Timeline 3 : The Middle Ages

Covers material extending from the Merovingians and Carolingians in the 8th century AD through the Reformation of the 16th century.


Ages, Empires, and Civilizations

The Spread of Islam

510 ad - 1200 ad

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  • Monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a holy book considered to be the word of God (Allāh) by the teachings of Muhammad who is considered by Muslims to be the last prophet of God.
  • Followers known as Muslims
  • Follow the teachings of Muhammad
  • Consists of two denominations: Shi'ites 15% and Sunni 85%
  • Realm consisted of modern day Spain, Northern Africa, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and parts of Turkey.


511 ad - 751 ad
  • Descendants of King Clovis I and rulers of the Franks until their deposition by Pepin the Short in 751 ad.

Umayyad Dynasty

661 ad - 750 ad
  • First came to power under the third Caliph, Uthman
  • Continued the Muslim conquests
  • At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate covered 5.79 million square miles, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen, and the fifth largest ever to exist
  • Conquered -Jerusalem 638 ad -Egypt 641 ad -Persia 650 ad -Constantinople 674 ad -Finally halted by the Battle of Tours 732 ad
  • Chose Damascus as Capital 635 ad

Abbasid Empire

750 ad - 1058 ad
  • Shifted Muslim capital to Baghdad


751 ad - 888 ad
  • The Frankish descendants of Charlemagne that ruled over the fragments of his kingdom after his death which included France, Germany, and part of Spain and Italy.

The Age of the Viking

800 ad - 1200 ad

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  • Warriors from Northern Europe such as Scandinavia that sought to pillage a weakened Carolingian empire.
  • Employed wooden longships with wide, shallow-draft hulls, allowing navigation in rough seas or in shallow river waters. -The ships could be landed on beaches, and their light weight enabled them to be carried over portages.
    -Allowed the Vikings to travel as far east as Constantinople and the Volga River in Russia, as far west as Iceland.
  • Attacked on a seasonal basis
  • Attacked Paris in 856, 861, 865 ad
  • Sacked Aachen in 881 ad

Formation of Medieval Europe

900 ad - 1400 ad

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  • It was in the aftermath of the chaos of the 9th century that some of the distinctive structures of medieval society developed.
  • Feudalism
  • Castles
  • Manorialism
  • Medieval Cities
  • Chivalry (Defined individually in following sections)

Reform of the Catholic Church and Papacy

910 ad - 1049 ad
  • In 910 William of Aquitaine authorized the foundation of the abbey of Cluny, which would become a major force for reform.
  • Emperor Henry III appointed the reforming Pope Leo IX 1049 ad who organized the College of Cardinals

The Crusades

1095 ad - 1204 ad
  • A series of Religious campaigns carried out by Christian knights against the Muslim world to recapture the "Holy Lands"
  • Sicily reconquered in the 11th century leads to consideration of conquering elsewhere
  • Muslim world left weakened by Seljuk Turks
  • Created window of opportunity for crusaders
  • Long Term Consequences -Preserved Byzantine Empire for a little while longer -Pope's influence grows -Contributes to centralization -Opened Christian and Muslim world's to one another -> Sugar; classical knowledge rediscovered.

The Renaissance

1300 ad - 1600 ad

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  • Means "Rebirth"
  • A cultural movement encompassed an innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch
  • The development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform.

The Babylonian Captivity

1309 ad - 1377 ad
  • The Popes, all French, reside at Avignon and are influenced by the French Monarchy

The Hundred Years War

1337 ad - 1453 ad

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  • Conflict between England and France
  • In 1337 ad the King of France dies and the King of England claims the throne.
  • For the first two-thirds of the war England is winning
  • Short periods of peace throughout conflict
  • English held advantage with Welsh Longbows which could pierce a knight's armor
  • Henry V of England forces king of France to disinherit his son, and to give his daughter to Henry along with his throne.
  • Henry V and French king both die and Henry's infant son becomes king.
  • Joan of Arc lead's French resistance, but is later captured and burned at the stake as a witch
  • Charles VII of France makes use of the cannon to reconquer France and ends the conflict

The Great Schism

1378 ad - 1417 ad
  • Begins with French cardinals electing a new Italian pope -Quickly regret decision, and elect a new French Pope
  • Both Italian and French pope excommunicate one another
  • Council of Pisa 1409 ad -Council deposes both popes and selects a third new pope -Old popes refuse to recognize new pope -Decide to throw a bigger council
  • Council of Constance 1414 - 1418 ad -Two popes step down, one refuses -Pick a new pope - Martin V 1417 -1431 ad

The Reformation

1517 ad - 1648 ad
  • The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals, leadership, and ecclesiastical structure of the Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches

Key Individuals

King Clovis I

466 ad - 511 ad

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  • The first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes of Gaul under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
  • Founder of the Merovingian Dynasty
  • Made Paris his Capital
  • Became king at age 15, ruthless
  • Used Bishops to work government institutions
  • Dynasty included all of France, parts of Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium.
  • Had several sons that continued expansion as warlords primarily

Gregory of Tours

538 ad - 594 ad
  • Came from older Roman aristocracy
  • Bishop of Tours
  • Could read and write in Latin
  • Main contemporary source for Merovingian history
  • Known for the "Historia Francorum"

The Prophet Muhammad

570 ad - 632 ad
  • Born in Mecca on the Arabian Peninsula
  • Was a merchant who traveled extensively
  • 610 ad Muhammad has visions and talks to the angel Gabriel
  • 622 ad flees Mecca and heads to Medina -Year 0 in Muslim calendar
  • Rededicates the ka'aba shrine -Tears down shrines to "false gods"

Abu Baker

632 ad - 634 ad
  • Father-in-law of t Muhammad.
  • Ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632–634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death.


634 ad - 644 ad
  • One of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs
    • He was a companion of Muhammad.
    • Succeeded Caliph Abu Bakr
    • The Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate under Umar ruling the whole Sassanid Persian Empire and more than two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire.
    • Set aside the Christian ban on Jews and allowed Jews into Jerusalem and to worship


644 - 655
  • A companion of Muhammad
  • Third Caliph
  • Notable achievements were the economic reforms he introduced, and the compilation of the Qur'an into the unified, authoritative text that is known today


655 ad - 661 ad
  • The cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad
  • Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the Rashidun (rightly guided Caliphs), while Shias regard Ali as the first Imam and consider him and his descendants the rightful successors to Muhammad.

Charles Martel

688 ad - 741 ad

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  • Mayor of the Palace of Francia
  • Famous for winning the Battle of Tours (732ad) -Utilized the Stirrup -Stopped the spread of Islam from Spain into the rest of Europe
  • Son was Pepin the Short

Alcuin of York

735 ad - 804 ad
  • Head of Charlemagne's palace school in Aachen -Objective was to find, collect, and restore as much classical literature and heritage as possible.
  • 90% of all ancient works we have today of Rome survived thanks to the efforts made by these scholars
  • School encouraged study of trivium and the quadrivium (the seven liberal arts).
  • Created a new font of writing -Lowercase letters

Pepin the Short

752 ad - 768 ad
  • Mayor of the Palace after his father Charles Martel
  • Asked himself why he should not be king
  • Attempted to stage a coupe and sought Pope Stephen II as an ally. -They make a deal to create the Papal States
  • Successfully gained power, took the last of the Marovingian kings and made them monks.
  • His son was Charles the Great


768 ad - 814 ad
  • Also known as Charles the Great -Son of Pepin the Short
  • Descendants known as Carolingians -Controlled France, Germany, part of Spain, and Itally
  • Fought 53 military campaigns
  • Aspired to be like Roman emperors of old.
  • Named Aachen as Capital of his empire
  • Paired secular and religious officials together to carry out his will
  • Respected local laws, but also introduced broader encompassing laws.
  • Became emperor in 800 ad -Met with Pope Leo III who crowned him emperor on Christmas Day -Caused tension and uncertainty over who held power over whom
  • Patron of learning and the arts -Created a school in Aachen

Lothair I

817 ad - 855 ad
  • Grandson of Charlemagne who ruled over the central kingdom of his grandfather's old empire, including Italy.

Charles the Bald

843 ad - 877 ad
  • Grandson of Charlemagne who ruled over the Western region of his grandfather's empire in France.
  • Known for being - bald.

Louis the German

843 ad - 876 ad
  • Grandson of Charlemagne and ruler of the eastern portion of his grandfather's empire.

Alfred the Great

871 ad - 899 ad
  • King of Wessex, England
  • Established his capital in Winchester
  • Successful general and scholar who translated classical works

Otto I

936 ad - 973 ad
  • The founder of the Holy Roman Empire and ruler of the Germanic region, reigning from 936 until his death in 973.
  • Attempted to consolidate power by filling Church leadership positions with relatives
  • Successful military leader -Fought off the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld
  • Married his son off to the Byzantine Empire
  • Crowned emperor in Rome


980 ad - 1037 ad
  • Physician who wrote textbooks on medicine
  • Commented on Aristotle's works

Hugh Capet

987 ad - 996 ad
  • The Capetian kings struggled to rule France from their capital Paris in the le-de-France
  • Picked as king since he was a weaker noble
  • Made capital of France, Paris
  • Duke and Feudal lord
  • Had support of the Church

William the Conqueror

1035 ad - 1037 ad
  • Duke of Normandy later King of England 1066 ad -Defeats Harold and takes the throne
  • Most powerful French noble
  • Built a series of large castles -Tower of London
  • Replaced nobles with Norman nobles -Made them weak by giving them discontiguous land
  • Created the DoomsDay Book in 1086 -Survey of people, land, and wealth. -Allowed for a tax system.
  • Descendant of Vikings
  • Became conscious of the Church and educators
  • Promoted the Feudal system
  • Made Bishops and Abbots Vassals
  • Had an army of 1,000 knights

Edward the Confessor

1066 ad
  • One of the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England and is usually regarded as the last king of the House of Wessex
  • Died in the Battle of Hastings
  • Throne claimed by Harold and Duke of Normandy

Pope Urban II

1088 ad - 1099 ad
  • Called for the First Crusade to reclaim Jerusalem for Christianity
  • Organized the Council of Clermont 1095 where he gave his famous speech


1126 ad - 1198 ad
  • Recognized tentions between Greek world views and Qu'ran.
  • Proposed idea of "Double Truth"

Saint Dominic and the Dominican Order

1170 ad - 1221 ad
  • A Spanish nobleman who had preached against the Cathari in Southern France.
  • Insisted his followers engage in education
  • Dominican friars became the chief operators of the Inquisition.
  • They became known as hounds of the Lord.


1174 ad - 1193 ad

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  • Led Islamic opposition against the European Crusaders
  • His reportedly noble and chivalrous behavior was noted by Christian chroniclers, and despite being the nemesis of the Crusaders, he won the respect of many of them, including Richard the Lionheart who led the Third Crusade

Saint Francis of Assisi and the Franciscan Order

1181 ad - 1226 ad
  • Abandoned his wealth and devoted himself to imitating Christ.
  • Dressed as a beggar and wandered to villages preaching and helping the poor.
  • Attracted disciples known as "Little Brothers"
  • Transformed over time into a agency of papal authority.
  • Movement encouraged university education
  • Those who protested against changes were persecuted and in some cases burned at the stake

Richard the Lionheart

1189 ad - 1199 ad
  • Leader of the Third Crusade and King of England
  • Known for his reputation as a great military leader and warrior

Pope Innocent III

1198 ad - 1216 ad
  • Papal theocracy reaches its zenith
  • Made the papacy the center of European political life by following the traditions put forth by Gregory the VII, he forcefully asserted the papal monarchy.
  • Claimed the authority to intervene in the internal affairs of secular rulers when they threatened the good of Christendom
  • Made use of interdicts - a temporary ban on a group or area preventing them from participating in religious rites.
  • Called for the Fourth Crusade and persecution of the Cathari
  • Brought about the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 ad

The Fourth Crusade

1202 ad - 1204 ad
  • Crusaders needed ships so they captured Zara, a political enemy of Venice, in exchange for ships
  • Land in Constantinople -Decide to conquer Constantinople instead
  • Pope Innocent III excommunicates entire army
  • Last Christian stronghold falls in 1291

Saint Thomas Aquinas

1225 ad - 1274 ad
  • Rejected the position that philosophy could corrupt faith
  • Upheld the value of human reason and natural knowledge
  • Argued faith and reason did not conflict, but supported one another
  • Attempted to combine Aristotle's philosophical arguments with religious context through a series of "proofs."
  • Wrote the "Summa Theologica"


1265 ad - 1321 ad
  • A major Italian poet of the Middle Ages and author of the Divine Comedy
  • Condemned to exiled in 1301 from Rome when the Black Guelphs came to power - Dante was a White Guelph

Boniface VIII

1294 ad - 1303 ad
  • Claims to be lord of all Europe by divine authority
  • Gets mugged by Philip IV's thugs
  • French kings influence the election of the next few popes


1304 ad - 1374 ad
  • Father of Humanism
  • Lived during the medieval decline
  • Passionate scholar of classical literature
  • Discovered lost texts
  • Decided commonage Latin was bad; classical Latin was good
  • Wrote letters to dead famous classical figures
  • Put forth idea of "Medieval Ages"

John Wycliffe

1320 ad - 1384 ad
  • A forerunner of the Protestant Reformation and leader of the Lollards
  • Preached anticlerical and biblically-centred reforms.
  • Also an early advocate for a new translation of the Bible into the common language. He completed his translation directly from the Vulgate into English in the year 1382 ad
  • Active before the invention of the printing press
  • Allied with the English secular ruling elites
  • Dug up and cremated by angry Catholics
  • Influenced Martin Luther

Jan Hus

1369 ad - 1415 ad
  • Lived during the Council of Constance
  • Preached against the corruption of the Church and the Eucharist
  • Emperor gave him a safe conduit to the Council, but was arrested and put on trial
  • Convicted of heresy and sentenced to burn at the stake.
  • Followers known as Hussites

Lorenzo Valla

1407 ad - 1457 ad
  • Expert in classical Latin, could date works almost perfectly
  • Studied the Donation of Constantine -Argued it was a fake -Latin style didn't fit the time period -Created conflict and further influenced Martin Luther

Joan of Arc

1412 ad - 1431 ad

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  • Peasant French woman who had visons that the disinherited Prince of France would beat the English
  • Took over the French forces and began to fight back and made significant progress
  • Captured by the English and tried as a witch and burned at the stake.

Charles VII of France

1422 ad - 1461 ad
  • Makes use of early cannon to reconquer France and brings about the end of the Hundred Years War.

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 ad - 1519 ad
  • An Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.
  • Famous for his inventions as well as his paintings the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper


1466 ad - 1536 ad
  • Produced a new Greek version of the New Testament
  • Basis for Luther's and Tindel's Bibles


1475 ad - 1564 ad
  • An Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
  • Famous for his sculptures the Pieta and David as well as his painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

Martin Luther

1483 ad - 1546 ad
  • Converted after surviving a lightning storm
  • Became a monk and doctor of theology
  • Eventually became a critic of the Church from the inside -Spoke out against indulgences specifically -Ability to buy forgiveness of sins
  • Believed in "Sola fides et sola scriptura" - By faith and scripture alone
  • Posted his 95 Theses on the door of the church of Wittenberg in 1517 ad
  • Held a public debate about indulgences with Leipzig in 1519 ad
  • Excommunicated in 1520 ad
  • Publishes his major theological works in 1520 ad
  • Called to the Diet of Worms in 1521 ad
  • Translated a the Bible into German in 1522 ad
  • When he left Wittenburg, a peasant's revolt arose in 1525 ad

Ulrich Zwingli

1484 ad - 1531 ad
  • A leader of the Reformation in Switzerland and contemporary of Martin Luther.
  • Disagreed with Luther over the Eucharist

John Calvin

1509 ad - 1564 ad
  • An influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.
  • Published the "Institutes" which explained and outlined Protestantism
  • Organized church leadership

Henry VIII

1509 ad - 1547 ad
  • Supported the Catholic church at first, known as the "Defender of the Faith"
  • 1st wife was Catherine of Aragon -Refused to divorce the king when she couldn't bear a son -Devote Catholic
  • Breaks away from the Catholic Church to get a divorce
  • Marries Anne Boleyn
  • Son Edward becomes king and makes the England Protestant
  • Daughter Mary "Bloody Mary" kills Protestants and makes England Catholic again
  • Her daughter, Queen Elizabeth the Great, makes the kingdom Protestant again.

Important Events

Battle of Tours

732 ad
  • Charles Martel defeats the Umayyad Muslim forces near the city of Tours in France effectively halting the spread of Islam into Europe.

The Division of Charlemagne's Empire

843 ad
  • Charlemagne's grandsons divided his empire in the Treaty of Verdun 843 ad -Split into France, Central Kingdom of Lothairs, and Germany -Ruled respectively by Charles the Bald, Lothair, and Louis the German

Vikings Sack Aachen

881 ad
  • Vikings sack Charlemagne's old capital city, signifying the end of the Carolingian dynasty.

Foundation of the Abbey of Cluny

910 ad
  • In 910 William of Aquitaine authorized the foundation of the Abbey of Cluny, which would become a major force for reform.

Peace of God

989 ad
  • Tried to limit Medieval violence by who could be killed -No monks, priests, or nuns -No women or children -No unarmed men

Truce of God

989 ad
  • Tried to limit when fighting could occur -Not on Sundays -Not during Lent -Not on any religious holidays

The Battle of Hastings

1066 ad
  • William the Conqueror defeats Harold and takes the throne as King of England in London.

Battle of Manzikert

1071 ad
  • Seljuk Turks slaughter Byzantine army

Investiture Controversy

1075 ad - 1106 ad
  • Series of disputes over authority between Henry IV of the holy Roman Empire and Pope Gregory the VII.
  • Began over dispute over who could appoint archbishop of Milan
  • Gregory argued it wasn't the right of the Emperor
  • Investiture - the act of giving the winner their power and instruments of power
  • Gregory writes the Dictatus Papae -Pope has the greatest power in Christendom
  • Henry refuses to acknowledge the Pope's power -Gregory excommunicates Henry -Henry appears before the Pope, stays out in the snow for 3 days, finally forgiven

Council of Clermont

1095 ad
  • Pope Urban II calls for Christian Knights to take up arms and recapture Jerusalem from the Muslim world.

The First Crusade

1095 ad - 1099 ad
  • Pope Urban II want to reconquer Jerusalem -Mobilizes the West by holding a series of Church councils -1095 Council of Clermont, he calls upon Christian Knights to take up arms against the Muslims
  • Camp outside Constantinople first
  • Continue march to the south and lay siege to Antioch -Begin to despair when a priest has a dream about the spear used to kill Christ
  • Continue south and lay siege to Jerusalem 1099 ad and slaughter everyone in the city.
  • Only crusade to actually accomplish its goals.

Concordant of Worms

1122 ad
  • King picks Church officials, Church gives them their power

The Second Crusade

1147 ad - 1149 ad
  • County of Edessa falls to Muslim conquerors
  • Attempt to reconquer Edessa
  • King of France and Germany combine forces, but fail due to distrust between the two

The Third Crusade

1189 ad - 1192 ad
  • Jerusalem is reconquered by Saladin
  • Richard I King of England (The Lionheart) is unsuccessful in recapturing Jerusalem -Signs treaty allowing Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem

Fourth Lateran Council

1215 ad
  • Declared any laws detrimental to the Church null and void.
  • Required Catholics to confess their sins at least once a year
  • Exempted Church officials from taxation.
  • Solidified the Church's dominance during this time period.

Papacy Moved to Avignon, France

1309 ad
  • French pope moves into Avignon and into the French sphere of influence.

The Black Death

1347 ad - 1351 ad

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  • The Black Death reaches Italian ports and ravages all of Europe.
  • Kills a third to almost half of Europe's population
  • Results in many peasant revolts

The Papacy Returns to Rome

1377 ad
  • Pope Gregory XI returns the papacy to Rome from France

English Bible

1382 ad
  • English version of the Bible was translated from the Vulgate by John Wycliffe.

Council of Pisa

1409 ad
  • Depose both French and Italian popes.
  • Old popes refuse to step down
  • Cardinals decide to have a bigger council to solve the problem

Council of Constance

1414 ad - 1418 ad
  • Two old popes step down, one refuses
  • Council picks a new pope - Martin V 1417-1431 ad
  • Ends the schism

Invention of the Printing Press

1439 ad
  • Printing press invented by Johannes Gutenburg
  • Changes dynamic of scholarship
  • Arguably one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind

The Donation of Constantine

1440 ad
  • A forged Roman imperial decree by which the emperor Constantine I supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope.
  • Declared a fraud in 1440 ad by Lorenzo Valla

Fall of Constantinople

1453 ad
  • Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks
  • Brings influx of knowledge from the East

Council of Trent

1545 ad - 1563 ad
  • Called by the Catholic Church to address the Protestant movement
  • Called too late to effect any successful change

Art, Culture, and Institutions


466 ad - 511 ad
  • Fusion of Gaulic and Roman culture
  • Civilized

The Qu'ran

630 ad
  • Most influential book by one person
  • Studied by all Muslim priests
  • Hadith -Commentaries on the Qu-ran -Not always accepted
  • Allah = God -Traces back to Abraham
  • Saw Trinity as a perversion of monotheism
  • Believed to be the verbatim word of Allah.
  • Muslims believe the Quran to be verbally revealed through the angel Gabriel from Allah to Muhammad gradually over a period of approximately 23 years


631 ad
  • Definition: struggle against one's base nature
  • Alternate interpretation: struggle against non-muslims

The Five Pillars

632 ad
  • A list of the core beliefs and practices of Islam 1.) Profession of Allah 2.) Prayer 3.) Giving Arms 4.) Fasting during Ramadan 5.) Hajj


633 ad
  • Representatives of Muhammad who took the mantle of religious authority after his death.

Islamic Accomplishments and Contributions

661 ad - 1058 ad
  • Trade -Many routes passed through Muslim world -Used carrier pigeons -Introduction of Sugar 837 ad -Made use of paper in 707 ad
  • Architecture -Influenced Spanish architecture
  • Music -Musical terminology -Guitar and lute
  • Urbanization -City of Damascus 140,000 pop. -City of Baghdad 800,000 pop.
  • Philosophy -Avicenna -Averroes

Mayors of the Palace

732 ad
  • An office of the King held by a lord who essentially carried out the King's secular duties but was not a king himself.
  • Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel, challenges this dichotomy


800 ad - 1400 ad

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  • A set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs.
  • The Lord vested a fief upon his vassal who was expected to serve him as a knight when called upon to do so. Also owed were consul and aid.
  • Reflected alienation of royal rights from above
  • No opportunity for upward mobility in class system


800 ad - 1400 ad
  • Transition from the two-field to the three-field system of agriculture
  • Few peasants owned their own land. instead they worked land owned by the lord of the manor and supervised by a steward or bailiff.
  • Peasants owed labor services, a percentage of their produce, and fees for certain activities.
  • Extracted agricultural surplus from peasants
  • Lord received a cut of everything


880 ad
  • Islamic warriors begin to press the Western realm of Charlemagne's old empire from Spain.


888 ad
  • Related to the Huns, a warrior like, nomadic people
  • Presented a considerable threat to the Eastern portion of the remnant of Charlemagne's empire.

The King's Officials

1000 ad
  • Chancellor -Chief clerk / secretary / record keeper -Typically a Church man
  • Chamberlain -Protected a king's treasury and room
  • Constable -Took care of the king's stable and guard
  • Steward -Took care of the king's food
  • Shire-Reeves (Sheriffs) -Upheld the king's law

Seljuk Turks

1030 ad
  • Nomadic warrior tribes
  • Sack Baghdad in 1055 ad
  • Capture Israel in 1070 ad

The Dooms Day Book

1086 ad
  • Survey ordered by William the Conqueror of people, land, and wealth of the English country.

Medieval Castles

1100 ad

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  • Symbolic of the violence of the time period.
  • Erected to protect feudal lord's and their patrons

Medieval Cities

1100 ad
  • Most medieval cities were very small by modern conventions, with around 5,000 inhabitants
  • London and Bradges had 40,000 while some Italian cities like Florence had 100,000 pop.
  • "Stadtluff macht frei" -city air makes free
  • Guilds -A guild existed for each major city industry -Consisted of 3 levels -Apprentice ship, Journeyman, Master
  • Alderman and Mayor -Masters from various guilds that ran the city
  • Bourgeoisie -People who live in towns or cities -Middle class
  • Church disapproved of common city practice -"Usury" ( charging interest) - as a sin


1100 ad
  • Resources and leisure increases due to cities which evolves into Chivalry
  • Traditional code of conduct associated with the medieval institution of knighthood.
  • Tournaments -Jousting -Began as contest where knights fought with wooden swords to keep in shape

The Knights Templar

1119 ad - 1312 ad
  • Established to provide security to Christian pilgrims
  • influential order, practiced international banking.

The Waldensians

1177 ad
  • Committed themselves to poverty as followers of Peter Waldo
  • The movement was started partly in response to the schisms that had consumed the Catholic church in the 12th century and advocated a return to the vows of poverty and preaching of the Gospel as advocated by Jesus and his disciples in the New Testament.
  • Originally a reform movement within the Catholic Church, the movement was declared heretical by 1215 ad and became persecuted by Church officials.

The Cathari

1208 ad - 1229 ad
  • Believed in an eternal conflict between the forces of the god of good and those of the god of evil.
  • Believed the god of the old testament was the evil god
  • The evil god created the Church, which explained why it was so corrupt and evil
  • Jesus was only an angel
  • Pope Innocent III called on kings and nobles to exterminate the "infection by the sword." -Carried out almost to perfection by Dominican and Franciscan inquisitors

Summa Theologica

1265 ad - 1274 ad
  • Presents the reasoning for almost all points of Christian theology in the West.
  • Written as a introduction for Catholic theology students
  • Written by Thomas Aquinas

The Divine Comedy

1321 ad
  • The poem's imaginative and allegorical vision of the afterlife is a culmination of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church
  • On the surface, the poem describes Dante's travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven;[4] but at a deeper level, it represents allegorically the soul's journey towards God.


1330 ad - 1350 ad
  • Led by John Wycliffe
  • Rejected the acquisition of temporal wealth by Church leaders as accumulating wealth led them away from religious concerns and toward greed.
  • Believed that the Sacrament of Eucharist is a contradictory topic that is not clearly defined in the Bible. Whether the bread remains bread or becomes the literal body of Christ is not specified uniformly in the gospels.
  • Officials of the Church should not concern themselves with secular matters when they hold a position of power within the Church because this constitutes a conflict of interest between matters of the spirit and matters of the State.
  • Pointed out the ludicrousness, in the minds of Lollards, of the reverence that is directed toward images in the Church. "If the cross of Christ, the nails, spear, and crown of thorns are to be honoured, then why not honour Judas's lips, if only they could be found?


1347 ad
  • The support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.


1350 ad
  • Philosophical pursuit of what humans are capable of achieving