart fella

2nd Term:
Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse
Reconstruction
Assassinated by conspiracy

Andrew Johnson [1865-1869]

1865 - 1869

Political Party:
National Union Party

1st Term:
Radical Republicans vs. Johnson
Freedman’s Bureau
13th & 14th amendments ratified
Impeachment 1868
KKK
Alaska Purchased / Mexico liberated

Ulysses S. Grant [1869-1877]

1869 - 1877

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Wedding of Rails
Gold Corner Scandal (1869)
Credit Mobilier
Standard Oil trust created

2nd Term:
Whiskey Ring Scandal (1875) and Panic of 1873
1874--Salary Grab / Belknap
1876 – Battle of the Little Big Horn (Custer)
Telephone invented

Rutherford B. Hayes [1877-1881]

1877 - 1881

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
End of Reconstruction
Jim Crow
1879 – Edison Light Bulb
Railroad Strike
1877 Munn v. Illinois

Chester Arthur [1881-1885]

1881 - 1885

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Chinese Exclusion Act
Transcontinentals completed 1882
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
Statue of Liberty gifted (Thanks France, that was cool!)

James A. Garfield [1881]

1881

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Garfield’s post office investigation arrests
Stalwart politicians dislike him
assassinated

Grover Cleveland [1885-1889]

1885 - 1889

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
“Mudslinging campaign” of 1884
Haymarket Riot ’86
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

Benjamin Harrison [1889-1893]

1889 - 1893

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Sherman Anti-Trust Act and McKinley Act of 1890, Wounded Knee1890
Census of 1890: no more frontier
Homestead Steel Strike 1892
Steel Navy Built (Teddy’s Big Stick in the future)

Grover Cleveland [1893-1897]

1893 - 1897

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
Panic of 1893 “Morganization” of the railroads
Populists lose: Weaver, Omaha Platform
Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1896 – Plessy v. Ferguson

William McKinley [1897-1901]

1897 - 1901

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:“Front Porch Campaign” vs. Bryan (Cross of gold)
1898 SP – Am War / Hawaii annexed
Gold Standard Act

2nd Term:
Beginnings of Progressive Era
Assassinated by Leon Czolgosz

Theodore Roosevelt [1901-1909]

1901 - 1909

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Northern Securities Case: Trust-buster
Panama Canal begins construction 1904-1914
Roosevelt Corollary 1904

2nd Term:
“The Square Deal”
Gentleman’s Agreement, Great White Fleet, Root-Takahira

William H. Taft [1909-1913]

1909 - 1913

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
“Dollar Diplomacy”
Titanic sinks, Rose never gives in

Woodrow Wilson [1913-1921]

1913 - 1921

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
All 3 Progressive Presidents against each other
16th (income tax) and 17th (direct elect senators) amendments
1914: WWI begins in Europe
1915: Lusitania sunk, Birth of a Nation and 2nd KKK
1916: chasing Pancho Villa in Mexico
1917: Zimmerman Telegram

2nd Term:
Russian Revolutions 1917
US enters World War 1
Treaty of Versailles / League of Nations failure
18th (prohibition) and 19th (women vote)
Red Scare / Palmer Raids / Sacco&Vanzetti / Schenck v. US
1st radio station KDKA Pittsburgh

Warren G. Harding [1921-1923]

1921 - 1923

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Return to Normalcy
Teapot Dome Scandal
Andrew Mellon’s Economic Plan
Washington Naval Arms Conference (5:5:3:1.75:1.75)

Calvin Coolidge [1923-1929]

1923 - 1929

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Silent Cal
Revenue Act slashes taxes for wealthy and corporations
Presidential golf… wow, a lot of golf
1924: National Origins Act
Prohibition’s not working… gangsters like Al Capone…

2nd Term:
“Roaring” Twenties and urban v. rural conflict
Lucky Lindbergh crosses Atlantic solo
The Young Plan (cut down Germany’s reparations… )

Herbert C. Hoover [1929-1933]

1929 - 1933

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
The Great Depression begins
Oct. ’29 Stock Market Crash
1932: Farm Holiday
1932: Bonus Army disbanded / burned out of DC

Franklin Delano Roosevelt [1933-1945]

1933 - 1945

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
The New Deal and “Hundred Days”
Hitler 1933
Dust Bowl
Alphabet soup agencies

2nd Term:
The Second New Deal and the Spanish Civil War
Appeasement…
WWII begins w/ invasion of Poland

3rd Term:
Mt. Rushmore
41: Pearl Harbor / internment / US at war / Manhattan Project
42: Japanese-Am Internment (Exec Order 9066) in US
42: Holocaust begins in Europe
44: D-Day

4th Term:
Yalta Conference and United Nations
FDR death

Harry S. Truman [1945-1953]

1945 - 1953

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
Hitler suicide / Aug ‘45: The A-Bombs
Potsdam Conference and Berlin Airlift
Cold War begins
47 – Marshall Plan
48 – Israel founded / Gandhi assassinated

2nd Term:
Communist China / NATO
McCarthyism / Red Scare / HUAC
50 – 53: Korean conflict

Dwight D. Eisenhower [1953-1961]

1953 - 1961

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
“Modern Republican”
54: Brown v. Board of Ed., Topeka, Kansas
55: Rosa Parks and MLK!
CIA covert craziness: Iran, Central America etc…

2nd Term:
The Eisenhower Doctrine
57: Sputnik
Ike: Beware the “Military-Industrial Complex”
’57 Little Rock, Ark Central High School: Little Rock 9 (#9)
59: Castro in Cuba 60: Nixon / Kennedy TV Debate

John F. Kennedy [1961-Killed in 1963]

1961 - 1963

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
The New Frontier
61: Bay of Pigs Invasion / Peace Corps
61: Freedom Riders
62: Cuban Missile Crisis
63: Dallas, TX assassinated

Lyndon B. Johnson [1963-1969]

1963 - 1969

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
The Great Society
Vietnam Escalation
63: I Have a Dream
64: Civil Rights Act of 64, LBJ: “We Shall Overcome”

2nd Term:
65: Voting Rights Act, Malcolm X assassinated
68: MLK & RFK assassinated, Olympics in Mexico City,
Dem. Convention Chicago, Tet Offensive, My Lai
Massacre, Miss America Pageant protests.. etc. SO
MUCH INSANITY in 68
War on Poverty continues

Richard M. Nixon [1969-1974]

1969 - 1974

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Vietnam War
69: Moon landing!!! Mankind’s Greatest Adventure!!!
69: Woodstock / Vietnamization
70: US invades Cambodia / Kent State / EPA / SALT I
71: 26th amendment (18 can vote)

2nd Term:
Vietnam War ends
Watergate Scandal—1st prez to resign
Roe v. Wade
Détente

Gerald Ford [1974-1977]

1974 - 1977

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Pardons Nixon
75: Fall of Saigon, S. Vietnam Surrenders
two failed assassination attempts
economy in toilet—“stagflation”

Jimmy Carter [1977-1981]

1977 - 1981

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
Middle East conflict
78: Proposition 13 / Camp David Accords
79: Iran hostage crisis / SALT II / 3 Mile Island Nuclear
meltdown
“outsider” administration

Ronald W. Reagan [1981-1989]

1981 - 1989

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
The “Great Communicator” / War on Drugs “Just Say No”
AIDS
Trickle-Down Economics
IBM PCs /
Star Wars (SDI)

2nd Term:
Iran-Contra Affair
Titanic found, Jack gave in…
Challenger disaster / Chernobyl nuclear accident USSR
Pan Am 103

George H.W. Bush [1989-1993]

1989 - 1993

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
Exxon Valdez (no relation to Carlos)
Tiananmen Square (slaughter of Chinese dissidents by gov’t)
90: Nelson Mandela freed!! (S. Africa)
End of Soviet Union and Cold War!!!
Gulf War
LA Riots (and elsewhere) / Hurricane Andrew

Bill Clinton [1993-2001]

1993 - 2001

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
1993 World Trade Center Bombing
NAFTA
Branch Davidians Waco, TX / OK City Bombing
OJ / Unabomber
Rwanadan Genocide—Clinton’s greatest regret as Prez. / Ebola

2nd Term:
Budget goes into surplus
Yugoslavia / Serbia / Kosovo conflict
African embassy bombings / USS Cole in Yemen
Monica Lewinsky Scandal / Impeachment
Tiger Woods and a kid named Kobe (let the haters hate)
Columbine

George W. Bush [2001-2009]

2001 - 2009

Political Party:
Republican

1st Term:
2000: crazy election to put it mildly
2001: 9/11 / invade Afghanistan
2003: Iraq / Shuttle Columbia disaster

2nd Term:
Supreme Court new justices; Iraq continued
Hurricane Katrina: New Orleans; Iraq continued
Financial collapse in housing, stocks, banks…
doesn’t bode well for legacy, but who knows?

Barack Obama [2009-201?]

2009 - 2013

Political Party:
Democratic

1st Term:
Slow economic recovery, but recovery…
Helath care
Culture Wars continue
Iraq War ends
Osama Bin Laden killed by Navy SEAL team in Pakistan
Arab Spring

2nd Term:
Supreme Court hears gay marriage / affirmative action cases
Gun Control Debate heats up (again)
Global Economic Crisis continues, changes

Eras

Pre-Columbian Americas [1200 BCE-1492 ]

1200 BCE - 1492

Spanish, Portuguese + other Euro powers colonize New World [1492-1700]

1492 - 1700

Colonial Era (Jamestown--Revolution) [1607-1775]

1607 - 1775

Plymouth: Saints and Strangers, City Upon a Hill, New England [1620s]

1620 - 1630

End of Fr-Indian War to Revolution (taxes etc.) [1763-1776]

1763 - 1776

Revolution [1775-1783]

1775 - 1783

The Critical Period AKA Federal Period AKA Early National [1781-1801]

1781 - 1801

Constitution Ratified [1789]

1789

Industrial Revolution [1790s on]

1790 - 2013

Jeffersonian Revolution (Virginia Dynasty) [1801-1825]

1801 - 1825

Era of Good Feelings [1815-1825]

1815 - 1825

Reform Movements [1820s-1850s]

1820 - 1860

Market Revolution (Comm., Indust., Transport.)[1820s-1850s]

1820 - 1860

Jacksonian Era :( [1828-1841]

1828 - 1841

Manifest Destiny (Texas, Oregon, Mexico) [1844-1848]

1844 - 1848

Crazy Sectionalism, Young America... (Wilmot Proviso-Secession) [1846-1860]

1846 - 1860

Plains Imdians Wars [1850s-1890]

1850 - 1890

The Civil War (and Republican Legislation) [1861-1865]

1861 - 1865

Reconstruction [1863-1877]

1863 - 1877

The Gilded Age: Unions, Robber-Barons, Immigrants [1865-1901]

1865 - 1901

Jim Crow Segregation [1877-1965]

1877 - 1965

"New Immigrants" [1880s-1924]

1880 - 1924

Age of Imperialism (Sp-Am War, Open Door, Roos. Corollary, Canal) [1898-1918]

1898 - 1918

Progressive Era

1901 - 1920

WWI (and Great Migration) [1914-1918]

1914 - 1918

Red Scare I [1919-1920]

1919 - 1920

Roaring 20s: Prohibition, KKK, Cars, Flappers, Jazz, Harlem, Scopes [1920s]

1920 - 1930

Great Depression, New Deal, Dust Bowl, Isolationism [1929-1941]

1929 - 1941

WWII, Mobilization, Internment, Holocaust, A-bombs on Japan [1939-1945]

1939 - 1945

Cold War (what was the keyword? CONTAINMENT) [1945-1991]

1945 - 1991

Korean Conflict [1950-1953]

1950 - 1953

Cultural Conformity, Consumerism, Red Scare II [1950s]

1950 - 1960

The Civil Rights Movement (much before, much after) [1954-1965]

1954 - 1965

Vietnam, Youth, Hippies, Assassinations, Identity Movements [1960s]

1960 - 1970

Détente, Vietnam War ends, Watergate, stagflation, "malaise" [1970s]

1970 - 1980

Prop 13, Reagan Revolution, Reaganomics, Crack, Cold War thaw [1980s]

1980 - 1990

End of Cold War, Culture Wars, Clinton, Economic Boom, Impeachment [1990s]

1990 - 2000

9/11 and the War on Terror, Afghanistan, Iraq, Econ Meltdown. Obama. [2001-2012]

2001 - 2012