Cornelius Van Drebbel created the first practical submarine. The submarine was powered by oars and air tubes which helped it float. It worked and the submarine was able to go about 12 – 15 feet downwards. Although it worked successfully then, it failed to create interest in Britain… until it became used for warfare during and after the late 1700s.
The aircraft was a creation of the Wright Brothers. They both created it together in 1903. This aircraft was the first aircraft to be self-propelled and easy to maneuver, unlike the more difficult ones earlier. The brothers started testing and building the plane in 1900.
After World War I, the economy of Europe was very unstable and shaky. Italy needed a much more stable leader. Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist party. During that same time, the Facists staged a ‘March on Rome’, which led to Mussolini’s rise to political power. Mussolini won votes from many and got into power in 1922.
Joseph Stalin gained control over the Soviet Union after the death of founder Vladimir Lenin, which created a struggle for power. He created a complete totalitarian form of government. He used propaganda and censorship to control information in order to have hold of the state. He also created the Five Year Plan, which gave the USSR its strength.
The first developed fuel rocket was made in 1926 by Robert Goddard, pioneer of rocketry. He began work on this rocket during the year 1909. He spent most of his time exploring and experimenting with using rocket propulsion to reach high altitudes.
Hitler was incarcerated during World War I. He was able to write a book that was circulated all throughout Europe, Mein Kampf. Through that, he was able to gain support from Germany. Germany was in a bad place, with the Great Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the impossible-to-achieve Treaty of Versailles. He was elected by the Germans and transformed Germany for the worst in 1933.
Nuclear weapons were created by the United States. The long process took up a lot of the industrial advancement in the US during that time. The US dropped it on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in order to force Japan to surrender from the war, which succeeded. This led to the Cold War; the nuclear race between USA and USSR.
Adolf Hitler and the German government came together and discussed more policies against the Jews. The first law was The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, which forbid marriage and other relations between the Jews and Germans. The second law was The Reich Citizenship Laws, which took German citizenship from the Jews. This was the beginning of the animosity towards Jews under the reign of Hitler.
Both radar and sonar were prominently used during World War II for its action of being able to detect locations and speeds of enemy aircraft or submarines. Radar was able to identify the altitude, direction, and speed of the enemy aircraft, or for the British, who used this against the Germans. Sonar was also used against the German submarines. Sonar is used detect distant objects. Both of these contributed to the new technologies used in World War II.
Kristallnacht was the series of numerous anti-Jewish pogroms throughout Germany, Austria, and areas of Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia. Anything Jewish-owned- businesses, houses, etc- were all smashed during these raids. These attacks were initiated by the SS and the Hitler Youth.
A German ship line announced a trip to Havana, upon the St. Louis. Most ship boarders were of Jewish descent, fleeing from persecution by the Germans during the Third Reich. Reaching Cuba, the boat was not allowed to proceed. So instead, they sat, docked, until forced to leave the harbor. The boat turned towards America, but was declined to enter there also and returned back to Europe. After much negotiation, some European governments allowed a temporary stay for the Jews.
The invasion of Poland was one of the first major moves by Hitler after becoming Fuhrer. Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with Poland, which was not popular with the German majority. Hitler did this because wanted to squash the opportunity of the French – Polish alliance, and instead took Germany for his own.
World War II was the continuation of the First World War which caused more damage than the first one. Germany was still bitter after the war and the aftermath; mostly the Treaty of Versailles and The Great Depression. Germans initiated the war by marching into Poland, ordered by their Nazi dictator, Adolf Hitler.
The Tripartite act was a treaty signed in Berlin. It signed by Japan, Germany, and Italy. Through this, they all become allies. They form the Axis power, who fight against the Allied forces, the Soviet Union, Britain, and America.
Hideki Tojo was the prime minister of Japan. Before appointed, he was prominently featured throughout the Japanese army. In 1941, he was appointed as a minister of war. He ordered the attack of Pearl Harbor. He resigned from office after the loss at Saipan.
Alan Turing created a successful computer to be used for the British military battle in 1941. This device was to help aid them in their attempts at fighting the German army in World War II. This aided them in military tactics and intercepting information between others, which ultimately led to the end of the war.
The Lend-Lease Act is mostly about the United States. The US did not act in the battle of the Europeans in World War. Although they did not fight, they gave their allies weapons. This is the act that angered the Japanese into bombing Pearl Harbor.
The Final Solution was the Nazi solution to the Jews. The plan was to no longer try to arrest them, but to annihilate them completely. The mass genocide of the Jews resulted in Jews fleeing, but sometimes, still getting caught and having to suffer in the concentration camps. At the concentration camps, you were either killed immediately, or worked to death amongst the field. Unlike in the past, women and children were not spared.
The US was known for its policy of remaining neutral. They preferred to stay amongst themselves and not fight in wars that included Europe and Asia because they were still recovering from the Great Stock Market Crash of 1929. They still gave out weapons to their allies, which angered the Japanese. The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor and the US lost a large amount of their fleets. A day later, the US declared war on Japan.
The US remained neutral during the beginnings of the war, but kept on lending out weapons for warfare use. The Japanese decided on bombing Pearl Harbor and the US lost a large amount of their fleets. A day later, the US declared war on Japan. The war was no longer only between Europe, but now the world.4
Roosevelt signed the Executive Order 9066, under which 120,000 Japanese people living in the US were removed from their homes and placed in internment camps. They were accused of being spies and the government believed they were a threat to American intelligence. The tensions between Japan and America were also heightened.
The Allied troops finally reigned against the Germans. After doing so, they started to liberate Nazi concentration camps. The Soviets were the first to liberate those in the camps. Since the allies started bringing attention towards the camps, the Germans started destroying evidence of the camps to cover up the murders they had committed.
Canadian, American, British forces combined to undergo the Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control. The forces were stretched across of the coast of France’s Normandy region. This attack was prepared for comprehensively and was dominant in the battle. Because of this joint-cooperation between troops, the war in Europe was beginning to end.
After the death of American president, Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman became president. He also gained the task of dealing with World War II. He also made the final decision and okayed for scientists to drop the bomb on both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Because of him, the US was able to end the war against Japan.
War was starting to stress out Roosevelt. He was starting to become physically ill from all of his actions. Atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure were present in his hospital tests. On April 12, 1945, Roosevelt underwent a massive cerebral hemorrhage and, then, died before the war could come to an end.
Hitler’s efforts were starting to go downhill. Germany’s troops were becoming outnumbered against the Marshall Zhukov in Berlin. Hitler was convinced they would be able to beat them, but sadly (or fortunately), the troops were too exhausted. German civilians were ready to surrender. After marrying Eva Braun, he committed suicide – too proud to surrender.
Victory in Europe Day was on May 8th, 1945. War was officially over – in Europe. General Jodi admitted unconditional defeat. Around Europe, people cheered and were in good moods for a long time afterwards.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the first (and hopefully the only) cities to be targeted by the infamous atomic bombs. American and foreign scientists worked endlessly on the atomic bomb. When the bombs hit, over 200,000 people were killed. Because of this, the war ended when the Japanese surrendered.
Japan surrendered peacefully. After the tragic bombings of civilians in Nagasaki and Hiroshima, the Emperor believed this was the option; although half of the Japanese military wanted to return to fighting. The islands of Japan were still Japan-administered, but they were overseen by American occupation forces and generals.