Focusing mainly on the German depth study
Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Attempted a revolution in Berlin in January. Managed to take over the newspaper headquarters and the telegraph bureau, but failed to capture anything else.
Weimar government used the Freikorps to put down the uprising.
--> 10% loss of land, eg. Alsace, Danzig, Saar
--> lost all overseas colonies
--> 12.5% population, eg. Poland, Czechoslovakia
--> 16% of coalfields
--> 50% iron and steel production, eg. Upper Silesia, Saar, Alsace
--> Rheinland demilitarized
--> Conscription banned and 100,000 men only
--> No armoured vehicles, submarines or vehicles, only 6 ships
Wolfgang Kapp, Freikorps leader, marched to Berlin and took it over. President Ebert and the government were forced to flee. New right wing government was established.
Ebert ordered a resistance strike from the working class. Kapp was forced out within days.
German reparations: 6.6 billion
1921 --> first installment of 50 million paid.
1922 --> nothing was paid. Ebert discussed with the Allies, but...
January 1923, French invaded the Ruhr to take the sum in form of goods. Government ordered a passive resistance. French reacted by killing over 100 workers and firing 100,000 protesters.
LEAD TO THE HYPERINFLATION.
Due to the French Ruhur invasion and the passive resistance that was called against it, Germany was lacking good to trade.
The government printed more money to solve this.
--> HYPERINFLATION - German currency lost value
French Invasion of the Ruhr - Stresemann called off the passive resistance and ordered the labour to work for the French. Although this was seen as a defeat, goods and money circulated through Germany's economy once more.
Hyperinflation - Streseman introduced a new currency known as the Rentenmark to replace the useless Deutsch Mark.
Dawes Plan- prolonged the time period for Germany's reparations., through American loans.
Locarno Pact, 1925- Germany agreed not to use violence
Young Plan, 1929, Germany agreed to the terms of the ToV
Hilter believed with all the chaos it was time for his revolution.
Hitler hijacked a government meeting in the Munich Beer Hall where Gustav Kahr, the Bavarian minister, was holding a speech.
Ludendorff would get the army backing them and the SA would keep peace. They would declare Bavaria an independent state and then march to Berlin to seize Germany.
Kahr didn't believe that Hitler had Ludendorff backing him. Nazi party only consisted of 3,000 members. Army was alerted and 16 Nazis were shot.
Hitler, Ludendorff and Rohm were arrested. Hitler went to prison for 9 months.
Hitler was given the right to use the presidential emergency powers.
4,000 Communists and Nazi opposition were arrested that night.
Allowed Hitler to pass decrees without the President's Involvements. Start of Hitler's dictatorship.
Nationwide, Germans boycotted Jewish stores, causing large damage to many shops.
HITLER BECOMES FÜHRER
Representatives of Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Beligum, Poland and Czechoslovakia met in Locarno, Switzerland.
Germany accepted the borders with France and Belgium that were laid out by the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany accepted the Rhineland to be a demilitarized zone.
France and Germany agreed to settle disputes through the LoN.
The Saar region of Germany had been run by the League of Nations since the end of the war. 1935, they held plebiscite and the result was 90% of the population voted to return to German rule. This was legal regarding the terms of the ToV.
Mussolini wanted to obtain Abyssinia. Haile Selassie, the Abyssinian
All extreme Anti-Semitic posters were taken down.
Outside countries were given a false impression of life in Germany. Jesse Owens, black American runner, scores extremely well.
Hitler used this as an opportunity to fight against Communism and test his new armed forces. German aircrafts made devastating bomb raids on civilian populations.
Mussolini and Hitler sign an agreement
May 22nd 1939 - Pact of Steel. The Rome-Berlin Axis is formalized, linking the two countries politically and militarily.
After the disputes over Abyssinia, Mussolini annexed the entire country and left the League of Nations.