The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

The Rise of Dictators

Democracy

1919

The apparent triumph of democracy in Europe was extremely short lived

Only Two

1939

Only two major European states states-France and Great Britain remained democratic

Fascism in Italy

Fascio di Combattimento

1919

He created a new political group the Fascio di Combattimento or league of combat

Fascism in Italy

1920

Benito Mussolini established the first European Fascist movement in Italy

Rise of Fascism

Blackshirts

1920 - 1921

Mussolini formed Bands of black-shirted, armed Fascists called squadristi or blackshirts

Attracting More People

1922

Mussolini's movement was growing quickly. The middle-class fear of socialism, communism, and disorder made the Fascists increasingly attractive to many people

OVRA

1926

The Fascists outlawed all other political parties in Italy and established a secret police, know as the OVRA

The Fascist State

Vatican City

1929

In the Lantern Accords of February, Mussolini's regime recognized the sovereignty of the small area within Rome known as Vatican City

Youth Groups

1939

Fascist youth groups included about 66 percent of the population between the ages 8-18

A New Era in the Soviet Union

20%

1913 - 1921

Industrial output was only 20% of its level

After the War

1920 - 1922

Once the war was over peasants began to sabotage the communist program by hoarding food. The situation worsened when a drought caused a famine

Lenin

1920

During the Russian civil war, Lenin followed a policy called war communism the government had extensive control of the economy

Lenin's New Economic Policy

Saved from Disaster

1920

Lenin's new economic policy saved the Soviet Union from complete economic disaster

NEP

March 1921

Lenin pulled Russia back from the abyss he, he abandoned war communism in favor of his New Economic Policy (NEP)

USSR

1922

Lenin and the Communists formally created a new state called the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics which is also now as the USSR or as the Soviet Union

The Rise of Stalin

Trotsky

1924

Trotsky held the post of commissar of war, while Stalin was the general secretary for the party.

Death

1924

Lenin dies

Power Struggle

1924

A power struggle began among the seven members of the Politburo the committee that made Communist Party policy

Dictatorship

1929

Stalin was able to eliminate any Bolsheviks from the revolutionary era from the Politburo and create a dictatorship

Five-Year Plans

Steel Production

1928 - 1937

During the first two five-year plans steel production in Russia increased from 4 million to 18 million tons per year

Wages Declining

1928 - 1940

Real wages in the industrial sector declined about 43%

Peasants Households

1930

10 million peasant households had been collectivized. Four years later roughly 26 million family farms had been collectivized into 250,000 units

Workers

1932 - 1940

The numbers of workers increased by millions

Costs of Stalin's Programs

Mania for Power

1930

Stalin's mania for power also led him to purge or remove all opponents or imagined opponents from the Soviet life

Dying Peasants

1932 - 1933

Stalin himself is supposed to have acknowledged that 10 million peasants died in the famines

Put on Trial

1936 - 1938

Most of the Bolsheviks were put on trial and condemned to death

Authoritarian States in the West

Authoritarian

1930

Some governments in the West were not totalitarian but authoritarian

Goals

1930

In totalitarian states the major goal was to create a new kind of mass society

Eastern Europe

Landowning

1930

Large land owners still dominated the social and political system and they did not want to give up power

Fear

1930

Powerful landowners, the churches, and even some members of the middle class feared land reform, communist upheaval and ethnic conflict

Spain

Francisco Franco

1936

General Francisco Franco, Spanish military forces revolted against the democratic government. A bloody civil war began

End of the Civil War

1939

The Spanish cCivil War came to an end when Franco's forces captured Madrid