The Harappan culture spread over the whole of
Sind, Baluchistan, almost the whole of Punjab,
northern Rajasthan, Kathiawar and Gujarat.
Harappa the first Indus site, was discovered by
Dayaram Sahni in 1921. It is situated in the province
of West Punjab, Montgeomery district in Pakistan.
Harappa is located on the bank of river Ravi.
Mohanjedaro was excavated in 1922 by R.D.
Banarjee. It is situated in the Larkhana district in
Sind on the right bank of river Indus (Now in
The Great Granery, the Great Bath a piece of
woven cotton, a beared man in steatite and a
bronze dancing girl are found from Mohanjedaro.
An assembly hall was also discovered from
The most important feature of Harappan
civilisation was town planning and urbanism.
The word Mohanjedaro in Sindi language means
‘the mount of the dead’.
Mohanjodaro was believed to have destructed
Harappans knew the art of growing cereals, wheat
Banawali is situated in Hariyana.
Chanhudaro, discovered by N. Gopal Majundar
and Mackey, is situated in Sind on the bank of
Kalibangan, another famous Indus city discovered
in 1953 by A Ghosh, is situated in Rajasthan
on the banks of River Ghaggar. Kalibangan stands
for black bangles.
Lothal, first man made port in the world and dockyard
made of burnt bricks, was discovered in 1953
by S.R. Rao is situated in Gujarat on Bhogava
river near Gulf of Cambay.
Ropar is the site situated in Punjab on the banks
of river Sutlej. It was discovered in 1953 by
Harappan people were the earliest people in the
world to grow cotton and rice.
People cultivated rice at Lothal and Rangpur and
barley at Benawali.
Harappan people domesticated oxen, buffaloes,
goats, camel, sheeps, domestic fowls and pigs.
Humped bulls were given special importance.
Horses were unknown to the Harappan people.
Indus people had trade contacts with Persian Gulf
The ancient name given to Indus region was
Indus people used a gold - silver mixture called
They used bronze and copper but iron was unknown
Indus people were the first to use copper in India.
Harappans used a system of weights and measures
based on 16 and its multiples.
The chief male deity of the Indus people was
Pasupati Mahadeva (Porto Siva).
Their Chief female deity was the Mother Goddess.
They also worshipped fire, pipal trees and Unicorn.
Harappan script was Pictographic in nature, which
has not been desciphered so far.
Harappan seals were made of Terra - Cotta.
Chess - like game of Harappans was called Sent.
Indus Valley civilisation belongs to the
Chalcolithic period dated between 3000 BC and
1500 BC. It is a Bronze Age civilisation or a proto
The largest number of Harappan sites in post independent
India have been discovered from
Harappan civilisation extended from Jammu in the
North to Narmada in the South and from Makran
coast of Baluchistan in the West to Meerat in the
The Northern most point of Indus valley
civilisation was Gumla in Jammu and the Southernmost
Floods and Earthquakes, change in the course of
river Indus, aridity of the area, or drying up of
river Ghaggar, the invasion of Aryans are the supposed
reasons for the decline of the civilisation
towards 1500 BC.