Russo-Japanese War

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The first Cossack party penetrates southward into the Amur River basin

1643 - 1645

Brutal Russian attempts to conquer and colonize the Amur region

1649 - 1653

Chinese forces wipe out the Russian colonies on the Amur

1652 - 1658

The Russians renew their penetration of the Amur region

1672

A powerful Chinese force destroys the Russian fort at Albazin

1686

The Treaty of Nerchinsk

1689

Manchus force the Russians to withdraw north into Siberia, away from the Amur River

Middendorf explores the length of the Amur

1843

Middendorf explores the length of the Amur, and reports to St. Petersburg that the river is undefended

Nevelskoy establishes a fort at Nikolayevsk

1850

Nevelskoy establishes a fort at Nikolayevsk and claims the mouth of the Amur for Russia

British and French attacks on the river

1854

Nikolay Muravyev, Governor of Eastern Siberia, leads a military force down the Amur and repels British and French attacks on the river’s mouth to the summer of 1855, securing the area for Russia

Muravyev compels the Chinese to sign the Treaty of Aigun

1858

Siberian-Manchurian border is set on the Amur

The Treaty of Peking

1860

Chinese confirm the Amur as Manchuria’s border and cede the region east of the Usuri River - Russia expands to the border of Korea

The city of Vladivostok is founded

1860

The Meiji Restoration

1868

The start of the rise of Japan

Koreans fire on the Japanese naval vessel

1875

Koreans fire on the Japanese naval vessel Un’yo, in the first clash between the two countries in modern times

The Treaty of Kangwha

1876

Japan coerces Korea into granting trading concessions

The Black Ocean Society is established

1880

The Black Ocean (Genyosha) Society is established to encourage Japanese expansion

China establishes dominance in Russia

1882 - 1886

Bitter factional struggles in Korea, exacerbated by Japanese, Chinese, and Russian interference,China establishes dominance in Russia (Siberia)

Russia officially begins construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad

1891

China and Japan both intervene in response to revolts in Korea

1894

The Sino-Japanese War

1894

Japanese win a series of easy victories over Chinese land and naval forces, but fail in their attempts to control the Korean Court

Japanese forces under Oyama storm Port Arthur

1894

A Japanese coup ousts the pro-Chinese faction in Seoul

1894

The Russo-Chinese Bank is established

1895

Japanese Minister to Korea launches a coup in Seoul

1895

Japanese Minister to Korea launches a coup in Seoul, and murders the Korean Queen

The Treaty of Shimonoseki

1895

Among other concessions, China drops its claims to Korea, and cedes the Liaotung Peninsula to Japan

The revised Treaty of Shimonoseki is ratified

1895

The revised Treaty of Shimonoseki is ratified, without Japanese control of the Liaotung Peninsula

Japanese influence over Korea weakens

1895

The Triple Intervention: Russia, Germany and France advise Japan to disgorge Liaotung

Lobanov-Yamagata Convention

1896

Russia and Japan attempt to organize joint dominance of Korea

Pro-Japanese ministers are executed

1896

Korea unsuccessfully asks to become a Russian protectorate

1896

The Korean King flees to the Russian legation

1896

Russia dominates Korea

1896 - 1898

A secret Chinese-Russian alliance is signed

1896

A secret Chinese-Russian alliance is signed, granting Russia the right to build the Chinese Eastern Railroad through Manchuria

Russo-Korean Bank is established

1897

Germany seizes Kiao-Chow in Shantung

1897

Russia announces to Germany that it intends to seize Port Arthur

1897

China grants Russia a 25-year lease

1897

China grants Russia a 25-year lease on the Liaotung Peninsula and a concession to build a South Manchurian Railroad

interest in a immense timber concession on the Yalu

1897

The adventurer Bezobrazov acquires an interest in a immense timber concession on the Yalu, and begins influencing the Czar to adopt a bolder policy in Manchuria

Russians are training Korean troops and directing Korean customs

1897

Russia seizes Port Arthur and the Liaotung Peninsula

1897

The Rosen-Nissi Convention

1898

Russia yields its dominant position in Korea to Japan

Russia begins work on the Chinese Eastern Railroad in northern Manchuria

1898

Russian sphere of influence

1899

Britain recognizes all of China north of the wall as being within the Russian sphere of influence

US Secretary of State Hay announces the Open Door Policy

1899

The Boxer Rebellion

1900

Russia begins to try to force China into yielding control of Manchuria

1901

The powers impose the punitive Boxer Protocol on China

1901

Trans-Siberian Railroad is complete

1901

The Anglo-Japanese alliance

1902

Russia begins to reinforce its Far Eastern fleet

1902

Japan’s naval expansion program is complete

1902

Russia recognizes Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria

1902

Russia recognizes Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria and agrees to a phased troop withdrawal to be completed in eighteen months

The Czar appoints Alexeiev as Far Eastern Viceroy with authority over Manchuria

1903

In Manchuria, the Russians open the Chinese Eastern Railway to regular traffic

1903

Public protests in Japan over Russia’s failure to evacuate Manchuria

1903

A secret meeting of influential Japanese officers endorses a war with Russia

1903

Bezobrazov’s Yalu Timber Company begins operation

1903

The Japanese government requests talks with Russia

1903

The Czar suddenly decides on an aggressive policy in Manchuria

1903

A Japanese Imperial Conference decides to take a hard line on Russia

1903

Seizureof Manchuria

1990

The height of the anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion in China

1990

Russia occupies all of Manchuria

1990

Russian forces enter Manchuria

1990

Chinese troops and Boxer rebels attack Russian troops and rail facilities

1990

The ultranationalist Black Dragon Society

1991

The ultranationalist Black Dragon Society with links to the Japanese government, military, and industrialists, is formed to prepare for a war with Russia