Housed a sophisticated civilization without a corresponding state
Cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa
Built houses with indoor plumbing, streets were laid out in a grid like pattern, and ran a complex sewage system.
Invasion of Aryans
Destroyed the Indus Valley Civilization and strongly influencedd the Mauryan Empire
Upanishads were created
800 BCE - 400 BCE
Created the idea of the Brahman world soul, the notion of rebirth/reincarnation which set basis for the later caste system.
Vedas Were Written Down
The sacred writings allowed the Brahmins to perform sacrifices and rituals. This led to the creation of the Upishads
Buddhism Was Founded by Siddhartha Guatama
Invasion of Alexander the Great
He brought Persian and Greek culture which stimulated the creation of the Mauryan Empire
321 BCE - 185 BCE
India's first large scale political system.
320 BCE - 550 CE
A short lived imperial experiment that eventually fell apart.
Reign of Ashoka
268 BCE - 232 BCE
He created a philosophy of nonviolence and toleration for the many religions in India and integrated the kingdom's economy. His policies were not successful in the long run and the Mauryan Empire fell apart.
Turks Conquered Parts of India
Carried Islam to India
Establishment of Sultanate of Delhi
Turkic rule became more systematic and allowed for only a modest penetration of Indian society
Sikhism Founded By Guru Nanak
1469 CE - 1539 CE
Sikhism blended Islam and Hinduism and set aside caste distinctions.
Vasco De Gamam Arrives in India
European countries were made aware of India's wealth
1500 - 1599
16th century India
It was an avenue for social criticism that brought Hindus and Muslims together.
Mughal Empire established in India
Under Akbar, this Muslim difference was acknowledged and HInduism (the majority) was accommodated.
Three Major Trading Settlements Created by British East India Company
1600 - 1699
The beginning of Britain's control over India
Establishment of Trading Outposts by English and French
1612 CE - 1674 CE
India began its involuntary interactions with Western countries.
1857 CE - 1858 CE
It widened racial divide and eroded British tolerance for natives so the British decided to assume direct control.
Life of Swami Vivekananda
1863 CE - 1902 CE
A religious figure that revived Hinduism
Life of Mohandas Gandhi
1869 - 1948
Created a political philosophy called satyagraha that called for active and confrontational but nonviolent political action.
Establishment of Indian National Congress (INC)
It planned to gain greater inclusion in political, military, and business life in India rather than overthrow British rule.
Establishment of All India Muslim League
Created conflict with INC because it claimed to speak for all Indians and didn't represent the Muslim population.
Congress Party Won Elections in Many Provincial Governments
Some governments enforced teaching of Hindi and protected cows from slaughter which antagonized Muslims.
India Became Independent as Two Countries
Two countries: Muslim Pakistan and secular but mostly Hindu India
The process of dividing the country was very violent and Gandhi was assassinated
Pastoral Peoples Learn the Art of Horseback Riding
They could tend larger herds and mover over larger territories.
Invasions of North India
Central Asia smashed states and stopped any large empire from forming.
Turkic Speaking Nomads Migrated From Mongolia to the South
552 CE - 965 CE
China, Persia, and Byzantium were either raided or allied with Turks. The migration facilitated the spread of Turkic language and culture.
Beginning of Mongol Conquests
Spread culture, language, and religion among the conquered. Established centralized bureaucracy and fostered commerce.
Reign of Chinggis Khan
1209 CE - 1279 CE
He unified Mongol tribes, launched military campaigns, massive killings, and unprecedented empire building.
Timur's Invasion of India
This Turkic warrior and his army of central asian nomadic peoples established the next nomadic empire.
Russian Expansion Across Siberia Begins
Forcibly spread Christianity. A large influx of Russian settlers into foreign areas reduced native populations and encouraged pastoralists to abandon their nomadic ways. It also established current borders.