An Egyptian civilization that became a unified state
The pyramids represented a hierarchy.
Egypt then broke into separate cities for centuries
The pharaohs never fully regained their old power though.
The Hyksos spread chariot technology into Egypt to use in their own military forces.
A moral element was added in determining one's after life therefore democratizing the process.
Women had a significant degree of political power in Egypt which was seen as abnormal at the time.
The most famous city was Jenne-jeno because it had no government. These cities had economic specializations and acted as alternatives to the oppressive states in Africa.
Meroe was governed by an autocratic monarch who believed in human sacrifices. Meroe had economic specialization which meant more freedom from the government. Meroe also had long distance trading connections and was known for its great riches.
400 similar languages were created which brought cultural and linguistic unity to southern Africa thus making it a distinct region.
Axum was an agrarian society and served as the center for monumental buildings and art.
This encounter with Christianity gave Axum a religious link to Egypt until Egypt became Islamic
The introduction of camels made the trek across the Sahara possible thus turning the Sahara into an international trading route.
Meroe fell and split into three separate Nubian states who operated as Christian civilizations until they were later Islamized.
These Niger River Valley Civilizations were monarchies with elaborate courts and gained great riches from the Trans-Saharan Trade.
They developed religions that focused on the supernatural and had no missionary agendas.
The Fulbe were in the center of jihads that expanded the practice of Islam into their culture and give rise to a series of new states.
The Trans-Saharan Commerce went under a cultural transformation which led to the creation of large scale states and empires
Islam provided a link for West African states to Muslim trading partners. Africa didn't actually get Islamized religiously only economically and culturally.
These city states accumulated goods from the inside of Africa and participated in the Indian Ocean world network while Islamizing
They had farming village societies whose productivity generated larger populations. They traded locally and had cultural unity despite political fragmentation.
Slaves went to work in Islamic North Africa and were sold in Europe
It rose because of its great wealth from the Indian Ocean Commerce.
Slaves were removed from their homes and transported to the Americas adding diversity. It slowed Africa's growth and was a political disruption
A crucial intersection of the Trans Saharan trade routes. It also became a center of Islam but that was limited to urban elites.
A civilization made up of small cities off the coast of Peru. They had a rich fishing industry. They developed the quipu as an alternate form of writing. Norte Chico was the cultural model for all the Andean civilizations to come.
The Mississippi River Valley people domesticated local plants as opposed to hunting and gathering
It was a civilization along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. It had an agricultural economy and created the first written language in the Americas.
A blended religious movement that became a pilgrimage site and a training center which produced a widespread religious cult.
It spread through the US bringing archaeology, elaborate burial rituals, and astronomy knowledge.
These ecological problems made Moche vulnerable to neighbors and internal social tensions thus leading to its collapse.
The Maya made advances in math and astronomy and also developed an elaborate writing system.
It extracted tribute from other areas especially the Maya. The Teotihuacan put their people on the thrones of other civilizations and engaged in diplomatic relationships and long distance trade. Teotihuacan was a model for art and architecture.
These people lived in pit houses, traded locally, and were occasionally involved in large webs of commerce.
As a result, larger populations and more complex societies emerged especially in Cahokia who had a large urban presence
Mayan population dropped causing the civilization to collapse.
The Chacos were highly skilled astronomers so they went into the turquoise ornament business.
The center of a widespread trading network: the movement of goods around the US.
Political reforms were made and so was a peace alliance called the Great Law of Peace. The Iroquois League of Five Nations was formed to promote freedom and equality for all.
The Aztec Empire fostered many internal rebellions. The Aztecs participated in trade that stimulated the development of markets and the production of craft goods. Its religious beliefs kept it on the edge of catastrophe. Women and men were separate but equal.
Had a bureaucratic empire and attempted cultural integration. The Inca had economic relationships. Women and men were separate but equal.