History of Microbiology

By Brian Uzomba

Main

Invisible Organisms

1546

Girolamo Francastro He suggest that invisible organisms may cause disease.

The Discovery of Cells

1665

Robert Hooke publishes his discovery of cells and sees he first microorganism.

The First Observation of Bacteria

1676

Antony Leewenhoek observed the first bacteria.
He was observing the lake water and found these organisms. This sparked a start to microbiology.

Vaccination of Smallpox

1796

Edward Jenner introduced the vaccination of smallpox.

All Organisms Are Composed of Cells

1838 - 1839

Mathias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann propose that all organisms are composed of cells.

Germ Theory of Disease

1840

J. Henle Proposes the germs are the cause of diseases.

Spread of Cholera

1853 - 1854

John Snow demonstrates the epidemic spread of cholera through a contaminated water supply.

Sanitation of Wine

1864

Louis Pasteur develops pasteurization to destroy organisms in wine.

The Cause of Anthrax

1876

Robert Koch demonstrates that a bacterium causes anthrax.

Pure Culture

1881

Robert Koch introduces pure culture techniques in the laboratory.

Agar Plate

1882

Walter an Franny Hesse introduce the agar plate as a solidifying gel for the culturing medium.

Gram Negative Stain

1884

Christian Gram describes the Gram stain.

Phagocytic cells

1884

Elie Methnikoff discovers phagocytic cells which engulf bacteria.

Genetic transformation

1928

Frederick Griffith discovers genetic transformation in bacteria.

First Antibiotic

1929

Alexander Fleming discovers first antibiotic, penicillin.

Transforming principle of DNA

1944

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty demostrate that Griffith's Transforming principle is DNA.

Structure of DNA

1953

Watson, Crick, and Franklin determine the structure of DNA being a double helix structure.

Viroids v.s. Virusis

1971

Theodor Diener demonstrates fundamental differences between viroids and viruses.

DNA Clone

1973

Boyer and Cohen Clone DNA

Domains of Organisms

1977

Carl Woese classifies all organisms into three domains.

Nuclotide Sequences

1995

The first complete nucleotide sequence of a bacterial chromosome is reported.