Chapter 30 Post-Industrial Society 1960-89

Cold War, Chapter 30


Beginning of Cultural freedoms


Soviet Union: Bitterfield Movement named after a conference of writers, officials, and workers in Bitterfield
-regime encouraged intellectuals to take a more critical view of lide in the East Bloc as long as they did not directly oppose Communism
-Christa Wolf's "Divided Heaven" (1963)
Underground Samizdat: Russian term meaning "self-published" hat criticized communism
-written and published secretly to avoid regime censors and passed out by hand

Discussion of Sexuality


-new willingness to engage in pre-marital sex
- growing acceptance of homosexuality
- idea of sexual emancipation closely linked to radical politics

Civil Rights Act


Six-Day War


Between Israel and its Arab neighbors
-Israel quickly defeats arabs and expands territory into former territories of Palestine, angering Aabs

Eruption of Youth activism


Warsaw: Students marched to protest government censorship
Prague: youths wanted to radically reform communism from within

Surprise Attack on Israel


Egypt and Syria launch Surprise attack on Israel
-US sent military arms
-Israel won

Politics/Political groups

New Left


-embraced an updated, romanticized version of Marxism -argued that Marxism in the Soviet Union had been perverted to serve the needs of a repressive totalitarian state -attacked the conformity of consumer society

Really Existing Socialism


-to describe the accomplishments of their societies
-agriculture successfully collectivized
-industry and business nationalized
-gap between rich and poor was far less than the west
-had social benefits: medical care, guaranteed employment, inexpesive public transportation, large subisidies for rent and food
-refused to cut spending on welfare state
-continued to provide subisidies for heavy industries
-living standards were well above those in the developing world, well below living standards in the west
-state advocated equal rights for women
-encouraged to join workforce (medecine)
-had child care
-rarely ever made it into upper ranks of business or politics

Margaret Thatcher

1979 - 1990

-determined to scale back role of gov't
-cut spending off to healthcare, education and public housing but did not eliminate all social programs
-instead replaced interventionist ways of welfare state with a greater reliance on free market and private enterprise
-reduced taxes and privatized or sold off government-run enterprises
-encouraged low/moderate income renters in state owned housing to buy houses for rock-bottom prices
-created a whole new class of property owners, the electoral base of the Labour Party
-gap between wealthy and poor widened, leading to discontent and crime which often led to working class strikes and protests
-replaced by Conservative Party Leader John Major 1990



Conservatives who argued for decreased government spending on social services and privatization of state-run societies
-Theorists like U.S. Martin Friedman argued that gov't should cut support of social services, housing, education and insurance and business subsidies
-called for privatization
-main goal was to increase private profits, which were believed to be the real engine of economic growth

François Mitterrand


-launched program of nationalization and public investment designed to spend the country out of economic stagnation
1983: attempt failed
-compelled to reprivatize industries nationalized during first tem as well as impose a wide variety of austerity measures

Helmut Kohl


-Christian Democrat, became chancellor
-cut taxes and gov't spenfing
-policies lede to increasing unemployment in heavy industry
-also led to solid economic growth

Mikhail Gorbachev

1985 - 1990

-fundamentalist reforms
-wanted to improve conditions for ordinary citizens
-attacked corruption and incompetence and consolidated his power
perestroika: economic restructuring and reform
-eased gov't controls, more independence for state enterprises and the setting up of profit seeking private cooperative to provide personal services
glasnost: opening in government and media


Hungary's New Economic Mechanism


-broke up state monopolies
- allowed some private retail stpres
-encouraged private agriculture
-the most successful

Germany's New Economic System


-limited privatization
-showed moderate success
-reversed when government returned to centralization in the late 1960's

East Bloc borrowing

1970 - 1989

governments borrowed massive amounts of hard currency from WESTERN banks and governments
-convinced people that communism was bankrupt
-set cycle of indebtness that helped bring down the East bloc in 1989



Arab-led Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
-had watched price of crude oil decline compared to western manufactured goods
-united front against Western Oil companies

U.S. exchange Crisis


-foreign aid and foreign wars weakened the value of American currency
-Nixon attempted to reverse trend by stopping the exchange of U.S. currency for gold
-value of dollar fell sharply
-inflation accelerated worldwide
-fixed rates of exchange abandoned
-dramatic reversal in price and availability of energy

OPEC embargo on US


In response to the US being Israel's ally
-crude oil prices quadrupled in one year
-rapid price increase was economically destructive

Denmark, Iceland and Britain join Common Market


Oil Shock

1973 - 1982

-Plunged world into worst economic decline since the '30's
-Unemployment rose, productivity and living standards declined, inflation soared
1976: Modest recovery in progress
1979: fundamentalist Islamic revolution struck Iran and oil production collapsed
-Second Oil Shock
1982: Uneven recovery
Stagflation: the combination of low growth and high inflation that led to a worldwide recession

Postindustrial Society


-heavy industry declined
Misery Index: combined rates of inflation and unemployment into a single number

Greece joins CM


Unemployment rate


highest level since the great depression
-19 million people without work

Portugal and Spain join CM


Protests and Revolutions

Prague Spring

January 1968

-reform elements in the Czech communist party gained majority and voted out long-time stalinist leader
-Alexander Dubček: dedicated communist but believed that they could reconcile genuine socialism with personal freedom and internal party democracy
"Socialism with a Human Face"
-Soviet Union feared liberalized Czechoslovakia would be drawn to neutrality or even the democratic West
-East Bloc launched concerted campaign of intimidation against reformers
-August 1968 500,000 troops occupied Czechoslovakia
-arrested leaders surrendered to Soviet demands

-reform movement abandoned and humanizing communism came to an end

Breznev Doctrine


Leonid Brezhnev (Soviet Premier) made doctrine stating that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need
-showed that only the threat of the Soviet military was holding the East Bloc together

French Revolt

March 1968

-Angry students and striking workers
- students inspired by New Left ideals initially occupied buildings and took over the University of Paris
May 10: police tried to clear the area around the University and a street battle took place
-triggered national revolt

May Events

May 18, 1968

-10 million workers on strike
-French 5th revolution on verge of collapse
-De Gaulle surrounded Paris with troops

-gov't promised workplace reforms and workers go back to work
-De Gaulle dissolves Parliament and called for new elections
-75% conservative party
-marked the high point of counterculture protest in Europe



-unruly sattelite, communists failed to monopolize society
-angry protest in 1970
1978 Cardinal Karol Wojtyla elected pope as john paul II
1979 returns to Poland preaching love of Christ and inalienable rights of man

Bloody Sunday

January 1972

British soldiers shot and killed 13 irish demonstrators protesting anti-Catholc discrimination
-violen of the IRA (Provisional Irish Republican Army) escalated

Charter 77


-small group of citizens including Vaclav Havel signed manifesto Charter 77
-criticized government for ignoring the human rights provision of the Helsinki accords
-criticized censorship and argues for improved environmental policies


August 1980

16,000 workers at Lenin shipyards in Gdansk
-advanced ideals of civil society: free trade unions, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners, economic reforms
-18 days of strike until gov't gave in
-free trade union called Solidarity
-national, linking 9.5 million members
-moderation, self-limiting revolution

Survival of Solidarity

March 1981

-dropped nationwide strike
-Walesa settled for minor gov't concessions
-Polish communist leadership denounced solidarity for promoting economic collapse and provoking a possible soviet invasion
Jaruzelski proclaimed martial law and arrested solidarity's leaders

Solidarity legalized




-eliminated secret police, communist leaders in gov't and Jaruzelski too
-economic shock therapy

Mazowiecki sworn in as Poland's new prime minister

August 1989

Feminism, Environmental Movement

The Second Sex


By Simone de Beauvoir
-analyzed the position of women within the framework of existentialist though
-argued that women had almost always been trapped by particularly inflexible and limiting conditions

Silent Spring


referred to a future spring when people in a developed society would wake up and hear no birds
-book had major impact on the growth of the enviromental movement

National Organization for Women


Friedman helped to found it
-attacked patriarchy
-the domination of society by men and sexism, the inequalities faced by women simply because they were female
-Advocates of women's rights pushed for new statutes
-laws against discrimination, equal pay for equal work, measures like maternal leave and affordable day care
- right to divorce, legalized abortion, needs of single mothers and protection fro rape and physical violence
1988: divorce and abortion were common and Italy, lowest birth rate in europe
-many newly empowered women were active in the antinuclear peace movement, with roots in the anti-Vietnam protests of the 60's

Denmark Protest


Student protesters at the University of Copenhagen took over a scientific conference on natural history

The Pill used by millions of women


western world

Toll on enviroment


-Rhine river was an industrial sewer
-coasts of Brittany fouled by oil spills
-Nuclear power plants in Western europe produced toxic waste



Founded by Canadians

Green Party


West Germany
A political party intended to fight for environmental causes
Elected member to parliament in 1983

The Feminine Mystique


By Betty Friedan
-called attention to the stifling aspects of women's domestic life, devoted to the service of husbands and children
-"gilded cage"