This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and development of machine tools. The transition also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. The Industrial revolution began in Britain and within a few decades spread to Western Europe and the United States.
The Russian tsar Alexander I and the Austrian diplomat Klemens von Metternich dominated the Congress of Vienna. Metternich, the architect of the peace, had witnessed the popular violence connected with the French Revolution while a student at teh University of Strasbourg. it left him with a lifelong hatred of revolutionary movements. At the congress of Vienna his central concerns were checking Russian expansionism and preventing political and social change he favored treateing the defeated French with moderation. Nevertheless, he remained an archconservative who readily resorted to ahrsh repressive tactics, including secret police and spying. But the peace he crafted was enormously significant and helped prevent a major European war until 1914. The Concert of Europe was teh body of dipolmatic agreements disigned primarily by Austrina minister Klemens von Metternich between 1814-1848, and supported by other European powers until 1914. Its goal was to maintain a balance of power on the Continent and to prevent destablizing social and political change in Europe.
Since the late 1700s steam engines have become a major source of mechanical power. The first applications were removing water from mines. In 1781 James Watt patented a steam engine that produced continuous rotative motion.
Napoleon III was the first President of the French Republic and the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I. Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he initiated a coup d'état in 1851, before ascending the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation. He ruled as Emperor of the French until 4 September 1870. He holds the distinction of being both the first titular president and the last monarch of France.
He was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.
Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species,
In 1779, Ludd is supposed to have broken two stocking frames in a fit of rage due to the advancement of technology. After this incident, attacks on the frames were jokingly blamed on Ludd. When the “Luddites” emerged in the 1810s, his identity was appropriated to become the folkloric character of Captain Ludd
A conservative German statesman who dominated European affairs from the 1860s to his dismissal in 1890 by Emperor Wilhelm II. In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, he unified most of the German states (whilst excluding some, most notably Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. This created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914.
Engels and Marx- Das Kapital
foundation for what they believe is the basis and definition of capitalism: Attempt by the owners of production to exploit, to whatever degree possible, the labor they employ… this is how companies draw their profit and surplus value
Communism “scientific socialism”
Marx’s called for workers everywhere to unite to create a powerful political force. Introduced a new concept “The Welfare State”- everybody should have their basics provided by the state
The Zollverein, or German Customs Union, was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories. Established in 1818, the original union cemented economic ties between the various Prussian and Hohenzollern territories, and ensured economic contact between the non-contiguous holdings of the Hohenzollern family, which was also the ruling family of Prussia.
It’s main purpose was to restore power to the aristocracy
The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known as the Concert of Europe, which was an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe, and served as a model for later organizations such as the League of Nations and United Nations.
He is known as the founder of the new science of genetics. Mendel demonstrated that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance. The profound significance of Mendel's work was not recognized until the turn of the 20th century, when the independent rediscovery of these laws initiated the modern science of genetics
By applying Louis Pasteur's advances in microbiology, he promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Lister successfully introduced carbolic acid (now known as phenol) to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds, which led to a reduction in post-operative infections and made surgery safer for patients.
The Frankfurt National Assembly, formally known as the German National Assembly or the German national parliament (May 1848–June 1849) that tried and failed to create a united German state during the liberal Revolutions of 1848. The Frankfurt National Assembly was finally able to adopt a proposed constitution for Germany on March 28, 1849. This document provided for universal suffrage, parliamentary government, and a hereditary emperor. Germany was to have a unified monetary and customs system but would maintain the internal autonomy of the constituent German states.
The Crimean War was a particularly gruesome attempt to cope with the most serious such collapse. As the Ottoman Empire lost its grip on its provinces in southeastern Europe, the “Eastern Question” of who would beneﬁt from Ottoman weakness drew Europe into war. At stake were not only territorial gains but also strategic interests, alliances, and the balance of power in Europe. And though the war occurred before the uniﬁcation of the German and Italian states, it structured the system of Great Power politics that guided Europe until (and indeed toward) the First World War.
Known as the father psychoanalysis. Separated the mind into three: 1. Id (anamilistic urges) , 2. Super Ego(external rules of society to limit the Id), 3. Ego (created from the conflict of the Id and the Super Ego)
published in 1896 "Finding a modern answer to the Jewish Question", in which he proposed that Jews needed a homeland
Coined the term "Zionism"- nationalist movement of Jews to a separate homeland outside of Europe
In 1871, after a series of short victorious wars, Otto Von Bismark unified most of the German states (whilst excluding some, most notably Austria) into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. This created a balance of power that preserved peace in Europe from 1871 until 1914.
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 20 million people died under his rule
He was the inventor of the single wire telegraph system and morse code "What hath God wrought? The Vail Register (1844) Cornell University
Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin
He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1905 for his germ theory of disease
A prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women’s rights movement to introduce women’s suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women’s Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President. She also co-founded the women’s rights journal, The Revolution. She traveled the United States and Europe, and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year.
American inventor from Edison, NJ. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park",he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory
While the first industrial revolution was centered on iron, steam technologies and textile production, the second industrial revolution revolved around steel, railroads, electricity, and chemicals.It was marked by a transition of technological leadership from Britain to the United States and Germany.
Bloodiest war in American history
1861- the south succeeded from the Union, immediately creating military action by the capitol
North- industrialized, South- plantations
1864- President Lincoln passes the Emancipation Proclamation, all states under Union occupation had to free their slaves immediately
13th amendment abolished slavery
The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution outlaws slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865. On December 18, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed it to have been adopted. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted after the American Civil War.
refers to the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a peaceful rally in support of workers striking for an eight-hour day. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they acted to disperse the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and at least four civilians; scores of others were wounded.
The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. American attacks on Spain's Pacific possessions led to involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately to the Philippine–American War
Hundred and fifty perish in a factory fire women and girls trapped in ten story building lost in flames and hurl themselves to death
The Haitian Revolution remained, in signiﬁcant ways, an anomaly. It was the only successful slave revolution in history and by far the most radical of the revolutions that occurred in this age. It suggested that the emancipatory ideas of the revolution and Enlightenment might apply to non-Europeans and enslaved peoples—a suggestion that residents of Europe attempted to ignore but one that struck home with planter elites in North and South America. Combined with later rebellions in the British colonies, it contributed to the British decision to end slavery in 1838.
The year without a summer was the eruption of Mt. Tambora in the Lesser Sunda Islands this was the largest volcano ever it created a volcano river in East Asia it exploded and winds,ash sweep around the world in North America.
The Fashoda Incident or "Fashoda Crisis" was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa. A French expedition to Fashoda on the White Nile sought to gain control of the Nile River and thereby force Britain out of Egypt. The British held firm as Britain and France were on the verge of war. It ended in a diplomatic victory for the British. It gave rise to the 'Fashoda syndrome' in French foreign policy, or seeking to assert French influence in areas which might be becoming susceptible to British influence.