Housed a sophisticated civilization without a corresponding state
Built houses with indoor plumbing, streets were laid out in a grid like pattern, and ran a complex sewage system.
Destroyed the Indus Valley Civilization and strongly influencedd the Mauryan Empire
Created the idea of the Brahman world soul, the notion of rebirth/reincarnation which set basis for the later caste system.
The sacred writings allowed the Brahmins to perform sacrifices and rituals. This led to the creation of the Upishads
He brought Persian and Greek culture which stimulated the creation of the Mauryan Empire
India's first large scale political system.
A short lived imperial experiment that eventually fell apart.
He created a philosophy of nonviolence and toleration for the many religions in India and integrated the kingdom's economy. His policies were not successful in the long run and the Mauryan Empire fell apart.
Carried Islam to India
Turkic rule became more systematic and allowed for only a modest penetration of Indian society
Sikhism blended Islam and Hinduism and set aside caste distinctions.
European countries were made aware of India's wealth
16th century India
It was an avenue for social criticism that brought Hindus and Muslims together.
Under Akbar, this Muslim difference was acknowledged and HInduism (the majority) was accommodated.
The beginning of Britain's control over India
India began its involuntary interactions with Western countries.
It widened racial divide and eroded British tolerance for natives so the British decided to assume direct control.
A religious figure that revived Hinduism
Created a political philosophy called satyagraha that called for active and confrontational but nonviolent political action.
It planned to gain greater inclusion in political, military, and business life in India rather than overthrow British rule.
Created conflict with INC because it claimed to speak for all Indians and didn't represent the Muslim population.
Some governments enforced teaching of Hindi and protected cows from slaughter which antagonized Muslims.
Two countries: Muslim Pakistan and secular but mostly Hindu India
The process of dividing the country was very violent and Gandhi was assassinated
They could tend larger herds and mover over larger territories.
Central Asia smashed states and stopped any large empire from forming.
China, Persia, and Byzantium were either raided or allied with Turks. The migration facilitated the spread of Turkic language and culture.
Spread culture, language, and religion among the conquered. Established centralized bureaucracy and fostered commerce.
He unified Mongol tribes, launched military campaigns, massive killings, and unprecedented empire building.
This Turkic warrior and his army of central asian nomadic peoples established the next nomadic empire.
Forcibly spread Christianity. A large influx of Russian settlers into foreign areas reduced native populations and encouraged pastoralists to abandon their nomadic ways. It also established current borders.