17th and 18th Centuries



Francis Bacon

1561 - 1626

He was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England. Although his political career ended in disgrace, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially as philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism.

René Descartes

1596 - 1650

was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments.

Sir Isac Newton (Prisms)

1642 - 1727

Colors are apart of the light itself through (prisms)
figured out that light travels- 186,300 miles/second

Discovered the universal law of gravitation all things have a gravitational pull.

The Enlightenment

1660 - 1800

Originating about 1650 to 1700, it was sparked by philosophers Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), physicist Isaac Newton (1643–1727), and philosopher Voltaire (1694–1778). Ruling princes often endorsed and fostered figures and even attempted to apply their ideas of government in what was known as enlightened absolutism. The Scientific Revolution is closely tied to the Enlightenment, as its discoveries overturned many traditional concepts and introduced new perspectives on nature and man's place within it. The Enlightenment flourished until about 1790–1800, after which the emphasis on reason gave way to Romanticism's emphasis on emotion, and a Counter-Enlightenment gained force

French Academy of Sciences


Established by Louis XIV. a. The establishment of such institutions as the British Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences gave legitimacy to science that had not existed before. This marks a critical point in European society, the power of reason and science taking center stage, pushing the superstitious explanations of the natural world by the church to the back. These scientific societies established the modern scientific custom of crediting discoveries to those who were first to publish results and enabled information and theories to be exchanged more easily across national boundaries.


1694 - 1778

a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate, despite strict censorship laws with harsh penalties for those who broke them. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day.

Treaty of Utrecht


The treaty which established the Peace of Utrecht, comprises a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

a. Adam Smith is responsible for our now classic version of laissez faire economics. He urged the importance and financial future of mercantilism and downplayed the role of agriculture. For Smith, the central issues were the productivity of labor and how labor was used indifferent sectors of the economy. In his opinion, high taxes on goods discouraged productivity and therefore believed the economy should be governed by the “invisible hand” to guide economic activity. His book, The Wealth of Nations, spelled out, in more technical and historical detail, the different stages of economic development, how the invisible hand actually worked, and the beneficial aspects of competition. Adam Smith’s economic ideals have been referred to and put into practice by modern day capitalist societies.

James Watt

1736 - 1819

Developed the first workable steam engine used for trains, boats, and Trackers.

King Louis XVI

1754 - 1793

-Attempted to find a way to reform France
-Abolished surfton
-got rid of land tax on peasants.

-Supported American Revolution

Treatyof Paris


The 1763 Treaty of Paris brought about the end of the French and Indian War and the Seven Years’ War, resulting in peace between Great Britain, Spain, and France. The treaty settled several questions regarding territories and colonies in the Americas.

The treaty was signed in Paris on February 10, 1763 by representatives of Great Britain, Spain, and France. In addition, Portugal agreed to the treaty terms but it did not include Prussia or Austria. British victories over both Spain and France made the treaty possible and settled numerous disputes between the various nations

WIlliam Buckland (Dinosaurs)

1784 - 1865

WIlliam Buckland was the first person to give a scientific description of a dinosaur. He thought the Megalosaurus was like a Giant Lizard. He made Paleontology a science.

Estates General

1787 - 1788

The Estates General was a representative group of the three estates of the French realm. In 1787 and 1788 King Louis XVI’s principal ministers, Charles de Calonne and Loménie de Brienne, proposed new taxes to meet the country’s growing deficit, notably a stamp duty and a direct tax on the annual produce of the land. King Louis tried to apply these taxes with consent solely from the aristocracy, which backfired because this Assembly of Notables demanded the support of the Estates General. It is therefore because of this that Louis XVI begrudgingly convened the Estates General in 1789 (which had not met since 1614).

Civil Constitution of Clergy


In July 1789, the french assmebly enacted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, bringing the church under state authority. The new forced all bishops and priest to swear allegiance to the state, which henceforth paid their salaries. The aim was to make the Catholic Church of France a national institution, free from interference from Rome.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen


The french assembly issued its charter of liberties, the Declaration of the RIghts of Man and of the Citizen, in September 1789. It declared property to be a natural right, along with libery, securtiy, and "resistance to oppression." It declared freedom of speech, religious toleration, and liberty of press inviolable. All citizens were to be treated equally before the law. No one was to be imprisoned or punished without due process of law. Sovereignty resided in the people, who could depose of officers of the government if they abused their powers.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

a. Locked out of the Estates General meeting hall on June 20, the Third Estate and a handful of sympathetic nobles and clergymen moved to a nearby indoor tennis court. Here, under the leadership of the volatile, maverick aristocrat Mirabeau and the radical clergyman Sieyès, they bound themselves by a solemn oath not to separate until they had drafted a constitution for France. This Tennis Court Oath, sworn on June 20, 1789, can be seen as the beginning of the French Revolution. By claiming the authority to remake the government in the name of the people, the National Assembly was asserting its right to act as the highest sovereign power in the nation.

Samuel F.B. Morse

1791 - 1872

was an American painter and inventor who is best remembered today for his invention of single-wire telegraph system and the co-inventor of the Morse code - method of transmitting textual information as a series of on and off tones. His discovery soon changed the way the messages are sent and received in entire world, and even today Morse code is still in use in various areas of radio communications. Although he was considered to be poor during majority of his life, he managed to live as an accomplished painter until he focused his interests to electromagnetism and electric communication.

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

In June 1793, the French Revolution enters its most violent and turbulent phase when the Jacobins seized control of the National Convention from the more moderate Girondins and instituted a series of radical measures, including the establishment of a new calendar and the eradication of Christianity. They also unleashed the bloody Reign of Terror (“la Terreur”), a 10-month period in which suspected enemies of the revolution were guillotined by the thousands. Many of the killings were carried out under orders from Robespierre, who dominated the draconian Committee of Public Safety until his own execution on July 28, 1794. His death marked the beginning of the Thermidorian Reaction, a moderate phase in which the French people revolted against the Reign of Terror’s excesses.

Death of Marat


Jean-Paul Marat, (born May 24, 1743, Boudry, near Neuchâtel, Switzerland—died July 13, 1793, Paris, France), French politician, physician, and journalist, a leader of the radical Montagnard faction during the French Revolution. He was assassinated in his bath by Charlotte Corday, a royalist

The Rosetta Stone


The Rosetta stone was a decree of the Egyptian priests in honor of King Ptolemy V written in 3 languages and 2 scripts: hieroglyphic and demotic scripts and in Greek

New Constitution Uses Plebiscite

1799 - 1804

New constitution uses plebiscite- the way of getting the peole to directly vote on an issue (ex: marijuana, gay marriage)

Meritocracy- ruled by those who merrit.

Introduced Genuine tax revolts. Took all the law of France and created one consistant code of Law

Patriarchy- male rule

Battle of the Pyramids


Napoleon Invades Egypt and defeats the Mamluk Egyptian forces

Industrial Nation

1801 - 1851

England becomes the first industrialized nation. "Cottonopolis," was the first industrial city in Manchester, England.

-Built Canals

Emporer Napoleon


Napoleon 1st crowned himself as Emporer of France on December 2, 1804

Reconciled with Papacy
Reformed Education System

The Irish Potato Famin

1845 - 1849

The most tragic combination of famine, poverty, and population in the nineteenth century came to Ireland in the Great Famine of 1845-1849. Potatoes, which had come to Europe form the New World, fundamentally transformed the diets of European peasants, providing much more nutrition for less money than corn and grain. When the fungus hit the potato no alternate foods were at hand. At least 1 million Irish died of starvation; of dysentery from spoiled foods; or of fever, which spread through villages and the overcrowded poorhouses. Before the Famine, tens of thousands of Irish were already crossing the Atlantic of North America; they accounted for one-third of all voluntary migration to the New World. in the ten tears after 1845, 1.5 million left Ireland for good. The potato blight also struck in Germany, Scotland, and the Netehrlands, but with less ctastrophe results. Europe known deadly famines for centuries. The tragic Irish famine came late, however, at a time when many thought that starvation was receding into the past, an dit illustrated just how vulnerable the nineteenth-century countryside remained to bad harvests and shortages.

Tchaikovsky's '1812' Overture


The Year 1812 (festival overture in E♭ major, Op. 49) popularly known as the 1812 Overture or the Overture of 1812 is an overture written by Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky in 1880 to commemorate Russia's defense of their motherland against Napoleon's invading Grande Armée in 1812. It has also been co-opted as a patriotic hymn played in the United States in association with its Fourth of July celebrations. The overture debuted in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow on August 20 1882, conducted by Ippolit Al'tani. The overture is best known for its climactic volley of cannon fire, ringing chimes, and brass fanfare finale.