Music Lit Test 3 Baroque

Pieces

Caccini, Vedro 'l mio sol

1590 - 1591

solo Madrigal. an example of MONODY!

solo voice with accompaniment. (basso contiuo)

Peri, Euridice (1600)

1600 - 1601

Earliest Opera to survive in complete score.
produced in honor of King Henry IV and Maria De Medici
represents two types of monody aria(tirsi's song to Hymen(god of marriage) STROPHIC an recitative(voice imitates inflections and rhythms of speech)
NAWM 68, p. 399

Monteverdi, Cruda Amarilli (1605)

1605 - 1606

Madrigal from fifth book of madrigals. UNPREPARED dissonance.
music is it servant of the text not the mistress

Monteverdi, Orfeo (1607)

1607 - 1608

Monteverdi, Orfeo (1607)
First Opera that is still performed in standard rep
-importance / birth of orchestration
"vile da braccia" = violins NOT viols

NAWM 68, p. 409

Gabrieli, “In ecclesiis” (1615ish)

1615 - 1616

Gabrieli, “In ecclesiis”
NAWM 74, p. 466 (sacred concerto CA 1615 after his death
this piece is a great example of strongly contrasting styles and textures.
sacred symphony --sinfonia instrumental interlude.

Alleluia refrain
Would have been performed in St. Marks Basilica
it also epitomises Baroque and Renaissance styles, with its prolific use of pedal points and extended plagal cadences.

Marini, sonata (1626)

1626 - 1627

NAWM 81, p. 544 Sonata for violin and contiuno --differeing sections NO form affect. basso follows virtuoso solos

Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea (1642)

1642 - 1643

Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea (1642)
NAWM 70, p. 432
First Opera based off of historical figures and events.

was composed for the public, to be performed for profit. -possible reason for smaller orchestra size.
sinfonia -rittornello

Carissimi, Jephte (1648)

1648 - 1649

NAWM 76, p. 499 Oratorio

Schütz, “Saul Saul was verfolgst du mich?” (1650)

1650 - 1651

NAWM 78, p. 519 SACRED CONCERTO

Corelli, Trio sonata Op. 3 No. 2 (1680s)

1680 - 1681

NAWM 91, p. 642 4 actual players

Armide (Lully's Opera)(1686)

February 15 1686 - February 16 1687

Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre, keyboard suite (1687)

1687 - 1688

NAWM 85, p. 584 UNMEASURED PRELUDE

Purcell's Dido and Aeneas (1689)

1689 - 1690

Weimar

1708 - 1717

Vivaldi, Concerto in A minor, Op. 3 No. 6 NAWM 93, p. 656

1710 - 1711

Bach, Prelude and Fugue in a minor, BWV 543 (1715)

1715 - 1716

NAWM 96, p. 701

Bach, Chorale prelude on “Durch Adams Fall,” BWV 637

1716 - 1717

From Das Orgelbuchlein (Little Organ Book) --contained short chorale preludes for organ -this chorale first published in 1524
last years in Weimar
Tune is in bar form AAB
NAWM 97, p. 710

Cothen

1717 - 1723

Well tempered Clavier BI (1722)

1722 - 1723

LEIPZIG (1723-1750)

1723 - 1750

Bach, Cantata 62 [=BWV 62]

1724 - 1725

NAWM 98, p. 713

Handel, Julius Caesar (1724)

1724 - 1725

NAWM 99, p. 739
Handel's most famous Opera.
recit (secco and accompanied)
aria da capo aria ABA'

St Matthew Passion(1727)

1727 - 1728

Rameau, Hippolyte et Aricie (1733)

1733 - 1734

NAWM 95, p. 679

Handel, Saul (1738)

1738 - 1739

NAWM 100 (p. 749)

Well tempered Clavier B.II (1742)

1742 - 1743

Main

Zarlino

22 March 1517 - 4 February 1590

Vincenzo Galilei

1520 - 1591

Palestrina

3 February 1525 - 2 February 1594

Giovanni Artusi

1540 - 18 August 1613

Giulio Caccini

15 October 1551 - 10 December 1618

G. Gabrieli

1554 - 12 August 1612

Jacopo Peri

20 August 1561 - 12 August 1633

Monteverdi's life

15 May 1567 - 29 November 1643

Published his 5th book of Madrigals, which contained Cruda Amarili in the preface he answers G. Artusi book " I'Artusi or Concerning the Modern Imperfections of music" (1600

Heinrich Schütz

18 October 1585 - 16 November 1672

Biagio Marini

5 February 1594 - 20 March 1663

Giaco Carissimi

18 April 1605 - 12 January 1674

Jean Baptist Lully

28 November 1632 - 22 March 1687

Arcangelo Corelli

1653 - 1713

H. Purcell

10 September 1659 - 21 November 1695

died young
ground (basso ostinato)
typical for a lament
English!! used dance!!!

E.J. La Guerre

17 March 1665 - 27 June 1729

Antonia Vivaldi

4 March 1678 - 28 July 1741

The red priest

Jean-Philippe Rameau

25 September 1683 - 12 September 1764

Tonic/Subsonic/Dominant/Subdominant
Key
Modulation
Root -basse fondementale
Inversions

George F. Handel

23 February 1685 - 14 April 1759

J.S. Bach

31 March 1685 - 28 July 1750

Historical Periods/wars

Martin nails ninety-five theses

1517

Council of Trent(1543)

1543 - 1563

Roman School

1550 - 1610

In music history, the Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, in Rome, during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection. However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms.

F Camerata

1573 - 1585

The golden age of oratorio: 1600–c. 1750

1600 - 1750

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Theater of San Cassiano (1637)

1637 - 1807

First public Opera House

Common Wealth

1640 - 1660

Beginning of Restoration

1660 - 1750

ballad opera (John Gay, The Beggar’s Opera, 1728)

1728 - 1735

Books

Zarlino, The Harmonic Institutions (1558)

1558 - 1559

Galilei, Dialogue between ancient and modern music (1581)

1581 - 1582

l'Artusi, or, C. the I. of M. M. (1600)

1600 - 1601

Caccini, Le nuove musiche (1602)

1602 - 1603

Monteverdi's fifth book of madrigals (1605)

1605 - 1606

Rameau, Treatise of Harmony (1723)

1723 - 1724

musical techniques

basso continuo

1600 - 1756

basso continuo, also called continuo, thoroughbass, or figured bass, in music, a system of partially improvised accompaniment played on a bass line, usually on a keyboard instrument. The use of basso continuo was customary during the 17th and 18th centuries, when only the bass line was written out, or “thorough” (archaic spelling of “through”), giving considerable leeway to the keyboard player, usually an organist or harpsichordist, in the realization of the harmonic implications of the bass in relation to the treble part or parts. A low melody instrument, such as a viola da gamba, cello, or bassoon, usually served to reinforce the bass line, and the keyboard player received additional guidance in most instances from figures placed above the bass notes, a kind of musical shorthand indicating the intervallic constitution of the chords in question.

Basso continuo composition was a logical outgrowth of the monodic revolution (c. 1600), which declared the supremacy of the treble in opposition to the textural homogeneity of Renaissance polyphony. The harmonic substance of multivoiced music was now literally contracted into an instrumentalist’s two hands; the immediate repercussions for both sacred and secular music prompted Agostino Agazzari as early as 1607 to publish a manual of instructions, Del sonare sopra ’l basso (“On Playing upon the Thoroughbass”).

French Overture

1640 - 1800

The French overture is a musical form widely used in the Baroque period. Its basic formal division is into two parts, which are usually enclosed by double bars and repeat signs. They are complementary in styles (slow in dotted rhythms and fast in fugal style), and the first ends with a half-cadence (i.e., on a dominant harmony) that requires an answering structure with a tonic ending. The second section often but not always ends with a brief recollection of the first, sometimes even repeating some of its melodic content

As a musical form, however, the French overture first appears in the court ballet and operatic overtures of Jean-Baptiste Lully,[3] which he elaborated from a similar, two-section form called Ouverture, found in the French ballets de cour as early as 1640.[4] This French overture consists of a slow introduction in a marked "dotted rhythm" (i.e., exaggerated iambic, if the first chord is disregarded), followed by a lively movement in fugato style. The overture was frequently followed by a series of dance tunes before the curtain rose, and would often[vague] return following the Prologue to introduce the action proper. This ouverture style was also used in English opera, most notably in Henry Purcell's Dido and Æneas. Its distinctive rhythmic profile and function thus led to the French overture style as found in the works of late Baroque composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach. The style is most often used in preludes to suites, and can be found in non-staged vocal works such as cantatas, for example in the opening chorus of Bach's cantata Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland, BWV 61. Handel also uses the French overture form in some of his Italian operas such as Giulio Cesare.[5]