solo Madrigal. an example of MONODY!
solo voice with accompaniment. (basso contiuo)
Earliest Opera to survive in complete score.
produced in honor of King Henry IV and Maria De Medici
represents two types of monody aria(tirsi's song to Hymen(god of marriage) STROPHIC an recitative(voice imitates inflections and rhythms of speech)
NAWM 68, p. 399
Madrigal from fifth book of madrigals. UNPREPARED dissonance.
music is it servant of the text not the mistress
Monteverdi, Orfeo (1607)
First Opera that is still performed in standard rep
-importance / birth of orchestration
"vile da braccia" = violins NOT viols
NAWM 68, p. 409
Gabrieli, “In ecclesiis”
NAWM 74, p. 466 (sacred concerto CA 1615 after his death
this piece is a great example of strongly contrasting styles and textures.
sacred symphony --sinfonia instrumental interlude.
Would have been performed in St. Marks Basilica
it also epitomises Baroque and Renaissance styles, with its prolific use of pedal points and extended plagal cadences.
NAWM 81, p. 544 Sonata for violin and contiuno --differeing sections NO form affect. basso follows virtuoso solos
Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea (1642)
NAWM 70, p. 432
First Opera based off of historical figures and events.
was composed for the public, to be performed for profit. -possible reason for smaller orchestra size.
NAWM 76, p. 499 Oratorio
NAWM 78, p. 519 SACRED CONCERTO
NAWM 91, p. 642 4 actual players
NAWM 85, p. 584 UNMEASURED PRELUDE
NAWM 96, p. 701
From Das Orgelbuchlein (Little Organ Book) --contained short chorale preludes for organ -this chorale first published in 1524
last years in Weimar
Tune is in bar form AAB
NAWM 97, p. 710
NAWM 98, p. 713
NAWM 99, p. 739
Handel's most famous Opera.
recit (secco and accompanied)
aria da capo aria ABA'
NAWM 95, p. 679
NAWM 100 (p. 749)
Published his 5th book of Madrigals, which contained Cruda Amarili in the preface he answers G. Artusi book " I'Artusi or Concerning the Modern Imperfections of music" (1600
ground (basso ostinato)
typical for a lament
English!! used dance!!!
The red priest
Root -basse fondementale
In music history, the Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, in Rome, during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection. However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms.
First public Opera House
basso continuo, also called continuo, thoroughbass, or figured bass, in music, a system of partially improvised accompaniment played on a bass line, usually on a keyboard instrument. The use of basso continuo was customary during the 17th and 18th centuries, when only the bass line was written out, or “thorough” (archaic spelling of “through”), giving considerable leeway to the keyboard player, usually an organist or harpsichordist, in the realization of the harmonic implications of the bass in relation to the treble part or parts. A low melody instrument, such as a viola da gamba, cello, or bassoon, usually served to reinforce the bass line, and the keyboard player received additional guidance in most instances from figures placed above the bass notes, a kind of musical shorthand indicating the intervallic constitution of the chords in question.
Basso continuo composition was a logical outgrowth of the monodic revolution (c. 1600), which declared the supremacy of the treble in opposition to the textural homogeneity of Renaissance polyphony. The harmonic substance of multivoiced music was now literally contracted into an instrumentalist’s two hands; the immediate repercussions for both sacred and secular music prompted Agostino Agazzari as early as 1607 to publish a manual of instructions, Del sonare sopra ’l basso (“On Playing upon the Thoroughbass”).
The French overture is a musical form widely used in the Baroque period. Its basic formal division is into two parts, which are usually enclosed by double bars and repeat signs. They are complementary in styles (slow in dotted rhythms and fast in fugal style), and the first ends with a half-cadence (i.e., on a dominant harmony) that requires an answering structure with a tonic ending. The second section often but not always ends with a brief recollection of the first, sometimes even repeating some of its melodic content
As a musical form, however, the French overture first appears in the court ballet and operatic overtures of Jean-Baptiste Lully, which he elaborated from a similar, two-section form called Ouverture, found in the French ballets de cour as early as 1640. This French overture consists of a slow introduction in a marked "dotted rhythm" (i.e., exaggerated iambic, if the first chord is disregarded), followed by a lively movement in fugato style. The overture was frequently followed by a series of dance tunes before the curtain rose, and would often[vague] return following the Prologue to introduce the action proper. This ouverture style was also used in English opera, most notably in Henry Purcell's Dido and Æneas. Its distinctive rhythmic profile and function thus led to the French overture style as found in the works of late Baroque composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach. The style is most often used in preludes to suites, and can be found in non-staged vocal works such as cantatas, for example in the opening chorus of Bach's cantata Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61. Handel also uses the French overture form in some of his Italian operas such as Giulio Cesare.