Untitled timeline

South Korea

Chaebol

1905 - 1945

What: KR model after JP zaibatsu; The most important group in KR commerce during colonial period.

Why: Big business & gov't hand-in hand. Not a free-market but selective sector favoritism. Efficiency not imporant as "national efficacy" = Heavy industry export growth. Slow rise to economic modeling.

Sprouts Theory

1932 - 1945

What: Ideology on captialism origin. People that disagree with JP colonial merits for KR's modernization believe that KR was already in process of self-development. JP not a catalyst but an interference to self-progress.

Why: Traces of anti-colonial remnants. Idea that JP brought capitalist system in to KR justifies JP brutality. Also KR modernity benefited JP colonial empire, not KRs.

Myongdong Cathedral

1960 - 1978

What: churches are haven for human right organizations and students hunted by authorities.

Why: Churches provided international support (fear of getting foreign power involved if christianity attacked) and was only insitution relatively immove from the intrusion by regime. Christians fight for social justice = helping reformers = both traitors

Kim Dae Jung

1960 - 2010

Who: KCIA kidnaps him under tension against Park Chung Hee.

Why: He almost won the election of 1971. The underdevelopment of Cholla province shows areas anti - park chung hee recived no economic development as punishment. He also anti-authortarian by opposing Hee. Eventually, jis presidency increases democratic reform.

April Revolution

April 19, 1960 - 1972

What: Student and labor uprising against the first autocratic president Syngman Rhee. It ended to resignation. Fight against voting corruption as well.

Why: People hoped for democracy but after Rhee resignation, Park Chung He is more worse. Leds to military rule = stabalize poltical atmosphere and social disharmony. Shows the miracle on the Han faced rough roads = marked the democratic movement period.

KCIA

1961 - 1980

What: Intel agency of SK; protect against communists opposition, info starting from Park Chung Hee era. Other job include spies & political police.

Why: Silence/execute anyone against Park publically. Park felt political stablity is must to prevent S.K to economically prosper. KCIA fear factor against Park opposers = showing extent of martial law. Connection w/ military showing = military relationship with politics can led to opposers labeled communist. Big brother is watching

Normalization with Japan

1965

What: Park Chung Hee needed foreign aid to kickstart his 'Big Push' to heavy industry export plan. Requested compensation from Japan for the colonialism during WWII. Japan gives $300 mil in grant and $200 mil in loans.

Why: $300 mil was used to create POSCO (Steel factory), Steel = national power. Hee wanted S.K to symbolize Steel not textile goods. Also shows that S.K needed to get help from Japan to have this transition

Kim Chi Ha

1970

Who: A poet accused and prosecuted under the National Security Law as poems promoted N.K propaganda.

Why: bring down the dictatorship of government. Yusin Const. is a trickery; power hungry leaders; human rights illusion, people thrown in prison for democratic protest. Against Hee

Labor unions and strikers for more rights put down. Women = unfair low-wage cheap labor. Young women sacrificed for "han miracle". Sweatshop environment

Minjung Movement

1970

What: Power from the people. Grassroot elements of students, christian churches,need to spread pro-democratic ideas to average Koreans.

Why: Against Park Chung Hee, and the Yusin Const. Make people aware of their civil rights and which KCIA is Hee's bodyguards, accusing people of hidden communist. Beginning of all other movements.

Yusin Constitution

1972 - 1978

What: Park Chung Hee self proclaims president for life.

Why: One reason is the fear Kim Doe Jung could have won the election in future. Another reason is the State of emergency because of dangerous international situation. "Nixon shock" = U.S thaw relations with China in order to fight against USSR felt a politcal betrayl to KR. Hee was assassinated.

Kwangju Uprising

May 1980

What: Korea's Tiananmen Sq. Public protest for the repeal of martial law. Outcome = slaughtered students/opposition.

Why: Growing dissent with U.S involvement w/ SK authoratative politics. Shows KR had bloody history towards democratization. U.S news kept high profile on S.K by abstaining help to reformers directly, thereby assuming U.S is also responsible.

Seo Taiji

1990 - 2010

Who: SK early beginning Kpop tread (Korea wave). Judges were unimpressed with preformance, even critcizing it harshly.

Why: Changing style of music = getting intune with western (U.S) style of music. KR cultural influence (we can create our own product) growing due to globalization. Breaking the conservative norm, attempting to express self-identity and more freedom. Showing the youth is the group to push for more liberalism.

IMF Period

1997 - 1998

What: Collapse of financial market. Stock market collapsed/ devaluation of KR currency. As remedy, IMF loaned SK but expected reform chaebol policies by increasing transparency and supervision.

Why: Negative feedback from Chaebol families. Seen as IMF telling SK what to do. Millions of layoffs. Also seen as maintaining American hegemony in the region and a western form of free capitalism.

North Korea

Guerilla Dynasty

1953 - 1972

What: Describes the early Kim il Sung era. Military comrades run the NK state.

Why: Shows how military mindset = military first principle. Tried to strengthen communism by enforcing policing against potential threats to Sung's power.

Myongbun System

1953 - 2010

What: Hierarchical system in N.K. Super elite class = kim il sung comrades. lower level class were JP collaborators & land owners. 3 classes: workers, peasents, and scholars all equal status but in reality, super elite class/ military partnership rules.

Why: Shows N.K gov't trusted comrades of guerilla days. Military first policy also shows obvious class difference between military and other class.

Arduous March

1994 - 1998

What: N.K famine & flood

Why: Economic mismanagement combined with natural disasters shows N.K decline productivity compared to S.K. Problems with malnutrition and food reserves shown in the movie "state of mind". Military gets 1st preference while women & children recieve less. Poverty increasing but also showing juche mentality = NK can get through this problem.

Quote ID

Kim il Sung Writings

1953

Liberation from Japan, U.S intervention = subsitute for imperial power.

People power + democratic base with socialism push

Critcism of S.K

Class Struggle or Family Struggle

1960

Seung-Kyung Kim
Women caught between global capitalism and patriarchy

Industrial Soldiers only to become dutiful daughters at home

Low-wage job from third world homes

She Knows, I Know, and Heaven Knows

1960

Pak Wanso

Took care of paralyed old man; dies and leaves the women with a house in Seoul. Daughter of the man refuses to give home because feels women used the father. Gold Digger.

She is wrongfully criticized even though her intentions are innocent. People want to move to cities.

Aquariums of Pyongyang

1965

Kang Chol-Hwon

Describes family in N.K concentration camp. Gov't isolates traitors (Jap war supporters, criticizing gov't, escaping to S.K, etc..) Eventually escapes to S.K where he finds out the N.K propaganda is untrue. S.K is like heaven compared to N.K.

The Dwarf

1970

Cho Se-hui

'Miracle on the Han' forced modernization largely mounted on the poor and the weak. Changing economic pressures via rapid industrialization destoryed Dwarf and family.

Global goes local: Popular Culture in Asia

1992

Timothy Kraig

The transformation of pop music - the age of Ballads 1980s

Seo-Taiji and the arrival of rap - U.S influence - 1992

Raggae & Global music

Roll Over, Godzilla, Korea Rules

2005

Norimitsu Onishi

Korea Wave via Winter Sonata
Why S.K media export overseas in Asia & how the hallyu wave changes S.K feudalistic society/backward society into a more popular image. Describing globalization and facination with things South Korean.

Framing Ethno-Cultural & Civic Nationalism in Divided Koreas

2010

Chris Wilson

History Education and National identity in Koreas
N.K = Marxism to Juche to the Two Kim leaders = DPRK
S.K = Democratization and Education Reform = ROK