Ramos helped revitalize the Philippines’ economy, which emerged from years of stagnation to grow at a rapid rate.
The country was able to weather a severe business downturn that crippled national economies across Southeast Asia in 1998.
Estrada ran for vice president on the National People’s Coalition ticket. Although the party’s presidential candidate, Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr., lost the election to Fidel Ramos, Estrada won the vice presidential contest.
In 2000 a corruption scandal enveloped Estrada, and on October 12 Arroyo resigned from the cabinet post to rally opposition against him. Angry protesters drove Estrada from the presidential residence on January 20, 2001, and Arroyo assumed power.
Arroyo was investigated for various alleged crimes, and in 2011 the government barred her from leaving the country to seek medical treatment.
From 2006 Aquino served as vice-chairman of the Liberal Party, and in 2007, at the end of his final term in the House of Representatives, he made a successful bid for a Senate seat.
In September 2009 Aquino announced his candidacy in the 2010 presidential race. His mother, to many a symbol of democratic rule in the Philippines, had died the previous month, an event that heightened Aquino’s profile and served as a catalyst for his seeking higher office. In the elections held on May 10, Aquino won the presidency by a wide margin.