History of the Internet

Main

In the Beginning

1962

This is the time before the word "internet" has even been invented!

The Race is On

1968

ARPA awarded the ARPANET contract to BBN.

Internet is Born

Oct 29, 1969

the first message on the ARPANET was "lo".

e-mail

1972

The first e-mail program was created by Ray Tomlinson of BBN.

Follow Protocol

1973

Development began on the protocol later to be called TCP/IP, it was developed by a group headed by Vinton Cerf from Stanford and Bob Kahn from DARPA.

Internet in Use

1974

First Use of term Internet by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in paper on Transmission Control Protocol.

Ethernet

1976

Dr. Robert M. Metcalfe develops the Ethernet.

BITNET

1979

The Creation of BITNET, by IBM.

NSF

1981

National Science Foundation created backbone called CSNET 56 Kbps network for institutions without access to ARPANET.

IAB

1983

Internet Activities Board (IAB) was created in 1983.

MILNET

1984

The ARPANET was divided into two networks: MILNET and ARPANET. MILNET was to serve the needs of the military and ARPANET to support the advanced research component, Department of Defense continued to support both networks.

T1

1985

The National Science Foundation began deploying its new T1 lines, which would be finished by 1988.

IETF

1986

The Internet Engineering Task Force or IETF was created to serve as a forum for technical coordination by contractors for DARPA working on ARPANET, US Defense Data Network (DDN), and the Internet core gateway system.

CSNET

1987

BITNET and CSNET merged to form the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN), another work of the National Science Foundation.

Network

1988

Soon after the completion of the T1 NSFNET backbone, traffic increased so quickly that plans immediately began on upgrading the network again.

MCI

1990

Merit, IBM and MCI formed a not for profit corporation called ANS, Advanced Network & Services, which was to conduct research into high speed networking.

Significant Contributions to the Internet

RAND

1962

Backbones: None - Hosts: None
Paul Baran, of the RAND Corporation (a government agency), was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to do a study on how it could maintain its command and control over its missiles and bombers, after a nuclear attack. This was to be a military research network that could survive a nuclear strike, decentralized so that if any locations (cities) in the U.S. were attacked, the military could still have control of nuclear arms for a counter-attack.

Contact

1968

Backbones: None - Hosts: None
The physical network was constructed in 1969, linking four nodes: University of California at Los Angeles, SRI (in Stanford), University of California at Santa Barbara, and University of Utah. The network was wired together via 50 Kbps circuits.

DARPA

1972

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET - Hosts: 4
The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was renamed The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (or DARPA). ARPANET was currently using the Network Control Protocol or NCP to transfer data. This allowed communications between hosts running on the same network.

TCP

1973

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET - Hosts: 23
This new protocol (TCP/IP) was to allow diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate with each other.

Forward

1974

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET - Hosts: 23+

SATNET

1976

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET - Hosts: 23+
The packet satellite project went into practical use. SATNET, Atlantic packet Satellite network, was born. This network linked the United States with Europe. Surprisingly, it used INTELSAT satellites that were owned by a consortium of countries and not exclusively the United States government.

USENET

1979

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 111+
USENET (the decentralized news group network) was created by Steve Bellovin, a graduate student at University of North Carolina, and programmers Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis. It was based on UUCP.

CSNET

1981

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 111+
Vinton Cerf proposed a plan for an inter-network connection between CSNET and the ARPANET.

DNS

1983

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 213
The University of Wisconsin created Domain Name System (DNS). This allowed packets to be directed to a domain name, which would be translated by the server database into the corresponding IP number. This made it much easier for people to access other servers, because they no longer had to remember numbers.

Faster

1984

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 562
Upgrade to CSNET was contracted to MCI. New circuits would be T1 lines,1.5 Mbps which is twenty-five times faster than the old 56 Kbps lines. IBM would provide advanced routers and Merit would manage the network. New network was to be called NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network), and old lines were to remain called CSNET.

To be Continued

1985

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 1024

DDN

1986

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 1961

Connections

1987

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 2308

Satellite

1988

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 28,174

CERN

1990

Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 56,000
NSF quickly adopted the new network and by the end of 1991 all of its sites were connected by this new backbone. While the T3 lines were being constructed, the Department of Defense disbanded the ARPANET and it was replaced by the NSFNET backbone. The original 50Kbs lines of ARPANET were taken out of service. Tim Berners-Lee and CERN in Geneva implements a hypertext system to provide efficient information access to the members of the international high-energy physics community.