History of GFP


First published mention of Aequorea victoria bioluminescence


(1) D Davenport, JAC Nicol: Luminescence of hydromedusae. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 144 (1955) 399-411.

Osamu Shimomura coins "green protein"


O Shimomura, FH Johnson, Y Saiga: Extraction, purification and properties of aequorin, a bioluminescent protein from the luminous hydromedusan, Aequorea. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 59 (1962) 223-29.

"Green protein" becomes green fluroescent protein


JW Hasting, JG Morin: Comparative biochemistry of calcium-activated photoproteins from the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis, and the coelenterates Aequorea, Obelia, Pelagia and Renilla. Biol. Bull. 137 (1969) 402.

Energy transfer from aequorin to gfp


JG Morin, JW Hastings: Energy Transfer in a bioluminescent system. J. Cell Physiol. 77 (1971) 313-18.

H Morise, O Shimomura, FH Johnson, J Winant: Intermolecular Energy Transfer in Bioluminescent systems of aequorea. Biochemistry 13 (1974) 2656-62.

First characterization of GFP chromophore


O Shimomura: Structure of the chromophore of Aequorea green fluorescent protein. FEBS Letters 104 (1979) 220-22.

Aequorin clone and expression success


D Prasher, RO McCann, MJ Cormier: Cloning and Expression of the Cdna Coding for Aequorin, a Bioluminescent Calcium-Binding Protein. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 126 (1985) 1259-68.

Prasher sequences GFP clone gene


Prasher D, Eckenrode V, Ward WW, Prendergast F, Cormier M (1992) Primary structure of the Aequorea victoria
green-fluorescent protein. Gene 111:229–33

Cody & Prasher determine GFP structure


Cody CW, Prasher DC, Westler WM, Pendergast FG, Ward WW (1993) Chemical Structure of the hexapeptide
chromophore of the Aequorea green-fluorescent protein. Biochemistry 32:1212-18

New color, blue, is seen.


Chalfie M, Tu Y, Euskirchen G, Ward WW, Prasher D (1994) Green-fluorescent protein as a marker for gene
expression. Science 263:802–5

Inouye S, Tsuji F (1994) Aequorea green fluorescent protein. Expression of
the gene and fluorescence characteristics of the recombinant protein. FEBS Lett 341:277–80

First GFP mutants


R Heim, A Cubitt, RY Tsien (1995) Improved green fluorescence. Nature 373:663-64

First crystal structures of wt and enhanced GFP


M Ormo, AB Cubitt, K Kallio, LA Gross, RY Tsien, SJ Remington: Crystal structure of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein. Science 273 (1996) 1392-95.

F Yang, LG Moss, GN Phillips: The molecular structure of green fluorescent protein. Nature Biotechnology 14 (1996) 1246-51.

FRET & cameleon


Miyawaki A, Llopis J, Heim R, McCaffrey JM, Adams JA, Ikura M, Tsien RY (1997) Fluorescent indicators for Ca
based on green fluorescent proteins and calmodulin. Nature 388:882-87

A Miyawaki, O Griesbeck, R Heim, RY Tsien: Dynamic and quantitative Ca2+ measurements using improved cameleons. Proc. Nat. Acad. Science 96 (1999) 2135-40.

RFP in coral-leads to new protein discoveries


Matz MV, Fradkov AF, Labas YA, Savitsky AP, Zaraisky AG, Markelov ML, Lukyanov SA (1999) Fluorescent
proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa species. Nat Biotechnol 17:969-73

Timer protein-changes with time


A Terskikh, A Fradkov, G Ermakova, A Zaraisky, P Tan, AV Kajava, XN Zhao, S Lukyanov, M Matz, S Kim, I Weissman, P Siebert: "Fluorescent timer": Protein that changes color with time. Science 290 (2000) 1585-88.

Photoactivatable GFP


H Mizuno, TK Mal, KI Tong, R Ando, T Furuta, M Ikura, A Miyawakil: Photo-induced peptide cleavage in the green-to-red conversion of a fluorescent protein. Molecular Cell 12 (2003) 1051-58.

GH Patterson, J Lippincott-Schwartz: A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells. Science 297 (2002) 1873-77.

"Fruit" fluorescence protein


NC Shaner, RE Campbell, PA Steinbach, BNG Giepmans, AE Palmer, RY Tsien: Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp red fluorescent protein. Nature Biotechnology 22 (2004) 1567-72.

L Wang, WC Jackson, PA Steinbach, RY Tsien: Evolution of new nonantibody proteins via iterative somatic hypermutation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 (2004) 16745-49.

Molecular thermometer protein


FHC Wong, DS Banks, A Abu-Arish, C Fradin: A molecular thermometer based on fluorescent protein blinking. Journal of the American Chemical Society 129 (2007) 10302.

Chordate GFP


DD Deheyn, K Kubokawa, JK McCarthy, A Murakami, M Porrachia, GW Rouse, ND Holland: Endogenous green fluorescent protein (GFP) in amphioxus. Biological Bulletin 213 (2007) 95-100.

Far-red fluorescent protein


D Shcherbo, EM Merzlyak, TV Chepurnykh, AF Fradkov, GV Ermakova, EA Solovieva, KA Lukyanov, EA Bogdanova, AG Zaraisky, S Lukyanov, DM Chudakov: Bright far-red fluorescent protein for whole-body imaging. Nature Methods 4 (2007) 741-46.

Nobel Prize


Chemistry Nobel Prize “for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein.”

First Aequorea victoria GFP form red


AS Mishin, FV Subach, IV Yampolsky, W King, KA Lukyanov, VV Verkhusha: The first mutant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that forms a red chromophore. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 4666-73.

GFP use as a living laser


MC Gather, Sh Yun: Single-cell biological lasers, Nature Photonics, 2011/06/12/online, advance online publication.