Discovery and extraction of metals

Classic ages of human history

Stone age (2,198,000 BC-3000 BC)

Stone age began approximately 2,198,000 BCE

Copper age (3000 BC - 2500 BC)

Bronze age (2500 BC-1000 BC)

Iron age (1000 BC- 1800 AD)

Contemporary history (Modern Metal age 1800 AD - Now)

Discovery of metals and alloys

Gold (6000 BC)

Copper (4200 BC)

Lead (3500 BC)

Bronze (2500 BC)

Iron (1500 BC)

Steel (1400 BC)

Titanium (1791 AD)

Aluminium (1825 AD)

Francium (1939 AD)

Extraction method

Gold - found uncombined in nature

Copper- extracted in a ancient copper kiln

The kiln is lined with stones and clay the sulfide ore is added. Then the air is blown into it from goatskin bellows or people. The by product (slag) is removed an copper solidifies at the base of the kiln.

Lead- Lead minerals extracted in a stone furnace

Bronze- is an alloy( made from copper and tin)

It is stronger than copper but has a lower melting point improving malleability

Iron- extracted by calcination and then smelting iron ore

calcination is when the iron ore is heated in the absences of air causing carbonates to turn into oxides. Smelting refers to the heating at higher temperatures in a blast furnace

Steel- Smelting iron ore and mix of other metals

Steel is an alloy and made up of iron, carbon and other metals

Titanium- extracted by metal displacement with sodium or magnesium

Aluminium- bayer process and electrolysis in cryolite solution

Aluminium is extracted from the ground in compounds, it is the purified to aluminium oxide in the bayer process(this is a process of refining bauxite to form Aluminium oxide) and then it undergoes electrolysis in a cryolite solution to form aluminium

Francium- last naturally occurring element. Extremely rare