Before European colonization, the Americas were dominated by Native Americans. They were thought to have migrated from Asia across the Bering Straight by boat, or a land bridge. Most natives survived by hunting and gathering. There was a common belief in Animism and a reverence of nature, and they tended to have little impact on the environment. Tribes were independent and competed for natural resources.
(Note: Native Americans were thought to have migrates about 40,00 years ago, not in 1400!!)
Christopher Columbus was not the first European to reach the Americas (the Norse arrived in 1000 in Canada). His arrival started the Columbian Exchange, which was a period of exchange of plants, foods, diseases and ideas between the Old an New Worlds. One result of this was the decimation of large native populations due to the introduction of smallpox.
Spain was the dominant colonial power for much of the next century. advanced weaponry and the strength of the Spanish Armada allowed Spain to be dominant. Spanish conquistadors settled several areas in Central and South America and the West Indies, where they enslaved Natives to produce cash crops on encomiendas, where settlers had grants to land and Natives for labor as long as they promised to Christianize the Natives. Many of the enslaved died due to harsh labor, but many more died due to smallpox.
Sir Walter Raleigh landed in Roanoke Island (resent day NC.) By 1590, the colony disappeared and became known as the lost colony.
The joint- stock company, the Virginia Company, funded the settlement in Jamestown. The colony was much more successful than Roanoke because Captain John Smith imposed "Laws Divine, Moral and Martial," meaning that if you didn't work, you didn't eat.
This was a difficult period for Jamestown settlers. Many people resorted to cannibalism. Jamestown would have likely been lost had it not been for help from the Native Americans.
England was becoming overpopulated, and as a result there was a lot of poverty and famine. So, many migrated to the Chesapeake area and became indentured servants, who worked for seven years and then received their freedom. Many were given a tract of land after being freed, which allowed them to vote. 75% of immigrants during the 1600's were indentured servants.
John Rolfe introduced the cash crop tobacco to Jamestown. As a result, Virginia's economy expanded. This would lead to the development of plantation slavery. Tobacco quickly depleted soil, leading to rapid expansion.
John Rolfe's marriage strengthened the alliance with the Powhatan tribe.
The Dutch originally settled in present day Albany, and later settle New Netherlands along the Hudson River. Charles II of England waged war, causing Dutch governor Stuyvesant to surrender. Charles II placed his brother as the Duke of York.
The Virginia Company introduced the headright system to attract new settlers. It allowed for the emergence of an aristocracy.
Headright: 50 acre tract of land given to settlers to grow cash crops. People could gain more land by providing for indentured servants to come.
Triangle Trade: Transfer of slaves to the Americas. The slaves produce cash crops that will be sold in Europe to be manufactured, which will then be traded for African slaves. The passage of slaves to the Americas was the Middle Passage. Until the Revolution, much of the slave trade centered in the Caribbean and South America.
The Need For African Slaves:
African slaves were needed due to tobacco growing in the south and rice growing in South Carolina. Indentured servitude became much less plausible after Bacons Rebellion. Native Americans couldn't be used because so many died due to disease (85- 95%)
Virginian government in which any white property- owning male could vote.
In Europe, there was a Protestant movement called Puritanism. One group of Puritans, called Separatists wanted to completely break from the Anglican Church. They boarded the Mayflower and sailed for Virginia but landed in Massachusetts. They became known as Pilgrims. The Pilgrims received assistance from Squanto, a Pokanoket. There was less interaction with natives here than Virginia because many Natives already died.
Mayflower Compact: a basic legal system (not government) that asserted government's power comes from the people, not God.
This colony was established by Congregationalists who wanted to reform the church from within. It was led by Governor John Winthrop who proclaimed that it wold be "a city upon a hill." People worked to serve a communal purpose and serve the Puritan church. The colonists were Calvinists, who had a "Protestant work ethic." New England became a major commercial center.
Puritan religious Intolerance:
Roger Williams: said church and state should be separated. He was banished.
Anne Hutchinson: proponent of antinomianism, which said God's grace was enough to become a member of the elect. She was banished.
Connecticut received its charter in 1635. It created the Fundamental Orders, which was the first written constitution in British North America.
Lord Baltimore was a Catholic, who created a haven for Catholics in Maryland. The Acts of Toleration said that all Christians would be given freedom from religious persecution.
Puritan Migration nearly halted during this time. Cromwell was a highly respected leader among Puritans because they had freedom to practice their religion, and they had representation in England. When he died in 1658, the Interregnum (between kings) period began and the Stuarts were put on the throne, causing Puritans to began immigrating again.
Before the French and Indian (Seven Years) war, the British had little time to focus on their American colonies, so they left them to do much on their own. The colonies became very independent.
The Navigation Acts were a British method of controlling the colonies economically. They said that the colonies could only buy goods from Britain, sell products to England, and import non- English goods through English ports. They were poorly enforced, leading to smuggling. This was a mercantilist policy.
Mercantilism: Economic policy of the European powers that said the amount of silver and gold a country had determined strength. Colonization was a way to keep the money within their country. Wanted to import more than they export.
This allowed any child to be baptized in the Puritan church if their parents were baptized. It increased membership, and women began to dominate church membership.
The Pkanoket tribe, led by Metacomet waged war, along with other Indian tribes against the colonists in Massachusetts. They eventually ran out of food and ammunition and lost.
This took place in Virginia. Indentured servants, when freed, were usually pushed further west, because there was no land left on the east coast to settle. This cause animosity with the Natives,but Governor Berkley didn't do anything to protect them because he wanted to keep good relations with the Indians. Bacon led a rebellion against Berkley, which was put down.
Pennsylvania became a colony when King Charles II signed a charter and granted it to William Penn, a quaker. Penn was religiously tolerant, and treated the Native Americans well, which would lead to tensions because it attracted many Native Americans to the area.
North Carolina was a Virginia- like colony.
South Carolina was occupied by descendants of the Englishmen who colonized Barbados. Their arrival marked the true beginning of African slavery in America.
Slavery was more prominent in the South because of the production of cash crops like tobacco, rice, and indigo. There was less of a need in the north, where production and shipbuilding were more popular. Even in the South, only the very wealthy owned slaves.
This was a religious revival led by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefeild to bring people back to the Puritan Church. Sermons became more emotional.
As the British pushed Westward, the French wanted to protect their fur trade with the Natives and tried to stop the British. George Washington led an attack on a French outpost and lost. In 1756 Britain officially declared war on France, after 2 years of fighting. When the war ended Britain became the undisputed greatest colonial power. Anti- British sentiments grew in the colonies where the fighting occured.
The British government said no one could settle West of the Appalachian mountains. This angered the colonists, even though the British government really did it to appease the Native Americans. This marked the beginning of poor British- American relations.
At the end of the war, the British raised the price of goods sold to Native Americans and stopped paying rent on their western forts. As a result, Ottowa war chief Pontiac gathered many Ohio Valley Indian tribes to stage a rebellion and attack the British outposts.
The East India Company had a monopoly on tea, and even though the colonists had access to tea that was fairly cheap, they were not content because Parliament was still imposing taxes on them. So, they didn't let the ships that arrived in Boston harbor to unload their cargo, but the governor wouldn't let them leave. A group of the Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Mohawks and dumped the cargo into the Harbor.
This established new duties aimed at deterring molasses smugglers. It lowered duties on molasses coming from the West Indies, but colonists were angered because it was to be more strictly enforced.
This forbade the colonies to issue paper money.
Stationed many British soldiers in American homes. Their were many tensions as a result.
In 1770, a mob pelted soldiers with snowballs, and the soldiers reacted by shooting the crowd and killing five. John Adams defended the soldiers in court.
It was a tax aimed at raising revenue, letting colonist know more taxes were to follow, and the policy of self- taxation was unjustly taken by parliament through "virtual representation." Also it was a broad tax that affected nearly everyone.
Protests in reaction to the Stamp Act were very forceful because they were built on grievances from previous ones. The slogan "no taxation without representation," developed. The Son of Liberty formed in opposition to the acts, and were so effective that customs officers didn't want to carry out their jobs by the time the acts were passed, causing them to be repealed in 1766.
When Rockingham replaced Grenville as prime minister, he repealed the Stamp Act. He then linked it to the passage of the Declaratory Act, which said the Britain had the right to tax the colonies in any way the want.
They taxed goods imported directly from Britain, and some of this tax money was given to government officials, meaning colonists could no longer withhold pay of such official to get what they want. It also created even more vice- admiralty courts.
When the British began implementing parts of the Townshend Acts, colonists responded by creating committees of correspondence to trade ideas between the colonies and convince people to join the conflict.
One measure was to close Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for, which hurt the economy in New England. They strengthened the Quartering Acts. They punished Boston for the Boston Tea Party.
The Quebec Act, which in the colonists' eyes granted greater liberties to Catholics, and extended the Quebec border, which limited westward expansion.
All colonies except Georgia sent delegates to the First Continental Congress. One delegate was Patrick Henry from Virginia. They came up with a list of laws they disagreed with and decided to carry out a full boycott of British goods, setting up committees of observation to enforce the boycotts.
British troops went to confiscate weapons in Concord, Massachusetts, and first had to pass through Lexington, where they encountered a small militia, called minutemen.
After the Battle of Lexington, the troops proceeded to Concord, where the Massachusetts militia defeated the British. The fact that they repelled the most powerful army in the world causes the battle to be know as "the shot heard around the world."
The congress chose George Washington to lead the Continental Army that was created. Many, however pushed for reconciliation with Britain through and Olive Branch Petition, which was a last ditch attempt to avoid armed conflict. King George III ignored it because he considered the colonists to be in open rebellion.
On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence, which was drafted by Thomas Jefferson, was signed, officially making the Revolutionary War one of independence from Britain. The document listed several grievances the colonists felt toward Britain.
These immigrants were predominantly english protestants.
-New immigrants were southern and eastern European immigrants were often catholic, jewish, or orthodox christians.
Lonestar Republic. Remember the Alamo. Led to debate over annexation of Texas in US.
Ignored bills in Congress dealing with slavery.
The election of 1844 pitted Democrat expansionist James Polk against Whig leader Henry Clay. Polk's platform slogan "54-40 or Fight" supported pushing British troops out of the Oregon Territory. He also wanted the immediate annexation of Texas and expansion into the Mexican territories of New Mexico, Arizona, and California.
The vote to annex Texas was divided among sectional lines (generally between proslavery southerners and anti slavery northerners). After Texas was annexed, Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with the US leading up to the Mexican American War.
Used to justify war with Mexico.
Whigs questioned legitimacy of Polk's war claim. War caused controversy over slavery question in US- abolitionists feared "slave power" would tip balance of power in Congress to slave holding states.
Defeated in Congress. Prohibited extension of slavery into territory gained by Mexico.
Signed with Britain and allowed the US to peacefully acquire Oregon, Washington, and parts of Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana. Set the northern boundry of the US at the 49th parallel.
Ended Mexican American War. Gave the US almost all of the modern Southwest: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Nevada, and Utah in return for $15 million for the land. The land gained is called the Mexican Cession.
In regards to the new territories gained due to the Mexican Cession, parties were divided on the slavery question. Democrats (strong in South) supported popular sovereignty.
The Whig party split over the slavery question. "Conscience Whigs" supported slavery, and Free Soilers wanted to stop the spread of slavery.
Won by war hero/Whig Zachary Taylor.
When the discovery of gold was found in the West many people traveled to the west for hope of wealth. Sutter's Mill in nothern California had thousands rushing to the region. Cities such as San Francisco and sacramento sprand up. Many chinese immigrants a t this time came to California for wealth and jobs.
Single issue party devoted to goals of the Wilmot Proviso. First presidential candidate: Zachary Taylor.
The California Gold Rush caused settlers to flood into California. California drew up a constitution prohibiting slavery, making southerners oppose California's request for statehood. Debate over the issue became very hostile.
In response to California's request for statehood. Created by Stephen Douglas and Henry Clay. Admitted California as a free state, enacted a stronger fugitive slave law, admitted territories of Utah and New Mexico and left status of slavery up to popualr sovereignty, and abolished slave trade in D.C.
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. Reflected evils of slavery and increased and anti slavery sentiment.
Moderate Franklin Pierce elected President.
Joined Northern Democrats and former Free Soilers. Dedicated to keeping slavery out of territories. Also wanted national roads, more land distribution in West and increased protective tariffs.
Centered around hatred of foreigners (nativism)
Left fate of slavery in Kansas and Nebraska up to residents (popular sovereignty). Repealed Missouri Compromise. Many Northern states passed personal liberty laws in retaliation to weaken fugitive slave law. Led to official demise of Whig Party.
Radical abolitionist John Brown led raid on proslavery camp in Kansas. Conflicts over slavery in Kansas led to nickname "Bleeding Kansas"
Increased tensions over slavery issue between North and South.
Slavery issue was too divisive.
Democrat James Buchanan elected. Did basically nothing.
Landmark Supreme Court decision. Ruled slaves are property not citizens.
Douglas destroyed political career in his attempt to defend popular soveriegnty in Freeport Doctrine. Licoln became contender for Presidency.
Radical abolitionist John Brown led raid on proslavery camp in Kansas. Conflicts over slavery in Kansas led to nickname "Bleeding Kansas"
South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union followed by seven others. Jefferson Davis was chosen to lead the Confederacy. Fight over states rights. Ironically the Confederacy was very controlling. Confederacy lagged to far behind in industrialization which led to inflation. Conscription laws allowed rich to be exempt which led to class tensions and desertions from the Confederate Army
Lincoln won 40% popular vote. Southern democrats proposed Crittendon Compromise as last effort to preserve Union- Lincoln refused to accept.
The Civil War began as a conflict over states rights, later becoming a fight over slavery when Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Since the South lacked the railroads and the manufacturing capabilities of the North, the South was at a disadvantage during the war, leading to their ultimate defeat. The North prospered econimically due to the war because of increased war production.
Effects of war: More than 500,000 died, both governments had huge debts, most of the South was decimated by Union soldiers, and the role of government permanently expanded to manage the economy and the war (for example both sides suspended habeus corpus).
After the Union's victory at Antietam Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. It did not actually free any slaves, but just claimed to liberate slaves in all states still in rebellion (not the Border States). It also changed the purpose of the war to a war against slavery. This gave the Union a major advantage because many escaped slaves and free blacks enlisted in the Union army (nearly 200,000) and it discourage European from recognizing and trading with the Confederacy. This further weakened the South's economy. The Radical Republicans were not completely satisfied with the Proclamation since they wanted the immediate emancipation of all slaves.
This act provided settlers with 160 acres of land if he promised to live on it and work for it at least five years.
-Sodbusters were people who stayed as they attempted to farm the land that they were given.
At Sand Creek, Colorado, a U.S militia slaughtered 400 unarmed native americans who had been promised protection. This was lead by colonel George Cluster. Cluster's troop was soon met by Native American warriors at Little Big Horn River, and were cut down.
-The Battle of Wounded knee: two hundred Native Americans were killed
General Sherman led the Union army from Atlanta to the sea, burning everything in its wake. This destroyed Confederate morale and depleted their resources.
Lincoln called for a constitutional amendment prohibiting slaver (Thirteenth Amendment). Democrat George McClellan ran on a peace platform. During the election "War Democrats" declared that the war was necessary to preserve the Union and Copperheads criticized Lincoln for destroying the South. In the South, many small, non slaveholding farmers were growing tired of the war.
The three main questions for Reconstruction were: how to readmitt the Confederate States into the Union, would the status of slaves would be, and what should be done with the rebels?
Plans for Reconstruction
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan: required 10% of voters to swear an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept the Thirteenth Amendment.
Wade-Davis Bill: enacted by Radical Republicans in Congress. Provided that the Confederate States be ruled by a military governor and required 50% of electorate to swear an oath of allegiance. Pocket vetoed by Lincoln.
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan: Called for the creation of provisional military governments to run the states, required all Southern states to swear an oath of loyalty (but prohibited most Southern elite from doing so), pardoned many Southern elite. Because of this many former Confederates became Congressman, however Northern Congressman opposed this. Johnson's plan essentially failed.
Southerners who cooperated with Reconstruction were called scalawags and Northerners who ran the programs were called carpetbaggers.
Vanderbilt leading the modernization of railroads and created the New York Central Railroad. he ended up linking the East coast and Midwest.
-The western part of the transcontinental railroad was built by Union Pacific Railroads(built by Irish laborers) and Central pacific Railroad(built by chinese laborers).
-1869: the two railroad companies met and finished the transcontinental railroads at Promontory Point in Utah.
- Jay Gould:inflated the value of their companies stock and sold the stock and pocketed profit.
Officially freed slaves
The Freedman's Bureau was created to help newly liberated blacks establish a place in postwar society. Some consider it the first federal social welfare program since it helped with problems of food, housing, and education.
Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth five days after the Confederates surrendered in 1865. Vice President Andrew Johnson then became President.
An unsuccessful attempt to end the Civil War. Lincoln tried to negotiate a settlement with the South to reenter the Union and adopt the Thirteenth Amendment.
Andrew Carnegie: created the Carnegie Steel Company, by using the Bessemer process. Subscribed the "trickle down theory".
-Vertical integration:owned everything from start to the finished product.
-Carnegie eventual sold his company to J.P. Morgan and it became U.S. Steel
John Rockerfeller: created the Standard Oil Company
J.P. Morgan:created U.S. Steel
-used interlocking directorates
this group was founded to secure better working conditions, higher wages, shorted hours, and the inclusion of women and African Americans.
Passed by the Republicans in Congress in 1867. It imposed martial law on the South, called for new state constitutional conventions, and required the states to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Johnson, who opposed the plan, did everything to try to oppose it. Because of this, Congress tried to impeach Johnson by passing the Tenure of Office Act (which he violated by firing Secretary of War Edward Stanton). Congress was impeached by the House, but the Senate failed to convict him by one vote.
Oliver Kelley organized the National Grange of the Patrons of husbandry as a kind of fraternity for farmers. Grange want to break the railroad owners and middlemen from raising cost of farming. Grange organized farm cooperatives. Grange Laws regulated the rates farmers could be charged for shipping by rail or using grain elevators.
Stated that anyone born in the US is a citizen, no state can deprive any citizen of the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness without "due process of law," prevented states from denying any citizen "equal protection of the law," gave states the choice whether or not to give freedmen the right to vote, barred prominent Confederates from holding political office, and excused the Confederacy's war debt.
The court restricted the Fourteenth Amendment in the Slaughterhouse Cases by ruling that it applied only to the federal government, not the states. This opinion was strengthened in United States vs Cruikshank.
Gave blacks the right to vote. Despite this, most blacks still did not vote because of:
-Jim Crow laws
- intimidation by groups like the Ku Klux Klan
The court's decision in United States vs Reese allowed these requirements.
created by Terence Powderly. The knights of labor protested in Haymarket square in Chicago and it turned violent when an Anarchist group set off bombs. KOL lost many members because people thought they were anarchists.
the middle class grew and so did the service industry in medicine, law and education. The greatest growth was the working class.
Machines became the process of production.American laborers wanted safe working conditions and better wages. Increased demands for manufactured goods.
-yellow-dog contract; agreements in which the worker agrees not to join a union as a condition of employment.
Boss Tweed was a political machine who often provided coveted city jobs to those who promised to vote for their candidates.Most famous of the political machines was Tammany Hall. In the end Tweed's fraud was shown through a cartoon by Thomas Nast that showed Tweed's corruption.
One of the scandals of Ulysses S Grant's Administration. The scandal involved the Union Pacific Railroad Company and several of Grant's officials.
Grant pardoned many Southern rebels.
Drew the nation's attention away from Reconstruction.
This started around the temperance movement by lobbying for laws to prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages. they believed that prohibition would cure society. Most well known WCTU was Carrie Nation.
The Whiskey Ring was a group of distillers who bribed federal officials and tax collectors to avoid paying taxes on their product. 238 men were indicted in this scandal and along with Credit Mobilier, it diverted the nation's attention away from Reconstruction in the South.
Stephen Cane:Badge of Courage
Theodore Dreiser: Sister Carrie
During the election of 1876, when neither Tilden nor Hayes won a majority in the Electoral College, Congress was called upon to resolve the disputed Democratic votes from the South, particularly from South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida. After a series of informal negotiations a deal was struck, giving Rutherford B. Hayes the Presidency in return for an end to Military Reconstruction.
when management cut wages the workers choose to stop working. The workers got help from Eugene Debs. the federal government got involved when the rails owners began linking U.S. mail cars to Pullman cars. The workers were eventually arrested and jailed.
The court ruled that the state had the right to regulate the practices of a business served the public interest.
-Interstate commerce Act was passed in 1877 and created the Interstate commerce Commission, which would regulate and investigate railroad companies that participated in interest rail trafficking.
This occurred when rail companies cut wages by 10 percent in the wake of an economic depression. Rutherford Hayes authorized the use of federal troops to break the strike.
Dumbbell tenements were created by E. Ware. These apartments were built up and had many families on one floor.
Garfield won the election but ended up dieing in 1881 so Arthur became president.
Which reformed the corrupt patronage system.
This was made to restrict chinese immigration to the United States.
Looked to paper money not backed by hard specie as the answer to the country's economic woes.
The court decided that congress had no jurisdiction to bar private citizens from practicing discrimination.
Cleveland became the first Democrat president since before the Civil War.
Created by Samuel Gompers, was a practical union. They wanted an 8 hour workday and higher wages. they utilized collective bargaining through the establishments of closed shops.
this ac stripped tribes of their official federal recognition and land rights and would grant individual Indian families land and citizenship in 25 years if they "behaved".
A settlement house called the Hull house was created by Jane Addams, was a way for immigrants to live with college educated people in order to ease their way into american society.
The act was an attempt to break up the massive monopolies that were dominating the American economy.
Stalwarts supported the party patronage system and the halfbreeds opposed it, while the Mugwumps remained neutral on the issue and sought modest reforms.
Populist party morphed out of the Farmer's Alliance. The populist party believed in unlimited coinage of silver, graduated income tax, public ownership of railroads, telegraph and telephone, stabilizing agricultural prices, an eight hour workday, direct elections of senators, increase voter power.
Turner argued that American character was shaped by the existence of the frontier and the way Americans interacted with and developed the frontier.
railroads and overspeculation by investors.
the court ruled in which it interpreted the Commerce Clause of the constitution to exclude manufacturing, which made congress unable to regulate the sector of the economy.
The court ruled that the use of the court jurisdiction to break strikes was justified in the support of interstate commerce.
Was ruled "seperate but equal", which gave permission from the Supreme Court to discriminate on the basis of color in all public places.
-Jim crow laws;which segregated public facilities were adopted in the south.
-other disenfranchising was literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses(1865)
Democrats split over the silver vs gold controversy with the Gold Bugs (Cleveland) on one side and pro-silver group (William Jennings Bryan). Bryan gave the Cross of Gold Speech.
Bryan vs. Mckineley. Republican McKineley won presidency.
journalist who wrote rticles, essays, and books aimed at exposing scandal, corruption, and injustice.
Examples: Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, Jacob Riss.
Barnum and bailey circus was a common pass time for people during this time period. Annie Oakley and William "Buffalo" Bill was a popular wild west show. Boxing and baseball were some popular sports.
Theodore Roosevelt's square deal was to involve breaking up harmful trusts, increasing government regulation of business, giving labor a fair chance, and promoting conservation of the environment.
Written by Sinclair the Jungle exposed the filthy conditions in which meatpacking plants were churning out their products.
McKineley was assassinated so Theodore Roosevelt took office. This was the start of the Progressive Era.
Gave the ICC more power to prohibit railroad companies from giving rebates or kickbacks.
Roosevelt passed these acts to provide more consumer protections.
allowed the ICC to regulate maximum rates railroad lines could charge.
Taft busted twice as many trusts as Roosevelt did
The Niagara movement helped formed the NAACP.
placed regulation directly under the ICC.
Which authorized the federal government to collect an income tax.
Migration of Millions of African Americans moved from the South to Northern Cities in search of a better life and job.
Was a factory where a fire broke out and 146 employees died. This fire caused new safe working conditions to be better.
direct elections of U.S. Senators
Which created the Federal Reserve System.
Which reduced the tariff rates and protected consumers by keeping the price of manufactured goods low.
this act strengthened provisions for breaking up trusts and protected labor unions from prosecution under the Sherman Act.
Would monitor interstate business activities and force companies who broke laws to comply with the governments cease and diest orders.
Many Americans were scared of Communism after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. This fear was expanded by bombings on Wall Street and 5 members of the NY legislature were denied seats because they were Socialists. The KKK also expanded because of the Red Scare.
The Palmer Raids were conducted by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, were caused by the fear of communism and radicalism, and were conducted against suspected communists and anarchists. The raids denied basic civil liberties, more than 4000 were jailed and denied counsel, and 249 alleged alien radicals were deported in 1919 back to Russia.
The 20s experienced many social changes. There was a new sexual frankess in America, characterized by the new market for sexual gifts (SCANDALOUS!), flappers, shorter hemlines, and new one-piece bathing suits. Jazz music also gained popularity, as did a new wave of literature sparked by the Lost generation" who wrote with realism rather than the romanticism of the past. These writers include F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemmingway, and William Faulkner (YAYY sound and the fury!!)
leader of the UNIA movement, wanted blacks to move back to Liberia, largest accomplishment was an increase in black pride
Womens right to vote.
The radio was a popular and influential form of media in this time period, especially during the Depression. Roosevelt made his Fireside chats with the radio and sports became more popular as more people could listen. Presidential debates were broadcast over the radio which expanded the audience the candidates had to campaign to.
Harding is elected in 1920 and inaugurated in 1921...He was a republican and he beat James Cox with an electoral vote of 404-127.
Immigrants from Europe were restricted to 3% of the population of their nationality living in the US in 1910. It was favorable to Southern and Eastern Europeans and was intended to limit immigrants. It was repealed by the Immigration Act of 1924.
Created by Harding to take care of WW1 veterans
replaced the Anglo-Japanese alliance; Britain, US, Japan, France agreed to preserve the status quo in the Pacific
Sacco and Vanzetti were Italian atheists/anarchists/draft dodgers were accused of murder in 1921. The judge and jury were prejudiced against them because they were foreign and it is suspected that they were sentenced to death because of their background, not because of their crime. Their execution in 1927 sparked the movement to stop the "class struggle"
Passed by Harding to protect farm corporations from anti-trust legislation
Britain, France, Italy, Japan, the United States, China, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Belgium agreed to abide by Open Door policy in China
Agreement between US, UK, Japan, France and Italy to prevent an arms race by limiting naval buildups
Alice Paul's National Women's Party begins to campaign for an Equal Rights Amendment and the ERA is proposed
reversed Muller v. Oregon decision (women get special protection in workplace) to determine that women did not receive special treatment in the workplace, Adkins also invalidated a minimum wage law for women
Teapot Dome scandal (a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921; became symbolic of the scandals of the Harding administration)
removed from DR but remained in Haiti
Overruled the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, set immigration levels to 2% of 1890 levels, aimed at restricting Southern and Eastern Europeans
The act passed in 1924 and would pay a bonus to WW1 veterans in 1945. This act led to the Bonus Army's protest on Washington in 1932
rescheduled the German reparation payments from WW1 and opened way for American private loans to germany
F. Scott Fitzgerald publishes The Great Gatsby
Al Capone began his 6 year ruling of gangs, esp in Chicago
Teacher John Scopes was arrested for teaching evolution in a Tennessee school, also called the "Monkey trial", William Jennings Bryan prosecuted Scopes, Scopes was found guilty but the Fundamentalists only won a hollow victory, illustrated the cultural conflict between fundamentalism and modernism
Troops were placed back in Nic. after bring removed for less than a year. Had been in Nic. from 1909-1925 before they went back in. Military occupation as part of the Banana Wars, intended to prevent the building of the Nicaraguan Canal by any nation other than the US.
the first movie with sound (a "talkie") is produced and called the Jazz Singer
Lindbergh makes the first solo Trans-Atlantic flight in his plane Spirit of St. Louis (NY to Paris in 33 hours and 39 minutes)
Also called the Paris Pact, outlawed war, DID NOT WORK
Hoover wins, beat Smith, first election in which radio played a large role
The great Depression has many causes...
-overproduction of goods
-overexpansion of credit
-economic troubles abroad (some caused by the Hawley-Smoot tarrif of 1930)
-droughts in the country
The US stock market crashed, triggered in part in a raise of British interest rates. This is the event that is said to have started the Great Depression. 16million+ shares of stock were sold and in 2 months stockholders had lost over $40 billion
highest protective tariff in US history, avg duty on nonfree good was raised to nearly 60%, plunged world into deeper economic depression
NAWSA ended up breaking up and making the Nationals Women Party's.
Violated the League of Nations convenent along with other international agreements. League tried to retaliate but was hindered by the nonmembership of the US, led to the Stimson Doctrine
Hoover's only "alphabet agency", became a government lending bank
Remember the Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924 where Congress promised to pay a bonus to WW1 veterans in 1945? Well when the Depression hit the veterans wanted their bonuses earlier. Around 20,000 veterans organized into the BEF to protest on Washington to demand their entire bonus.Hoover ordered a removal of the BEF, which was carried out with brutality. This was one of the last blemishes on Hoover's darkened record.
Made in response to Japan's attack of Manchuria, declared that the US would not recognize any terrority gained by force, really didn't have that much of an impact on Japan
Hoover (republican) v. FRD (democrat). Hoover was blamed for many of the impacts of the Depression so FDR won in a landslide (electoral 472-59). This election marked a shift in the voting of African-American voters from republican (the party of Lincoln) to democrat (FDR).
The USSR has been a nation since 1922, but FDR was te first president to formally recognize the nation
FDR's policy of helping Latin America and stating that no foreign nation can meddle in the affairs of LA. It ended with the threat of the Cold War in 1945
FDR's plan to get the nation out of the Depression, aimed at Relief, Recovery, and Reform, embraced progressive ideals such as unemployment insurance, old-age insurance, minimum wage regulations, conservations and devolpment of natural resources, restrictions on child labor. FDR used Fireside Chats to inform the American people of what was going on. Also passed Civil Works Adminstration, Works Progress Administration, Fair labor Standards Act (full list of New Deal measures on 774 and 777)
Called the "100 days congress" or the "first 100 days", these first 100 days of FDR's administration saw passing of many bills and acts. It started with a bank holiday from March 6-10, and also included the Emergency Banking Relief Act, Unemployment relief Act, Civilian Conservation Corps, a gold surrender, Federal Emergency Relief Act, Agriculteral Adjustment Act, Tennessee Valley Authority Act, Federal Securities Act, Home Owners Loan Corporation, National Recovery Administration, and the Glass-Steagall Act (created FDIC)
When taken together, these acts decreed that when the president proclaimed the existance of a foreign war, no Americans could sail on an enemy ship, sell/transport munitions to an enemy nation, or make loans to an enemy nation
Draft: On Sept. 6, 1940 the first peacetime draft occured to prepare for the possibility of entering WW2
Destroyer Deal: In order to help Britain while not officailly entering the war, the US sent 50 destroyers to help Britain hold off the Germans
FDR beats Wilkie and ends 2-term tradition set by Washington
FDR decided that instead of entering war right away the US would lend military supplies to Allies (mostly Britain) and supplies would be returned or paid back after war, effectively ended neutrality
Women took many of the places vacated by men in the factories and were involved in the military in noncombat jobs. "Rosie the Riveter" was the ideal image of a working woman day-care centers were established by the government for the first time to take care of the children while the mother worked.Mexian agricultural workers, called braceros, were brough across the border to farm in the west
FDR and Churchill met off the ocoast of Newfoundland and made this charter, it stated that there would be no territorial changes against the wishes of the inhabitants (self-determination) and affirmed the right of the people to choose their own government and reclaim governments controlled by dictators. Also called for disarmament and peace of secuirty and a new League of Nations
Japan attacked the US at Pearl Harbor, the US offically entered WW2 on Dec 11
Japanese and Japanese-Americans were help in internemnt camps during WW2 to prevent traitors or acts of sabatouge, although none ever occurred
Coral Sea-first battle fought exclusively by aircraft
Midway-marked the beginning of the end for the Japanese in the Pacific
Marked the beginning of the end of the German forces
Sharp inflation at first, Office of Price Administration brought prices under control. Extensive rationing of goods such as meat and butter. Still a heavily consumer economy and after the war the US remained powerful while many European nations were struggling to rebuild
The federal govenment can seize and operate any industry under strike, intended to keep production of war materials high
FDR and Churchill met with Stalin and Stalin convinced FDR and Churchill to open a second front, D-Day was planned
declared the requirement of unconditional surrender of Germany
upheld constitutionality of the Japanese relocations into internment camps during WW2
FDR is elected for a fourth term, much emphasis is placed on the VP candidate, Harry Truman was selected as the "new Missouri compromise"
Allies started the double sided attacks of Germany (Soviets from the east, US/UK from the west) at Normandy in France. This successful invasion allowed the Allies to invade Germany and begin the demise of the Nazis
Hitler's last offensive, failed and the Germans surrendered 5 months later
divided Germany and Berlin into 4 occupation zones
declared unconditional surrender of Japan was a requirement, ironic because the surrender of Japan wasn't actually unconditional (kept emporer)
On may 7 1945 the Germans surrendered unconditionally and the war in Europe was OVER!!!
The US dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima (Aug 6) and Nagasaki Aug 9) to end the war in the pacific quickly. Stalin entered the war on Aug 8
Tokyo surrendered for peace on the condition that the emperor could remain, the offical end to the War in the Pacific came on Sept 2, 1945 (V-J Day)
WE ARE ALL GETTING 5s!! WOOHOOOO!!!!