History GCSE

Peace Treaties

Locarno Treaty

1925

Germany accepts borders
Britain + Italy promise to defend France
Germany + France will go to L.N. to settle future disputes
Germany admitted into L.N.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

1928

War condemned
All countries promise to settle future dispute by peaceful negotiations
HOWEVER: no consequences put in place for those who break promises

League of Nations

Germany Enters

1926

USSR Joins L.N.

1934

Italy Leaves

1937

USSR Voted Out

1939

Only 7/15 vote for USSR to be kicked out (+3 were added the day before by Britain!)

Manchuria

Mukden Incident

September 1931

South Manchuria Railway 'attacked by Chinese'
Japan invades in response

Puppet Government Set Up

February 1932

Pu Yi (last Chinese Emperor) becomes head of a puppet government set up in Manchukuo by the Japanese

Lord Lytton's Report

September 1932

Lord Lytton's report strongly condemns the Japanese

Japan Announces Invasion + Report Approved

February 1933

Japan announces plan to invade more of China
All but Japan approve Lord Lytton's report

Japan Withdraws From L.N.

March 1933

Japan Invades Jehol

April 1933

Abyssinia

Wal-Wal Incident

December 1934

Abyssinian + Italian soldiers have a dispute at Wal-Wal (80km into Abyssinia)

Negotiations with L.N.

January 1935 - October 1935

During this period Mussolini ships army to Africa and drums up support for war within Italy

Stresa Pact Signed

April 1935

Britain, France +Italy
strong condemnation of German rearmament
commitment to stand united against Germany

L.N. Report on Wal-Wal Incident

4 September 1935

Neither side can be held responsible
Italy to be given a small amount of land as compensation

Italian Invasion of Abyssinia

October 1935 - May 1936

Economic sanctions:
arms ban
all imports from Italy banned
rubber, tin + other metal exports to Italy banned
all loans to Italy banned
NO OIL BAN

Hoare-Laval Plan Leaked

December 1935

Hoare = British F.M.
Laval = French F.M.
Plan to give 2/3 of Abyssinia to Italy in return for stopping the invasion

Hitler

Germany Leaves L.N.

1933

Anschluss Attempted

1934

Anschluss with Austria attempted but blocked by Italy
Mussolini doesn't Germany to get stronger + Italy to look weak

Conscription Reintroduced

1934

Germany Openly Rearms

1935

Saar Plebiscite

1935

Saar plebiscite overwhelmingly supports being part of Germany
prestige boost for Hitler
Saar contains lots of coal and steel industry

Anglo-German Naval Treaty

1935

Germany allowed to expand its navy to 35% of Britain's fleet
France not consulted

German Involvement in Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1937

Why?

Provides a distraction to Hitler's central Europe ambitions

Ideology - Fascism vs. Communism

Hitler thought General Franco could be a potential new ally

Allows Hitler's airforce to test out new machinery and to gain experience

Rhineland Remilitarised

7 March 1936

Hitler remilitarises the Rhineland. Troops given orders to withdraw at any sign of French resistance

Rome-Berlin Axis

October 1936

Stresa Front completely destroyed

Anti-Comintern Pact Signed with Japan

November 1936

Italy joins Anti-Cominterm Pact

1937

German Troops Enter Austria (Anschluss)

March 1938

Hitler Plans to Absorb the Sudetenland into Germany

May 1938

The Munich Agreement

29 September 1938

Britain, Germany, France + Italy
No discussions with the Czechs or the USSR

Parts of Czechoslovakia Occupied

1 October 1938

Germany - Sudetenland
Hungary - Ruthenia + other border areas
Poland - Teschen

Germany Prepared for War

1939

Warships - 95
Aircraft - 8,250
Soldiers - 1,000,000

Rest of Czechoslovakia Invaded by Germany

March 1939

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

August 1939

Molotov - Soviet F.M.
Ribbentrop - Nazi F.M.

Cold War

Yalta Conference

February 1945

Agreed:

Churchill, Roosevelt + Stalin
USSR ----> Japan (after Hitler defeated)
Germany (+Berlin) to be split into 4 sections
Free elections for Eastern European countries

Not Agreed:

Western edge of Russia's border

Poland's government - London vs. Lublin Poles

Hitler Defeated

May 1945

Potsdam Conference

July 1945

Agreed:

Trial of leading Nazis as war criminals

Repatriation of Germans

Not Agreed:

Truman blocks Stalin's demand for reparations

Truman blocks USSR occupation of Japan

Stalin blocks US + British involvement in E. Europe

Truman Doctrine Announced

March 1947

Marshall Plan Announced

June 1947

$13bn

16 West European countries

Cominform Set Up

September 1947

Draws together all the Communist parties of Europe

Includes Communist parties of France + Italy

Cominform Set Up

October 1947

Communist Takeover of Czechoslovakia

February 1948

Last remaining remaining democratic Eastern European country

Cabinet = 1/3 communist, 2/3 non-communist

Berlin Blockade

June 1948 - May 1949

2 million tons of supplies flown in

275,000 flights

2.5 million West Berliners kept fed + warmed

Molotov Plan

1949

Soviet equivalent of Marshall Plan

Germany Fully Split Up

1949

West Germany = German Federal Republic

East Germany = German Democratic Republic

NATO Set Up

April 1949

Soviet Development of Atomic Bomb

September 1949

Russian Depth Study