BE103 - Chronology

Astronomical Events

Total Solar Eclipse

763 bc

Reported in the eponym list of Bursagale. Occured during reign of Assur-dan III, Assyrian eclipse June 15, 763 BC

Solar Eclipse

721 bc

Thiele: March 18, 721 in the 1st year of Mardokempados

Lunar Eclipse

621 bc

Thiele: April 22, 621 in the 5th year of Nabopolassar

Total Solar Eclipse

585 bc

von Soden: May 28, 585, predicted by Thales of Miletus, which forced the Medes and the Lydians to break off a great battle.

Lunar Eclipse

568 bc

Thiele: July 4, 568 in the 37th year of Nebuchadnezzar

Eclipse

523 bc

Thiele: July 16, 523 in the 7th year of Camyses

Eclipse

502 bc

Thiele: Nov 19, 502 in the 20th year of Darius

Eclipse

491 bc

Thiele: April 25, 491 in the 31st year of Darius

Kings of Assyria

Shalmaneser III

859 bc - 824 bc

From Assyrian eponym list

Ahab's Alliance

853 bc

Battle of Qarqar, Ahab opposes Shalmaneser after establishing an alliance. [Thiele, p. 95, note 13]

Jehu's Tribute

841 bc

The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III says this is when Jehu paid tribute, this would be the first year of Jehu's reign. BSac v 148, n 589, p 10 (Jan 91)

Tiglath-Pileser III

745 bc - 727 bc

From Assyrian eponym list

Shalmanesar V

727 bc - 722 bc

From Assyrian eponym list

Sargon II

722 bc - 705 bc

Sennacherib

704 bc - 681 bc

Taking of Thebes

664 bc

Taking of the Egyptian city of Thebes by the Assyrians in 664 BC

Kings of Israel

Jeroboam

931 bc - 910 bc

1 Kings 12:20
1 Kings 15:1, 9
1 Kings 14:20

Nadab

910 bc - 909 bc

1 Kings 15:25 - And Nadab the son of Jeroboam began to reign over Israel in the second year of Asa king of Judah, and reigned over Israel two years.

Baasha

909 bc - 886 bc

1 Kings 15:33 - In the third year of Asa king of Judah began Baasha the son of Ahijah to reign over all Israel in Tirzah, twenty and four years.

Omri

886 bc - 874 bc

The kingdom of Israel was divided at this time.
1 Kings 16:21 - Then were the people of Israel divided into two parts: half of the people followed Tibni the son of Ginath, to make him king; and half followed Omri.
1 Kings 16:23 - In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri to reign over Israel, twelve years: six years reigned he in Tirzah.

Tibni

885 bc - 880 bc

The kingdom of Israel was divided at this time.
1 Kings 16:21 - Then were the people of Israel divided into two parts: half of the people followed Tibni the son of Ginath, to make him king; and half followed Omri.

Ahab

874 bc - 853 bc

1 Kings 16:29 - And in the thirty and eighth year of Asa king of Judah began Ahab the son of Omri to reign over Israel: and Ahab the son of Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty and two years.

Ahaziah

853 bc - 852 bc

1 Kings 22:51 - Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned two years over Israel.

Ahaziah was born when his grandfather Jehoshaphat was in his 6th regnal year and spent 20 regnal years with this good king. This 20 years could account for Ahaziah's different ages mentioned in 2Ki 8:26 (Two and twenty) and in 2Ch 36:2 (Forty and two).

Jehoram

852 bc - 841 bc

Jehu

841 bc - 814 bc

2 Kings 10:36 - And the time that Jehu reigned over Israel in Samaria was twenty and eight years.

Jehoahaz

814 bc - 798 bc

Jehoash

798 bc - 782 bc

2 Kings 13:10 - In the thirty and seventh year of Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years.

Jeroboam

793 bc - 753 bc

2 Kings 14:23 - In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel began to reign in Samaria, and reigned forty and one years.
2 Kings 15:1 - In the twenty and seventh year of Jeroboam king of Israel began Azariah son of Amaziah king of Judah to reign.

Zachariah

753 bc - 752 bc

2 Kings 15:8 - In the thirty and eighth year of Azariah king of Judah did Zachariah the son of Jeroboam reign over Israel in Samaria six months.

Menahem

752 bc - 742 bc

Hosea 5:5 - Again the Northern Kingdom is divided Pekah and Menahem
2 Kings 15:17 - In the nine and thirtieth year of Azariah king of Judah began Menahem the son of Gadi to reign over Israel, and reigned ten years in Samaria.
2 Kings 15:23 - In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah Pekahiah the son of Menahem began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned two years.

Pekah

752 bc - 732 bc

Hosea 5:5 - Again the Northern Kingdom is divided Pekah and Menahem.
2 Kings 15:27 - In the two and fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah Pekah the son of Remaliah began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned twenty years.
2 Kings 15:32 - In the second year of Pekah the son of Remaliah king of Israel began Jotham the son of Uzziah king of Judah to reign.
2 Kings 16:1 - In the seventeenth year of Pekah the son of Remaliah Ahaz the son of Jotham king of Judah began to reign.
2 Kings 15:30 - And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.

Pekahiah

742 bc - 740 bc

2 Kings 15:23 - In the fiftieth year of Azariah king of Judah Pekahiah the son of Menahem began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned two years.

Hoshea

732 bc - 722 bc

2 Kings 15:30 - And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.
2 Kings 17:1 - In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah began Hoshea the son of Elah to reign in Samaria over Israel nine years.
2 Kings 18:1 - Now it came to pass in the third year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Hezekiah the son of Ahaz king of Judah began to reign.
2 Kings 18:9 - And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Hezekiah, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it.

Captivity of Israel

722 bc

Main

Time in Egypt

1877 bc - 1447 bc

Exodus

1447 bc - 1406 bc

1 Kings 6:1

Conquest

1406 bc - 1399 bc

Period of the Judges

1367 bc - 1026 bc

Saul

1051 bc - 1011 bc

David

1011 bc - 971 bc

Solomon

971 bc - 931 bc

Start of Temple Construction

967 bc

1 Kings 6:1

Temple Construction Completed

960 bc

1 Kings 6:38

Zerubbabel

536 bc - 458 bc

Construction of 2nd Temple

536 bc

Zerubbabel Returns

536 bc

Temple Work Resumed

520 bc

Temple Completed

516 bc

Ezra

458 bc - 445 bc

Ezra Returns

458 bc

Rebuild Walls

445 bc

Nehemiah reconstructs the walls of Jerusalem

Nehemiah

445 bc - 415 bc

Nehemiah Returns

445 bc

Kings of Judah

Rehoboam

931 bc - 913 bc

1 Kings 14:21 - And Rehoboam the son of Solomon reigned in Judah. Rehoboam was forty and one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned seventeen years in Jerusalem, the city which the LORD did choose out of all the tribes of Israel, to put his name there. And his mother's name was Naamah an Ammonitess.

Abijah

913 bc - 911 bc

1 Kings 15:1 - Now in the eighteenth year of king Jeroboam the son of Nebat reigned Abijam over Judah.

Asa

911 bc - 870 bc

1 Kings 15:9 - And in the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel reigned Asa over Judah.
1 Kings 15:25 - And Nadab the son of Jeroboam began to reign over Israel in the second year of Asa king of Judah, and reigned over Israel two years.
1 Kings 15:33 - In the third year of Asa king of Judah began Baasha the son of Ahijah to reign over all Israel in Tirzah, twenty and four years.
1 Kings 16:8 - In the twenty and sixth year of Asa king of Judah began Elah the son of Baasha to reign over Israel in Tirzah, two years.
1 Kings 16:15 - In the twenty and seventh year of Asa king of Judah did Zimri reign seven days in Tirzah. And the people were encamped against Gibbethon, which belonged to the Philistines.
1 Kings 16:23 - In the thirty and first year of Asa king of Judah began Omri to reign over Israel, twelve years: six years reigned he in Tirzah.
1 Kings 16:29 - And in the thirty and eighth year of Asa king of Judah began Ahab the son of Omri to reign over Israel: and Ahab the son of Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty and two years.

Jehoshaphat

873 bc - 848 bc

1 Kings 22:41 - And Jehoshaphat the son of Asa began to reign over Judah in the fourth year of Ahab king of Israel.
1 Kings 22:42 - Jehoshaphat was thirty and five years old when he began to reign; and he reigned twenty and five years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Azubah the daughter of Shilhi.
1 Kings 22:51 - Ahaziah the son of Ahab began to reign over Israel in Samaria the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and reigned two years over Israel.

Jehoram

853 bc - 841 bc

2 Kings 1:17 - So he died according to the word of the LORD which Elijah had spoken. And Jehoram reigned in his stead in the second year of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah; because he had no son.
2 Kings 8:16 - And in the fifth year of Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel, Jehoshaphat being then king of Judah, Jehoram the son of Je hoshaphat king of Judah began to reign.

Queen Athallah

841 bc - 835 bc

2 Kings 11:3 - And he was with her hid in the house of the LORD six years. And Athaliah did reign over the land.

Jehoash

835 bc - 796 bc

2 Kings 11:21 - Seven years old was Jehoash when he began to reign.
2 Kings 12:1 - In the seventh year of Jehu Jehoash began to reign; and forty years reigned he in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Zibiah of Beersheba.
2 Kings 13:10 - In the thirty and seventh year of Joash king of Judah began Jehoash the son of Jehoahaz to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned sixteen years.

Amaziah

796 bc - 767 bc

2 Kings 14:1 - In the second year of Joash son of Jehoahaz king of Israel reigned Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah.
2 Kings 14:23 - In the fifteenth year of Amaziah the son of Joash king of Judah Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel began to reign in Samaria, and reigned forty and one years.

Uzziah

790 bc - 739 bc

Jotham

750 bc - 731 bc

Ahaz

735 bc - 715 bc

Hezekiah

728 bc - 686 bc

2 Kings 20 tells us that Hezekiah was ill, but the Lord extended his life by 15 years - coregency with Manasseh

Slaughter of Sennacherib's Army

701 bc

2 Kings 20 tells us that Hezekiah was ill, but the Lord extended his life by 15 years, so 15 from the 29 he reigned gives us the date that Sennacherib's army was defeated [Thiele, p. 122]

Manasseh

697 bc - 642 bc

2 Kings 20 tells us that Hezekiah was ill, but the Lord extended his life by 15 years - coregency with Manasseh

Amon

642 bc - 640 bc

Josiah

640 bc - 609 bc

Jehoiakim

609 bc - 598 bc

1st Judean Exile

605 bc

Jehoiachin

598 bc - 597 bc

2nd Judean Exile

597 bc

March 15/16 of 597 BC. Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem and took Jehoiachin as prisoner [Thiele, p. 173]

Zedekiah

597 bc - 586 bc

3rd Judean Exile

586 bc

During the 19th year of Nebuchadnezzar [Thiele, p. 189]

Kings of Babylon

Mardokempados

721 bc - 710 bc

Ussher references Ptolemy, Great Syntaxis, 1.4.c.6. That in Mardokempados first year there was an eclipse.

Nabopolassar

625 bc - 605 bc

Nebuchadnezzar

605 bc - 562 bc

Evil Merodach

562 bc - 560 bc

Belshazzar

553 bc - 539 bc

Babylon Conquered

539 bc

Medo-Persian Empire conquers Babylon

Kings of Medo-Persia

Darius the Mede

539 bc - 525 bc

Cyrus

539 bc - 530 bc

Xerxes

486 bc - 464 bc

Vashti Removed as Queen

483 bc

Esther 1:2-3 - in those days as King Ahasuerus sat on his royal throne which was at the citadel in Susa, in the third year of his reign he gave a banquet for all his princes and attendants, the army officers of Persia and Media, the nobles and the princes of his provinces being in his presence

Esther made Queen

478 bc

Esther 2:16 - So Esther was taken to King Ahasuerus to his royal palace in the tenth month which is the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign.

Feast of Purim

473 bc

Esther 3:7 - In the first month, which is the month Nisan, in the twelfth year of King Ahasuerus, Pur, that is the lot, was cast before Haman from day to day and from month to month, until the twelfth month, that is the month Adar.
Esther - 9:21 obliging them to celebrate the fourteenth day of the month Adar, and the fifteenth day of the same month, annually

Artaxerxes

464 bc - 423 bc

Kings of Egypt

Second Intermediate Period

1700 bc

Start of Hyksos Period Semites existed int he Delta region prior to this point but reaches its zenith [Hoffmeier]

New Kingdom Period

1550 bc

End of Hyksos Period - there were Semited in the Delta

Thutmose III

1504 bc - 1450 bc

Amenhotep II

1450 bc - 1425 bc

Thutmose IV

1425 bc - 1417 bc

Rameses I

1320 bc - 1318 bc

Rameses II

1304 bc - 1236 bc

End of the New Kingdom Period

1069 bc

End of Hyksos Period - there were Semited in the Delta