Central and South Asia Timeline

South Asia

Indus Valley Civilization

2300 BCE - 1750 BCE

Housed a sophisticated civilization without a corresponding state

Cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa

2000 BCE

Built houses with indoor plumbing, streets were laid out in a grid like pattern, and ran a complex sewage system.

Invasion of Aryans

1500 BCE

Destroyed the Indus Valley Civilization and strongly influencedd the Mauryan Empire

Upanishads were created

800 BCE - 400 BCE

Created the idea of the Brahman world soul, the notion of rebirth/reincarnation which set basis for the later caste system.

Vedas Were Written Down

600 BCE

Location: India
Religion: HInduism
The sacred writings allowed the Brahmins to perform sacrifices and rituals. This led to the creation of the Upishads

Buddhism Was Founded by Siddhartha Guatama

500 BCE

Invasion of Alexander the Great

327 BCE

He brought Persian and Greek culture which stimulated the creation of the Mauryan Empire

Mauryan Empire

321 BCE - 185 BCE

India's first large scale political system.

Gupta Empire

320 BCE - 550 CE

A short lived imperial experiment that eventually fell apart.

Reign of Ashoka

268 BCE - 232 BCE

He created a philosophy of nonviolence and toleration for the many religions in India and integrated the kingdom's economy. His policies were not successful in the long run and the Mauryan Empire fell apart.

Turks Conquered Parts of India

1000 CE

11th century
Carried Islam to India

Establishment of Sultanate of Delhi

1206 CE

Turkic rule became more systematic and allowed for only a modest penetration of Indian society

Sikhism Founded By Guru Nanak

1469 CE - 1539 CE

15th-16th century
Sikhism blended Islam and Hinduism and set aside caste distinctions.

Vasco De Gamam Arrives in India


European countries were made aware of India's wealth

Bhakti Movement

1500 - 1599

16th century India
It was an avenue for social criticism that brought Hindus and Muslims together.

Mughal Empire established in India

1526 CE

Under Akbar, this Muslim difference was acknowledged and HInduism (the majority) was accommodated.

Three Major Trading Settlements Created by British East India Company

1600 - 1699

17th century
The beginning of Britain's control over India

Establishment of Trading Outposts by English and French

1612 CE - 1674 CE

17th century
India began its involuntary interactions with Western countries.

Indian Rebellion

1857 CE - 1858 CE

19th century
It widened racial divide and eroded British tolerance for natives so the British decided to assume direct control.

Life of Swami Vivekananda

1863 CE - 1902 CE

19th-20th century
A religious figure that revived Hinduism

Life of Mohandas Gandhi

1869 - 1948

19th-20th century
Created a political philosophy called satyagraha that called for active and confrontational but nonviolent political action.

Establishment of Indian National Congress (INC)

1885 CE

19th century
It planned to gain greater inclusion in political, military, and business life in India rather than overthrow British rule.

Establishment of All India Muslim League

1906 CE

20th century
Created conflict with INC because it claimed to speak for all Indians and didn't represent the Muslim population.

Congress Party Won Elections in Many Provincial Governments

1937 CE

Some governments enforced teaching of Hindi and protected cows from slaughter which antagonized Muslims.

India Became Independent as Two Countries

1947 CE

20th century
Two countries: Muslim Pakistan and secular but mostly Hindu India
The process of dividing the country was very violent and Gandhi was assassinated

Central Asia

Pastoral Peoples Learn the Art of Horseback Riding

1000 BCE

They could tend larger herds and mover over larger territories.

Invasions of North India

200 BCE

Central Asia smashed states and stopped any large empire from forming.

Turkic Speaking Nomads Migrated From Mongolia to the South

552 CE - 965 CE

6th-10th century
China, Persia, and Byzantium were either raided or allied with Turks. The migration facilitated the spread of Turkic language and culture.

Beginning of Mongol Conquests

1209 CE

13th century
Spread culture, language, and religion among the conquered. Established centralized bureaucracy and fostered commerce.

Reign of Chinggis Khan

1209 CE - 1279 CE

13th century
He unified Mongol tribes, launched military campaigns, massive killings, and unprecedented empire building.

Timur's Invasion of India

1398 CE

This Turkic warrior and his army of central asian nomadic peoples established the next nomadic empire.

Russian Expansion Across Siberia Begins

1550 CE

16th century
Forcibly spread Christianity. A large influx of Russian settlers into foreign areas reduced native populations and encouraged pastoralists to abandon their nomadic ways. It also established current borders.