Art, Culture, and Institutions
- Fusion of Gaulic and Roman culture
- Most influential book by one person
- Studied by all Muslim priests
-Commentaries on the Qu-ran
-Not always accepted
- Allah = God
-Traces back to Abraham
- Saw Trinity as a perversion of monotheism
- Believed to be the verbatim word of Allah.
- Muslims believe the Quran to be verbally revealed through the angel Gabriel from Allah to Muhammad gradually over a period of approximately 23 years
- Definition: struggle against one's base nature
- Alternate interpretation: struggle against non-muslims
- A list of the core beliefs and practices of Islam
1.) Profession of Allah
3.) Giving Arms
4.) Fasting during Ramadan
- Representatives of Muhammad who took the mantle of religious authority after his death.
Islamic Accomplishments and Contributions
661 ad - 1058 ad
-Many routes passed through Muslim world
-Used carrier pigeons
-Introduction of Sugar 837 ad
-Made use of paper in 707 ad
-Influenced Spanish architecture
-Guitar and lute
-City of Damascus 140,000 pop.
-City of Baghdad 800,000 pop.
Mayors of the Palace
- An office of the King held by a lord who essentially carried out the King's secular duties but was not a king himself.
- Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel, challenges this dichotomy
800 ad - 1400 ad
- A set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs.
- The Lord vested a fief upon his vassal who was expected to serve him as a knight when called upon to do so. Also owed were consul and aid.
- Reflected alienation of royal rights from above
- No opportunity for upward mobility in class system
800 ad - 1400 ad
- Transition from the two-field to the three-field system of agriculture
- Few peasants owned their own land. instead they worked land owned by the lord of the manor and supervised by a steward or bailiff.
- Peasants owed labor services, a percentage of their produce, and fees for certain activities.
- Extracted agricultural surplus from peasants
- Lord received a cut of everything
- Islamic warriors begin to press the Western realm of Charlemagne's old empire from Spain.
- Related to the Huns, a warrior like, nomadic people
- Presented a considerable threat to the Eastern portion of the remnant of Charlemagne's empire.
The King's Officials
-Chief clerk / secretary / record keeper
-Typically a Church man
-Protected a king's treasury and room
-Took care of the king's stable and guard
-Took care of the king's food
- Shire-Reeves (Sheriffs)
-Upheld the king's law
- Nomadic warrior tribes
- Sack Baghdad in 1055 ad
- Capture Israel in 1070 ad
The Dooms Day Book
- Survey ordered by William the Conqueror of people, land, and wealth of the English country.
- Resources and leisure increases due to cities which evolves into Chivalry
- Traditional code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood.
-Began as contest where knights fought with wooden swords to keep in shape
- Symbolic of the violence of the time period.
- Erected to protect feudal lord's and their patrons
- Most medieval cities were very small by modern conventions, with around 5,000 inhabitants
- London and Bradges had 40,000 while some Italian cities like Florence had 100,000 pop.
- "Stadtluff macht frei" -city air makes free
-A guild existed for each major city industry
-Consisted of 3 levels -Apprentice ship, Journeyman, Master
- Alderman and Mayor
-Masters from various guilds that ran the city
-People who live in towns or cities
- Church disapproved of common city practice -"Usury" ( charging interest) - as a sin
The Knights Templar
1119 ad - 1312 ad
- Established to provide security to Christian pilgrims
- influential order, practiced international banking.
- Committed themselves to poverty as followers of Peter Waldo
- The movement was started partly in response to the schisms that had consumed the Catholic church in the 12th century and advocated a return to the vows of poverty and preaching of the Gospel as advocated by Jesus and his disciples in the New Testament.
- Originally a reform movement within the Catholic Church, the movement was declared heretical by 1215 ad and became persecuted by Church officials.
1208 ad - 1229 ad
- Believed in an eternal conflict between the forces of the god of good and those of the god of evil.
- Believed the god of the old testament was the evil god
- The evil god created the Church, which explained why it was so corrupt and evil
- Jesus was only an angel
- Pope Innocent III called on kings and nobles to exterminate the "infection by the sword."
-Carried out almost to perfection by Dominican and Franciscan inquisitors
1265 ad - 1274 ad
- Presents the reasoning for almost all points of Christian theology in the West.
- Written as a introduction for Catholic theology students
- Written by Thomas Aquinas
The Divine Comedy
- The poem's imaginative and allegorical vision of the afterlife is a culmination of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church
- On the surface, the poem describes Dante's travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven; but at a deeper level, it represents allegorically the soul's journey towards God.
1330 ad - 1350 ad
- Led by John Wycliffe
- Rejected the acquisition of temporal wealth by Church leaders as accumulating wealth led them away from religious concerns and toward greed.
- Believed that the Sacrament of Eucharist is a contradictory topic that is not clearly defined in the Bible. Whether the bread remains bread or becomes the literal body of Christ is not specified uniformly in the gospels.
- Officials of the Church should not concern themselves with secular matters when they hold a position of power within the Church because this constitutes a conflict of interest between matters of the spirit and matters of the State.
- Pointed out the ludicrousness, in the minds of Lollards, of the reverence that is directed toward images in the Church. "If the cross of Christ, the nails, spear, and crown of thorns are to be honoured, then why not honour Judas's lips, if only they could be found?
- The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.
- Philosophical pursuit of what humans are capable of achieving